Title:

Kind
Code:

A1

Abstract:

The invention accesses an inexhaustible energy source of the ocean to produce ship propulsion and to generate electrical energy.

A first embodiment provides wave-powered ship propulsion. A wave-induced pitching motion of the ship is transformed into an amplified oscillating motion of an oscillating propulsor arm attached to the ship. A rear platform is rotatably mounted aft of the ship hull. The platform is isolated from wave-induced pitching motion of the ship and stabilized with an aid of a gyroscope. A propulsor arm is pivotally supported at one end below the gyroscopically stabilized platform for a rotation about a first horizontal axis. The propulsor arm is also pivotally attached to the ship hull for a rotation about a second horizontal axis, with the second axis acting as a fulcrum. When a pitching motion of the ship produces a relative movement between the first axis and the second axis, it causes a leveraged rotation of the propulsor arm about the second axis. This leveraged rotation produces an amplified oscillating motion of the propulsor arm in a vertical plane to provide propulsion to the ship.

A second embodiment teaches conversion of wave-induced motion to electrical energy using a gyroscope. The wave motion creates alternating force moment, which is transmitted to gyroscope via oscillating floating bodies. The gyroscope resists tilting by the wave-induced moment due to gyro precession, or gyrostatic moment. A relative movement is produced between the stabilized gyroscope and oscillating floating bodies, which is used to generate power. For this here are developed methods, schemes and devices converting said movement to customized power.

Inventors:

Gorshkov, Vladislav Vasilyevich (Alexandria, VA, US)

Application Number:

10/348968

Publication Date:

07/10/2003

Filing Date:

03/17/2003

Export Citation:

Assignee:

GORSHKOV VLADISLAV VASILYEVICH

Primary Class:

International Classes:

View Patent Images:

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Primary Examiner:

LAZO, THOMAS E

Attorney, Agent or Firm:

Vladislav Gorshkov (12322 sleepy lake ct.D, fairfax, VA, 22033, US)

Claims:

1. A gyro power plant consuming sea waves energy from a carrying floating mean and assembled of: a power generator, a gyroscope keeping its gimbal ring still while a carrying float oscillates, a mechanical converter of input angle oscillations to fast uniform output shaft revolution; the mechanical converter (pitched by the floating mean) holds the gyroscope gimbal ring by own input shaft and accepts from the ring apparent relative angle oscillations, gears them up, rectifies with a differential gearing and overrunning clutches to one way jerk revolution, then smoothes it by a spring and gears up to fast uniform output shaft revolution used finally to drive the electrical power generator.

2. A gyro power plant according the claim 1, where the mechanical converter accepts the relative angle oscillations by its input gear from a toothed quadrant of great diameter mounted on the gyroscopically stabilized gimbal ring rotatably connected to the floating mean by the outer gimbal axle; this scheme significantly amplifies input angle oscillations simplifying the converter.

3. A gyro power plant according the claim 1, where the mechanical converter accepts the relative angle oscillations with its input gear from the toothed quadrant of great diameter mounted on the gyroscopically stabilized detachable floating platform rotatably connected to the basic floating mean via the outer gimbal axle; this scheme significantly amplifies input angle oscillations simplifying the converter and also makes easier maintenance of the gyro power plant.

4. A gyro power plant according to the claim 1 where a hydraulic converter is used to transform float rocking to energy of a hydraulic pressure power system; the converter consists of two pairs of hydraulic cylinders; the internal pair of cylinders is driven by gyroscope apparent oscillations relatively the gimbal frame while the external pair of the cylinders is driven by the gimbal frame apparent oscillations relatively the float hull; both head ends of each hydraulic cylinder are connected with the hydraulic lines of the pressure power system through a similar hydraulic valves connecting the current suck and the current pumping head ends respectively with low and high pressure hydraulic lines.

5. A wave power plant according to the claim 4, where a current pumping head ends of hydro cylinders are connected to low, high or extra high pressure hydraulic system line via valves controlled by the gyro precession automated control system; the system differentiates the load of each hydro cylinder in each directions of stock reciprocating motion that provides reactive extra force moments applied to the gyroscope and rushing the main gyro axis mean-line to the plumb as required.

6. Method of electric power generation converting mutual angle oscillations between a pitching float caused by sea waves and a gyroscopically stabilized support to electrical power using the mechanical converter of said angle oscillations to fast uniform output shaft revolution which finally drives an electrical power generator.

7. Method of hydro pressure power generation converting mutual angle oscillations between a rocking float caused by sea waves and the gyroscope to hydraulic power using orthogonal hydraulic cylinders, which connect the gyroscope with the gimbal frame hindering its relative oscillations about inner gimbal axis and also connect gimbal frame with the float hull hindering its relative oscillations about the outer gimbal axis; the rocking hull aided by the gyroscope surmounts resistance of the hydro cylinders enforcing them to pump oil into high pressure lines generating hydro pressure power.

8. Method stabilizing the main gyro axis mean line about the plumb by permanent returning the drifting main gyro axis back to plumb through additional gyro precession induced by torque applied to the gyroscope in direction enforcing the main gyro axis to precess to the plumb, the torque is generated by one of these: a single hydraulic pressure cylinder, which directs the torque in polar coordinates; orthogonal hydraulic cylinders creating components of the required torque in rectangular coordinates; altering the work load for orthogonal hydraulic cylinders generating power so as extra pressure in its head ends creates components of the required extra load torque precessing the gyroscope main axis to the plumb.

9. Method of power generation where a high dampening submerged body is used as a stabilized support which interacts with the rocking float through assemble of a rope wounded on a winch and connecting the submerged body and the float utilizing a spring; as a result the winch rotatably oscillates the input shaft of the mechanical converter of these oscillations to the fast uniform output shaft revolution which finally drives the electrical power generator.

Description:

[0001] This application is a divisional of the application Ser. No. 09/777,846 filled Feb. 07, 2001.

[0002] The U.S. Pat. No. 3,861,487 issued Jan. 21, 1975 is considered the most relevant publication. It suggests energy production using movements between inertial parts of a vehicle. A vehicle can be of any type: a car, an aircraft or a watercraft. This instant invention utilizes energy of the oscillating floating object in interaction with a supported gyroscope. The gyroscope is capable of maintaining a stable orientation and create reactive force moment much effectively than a relatively motionless inertia member of a vehicle, especially when converting an oscillating motion to work or power.

[0003] No funds under any federally-sponsored program or study were utilized.

[0004] Not applicable.

[0005] Oceans are one of the most powerful, and virtually inexhaustible sources of energy that can produce powerful oscillating motion in the floating bodies. Several attempts have been made in the past to transform this wave energy to power the propulsion of ships, boats, non-mechanized floating platforms, and the likes. Attempts have also been made to use this wave energy to energize floating power plants for directly producing electrical energy.

[0006] However, several of such attempts have been severely limited by the fact that the produced work output is, at best, only moderate when the waves of the seas are not sufficiently high or powerful to produce strong pitching motion of the ships or floating platforms.

[0007] This instant invention describes a mechanism to overcome the above described limitations and obtain a substantially greater work output even when the amplitude or the power of the sea waves is only moderate.

[0008] This instant invention is based on the principle that allows a gyroscope to maintain a stable orientation for its mounting base that is in pivotal attachment with a ship, even when the ship pitches violently under the forces of ocean waves. A wave-induced pitching motion of the ship hull produces a relative movement between the gyroscopically stabilized base and the ship hull, which allows a leveraged rotation of a propulsor arm that is not only pivotally mounted on the gyroscope base, but also pivotally attached to the ship hull to use it as fulcrum. This leveraged rotation produces an amplified oscillating motion of the propulsor arm that exceeds the angle by which the ship is pitching, and allows a substantially greater work output even when the amplitude or the power of the sea wave is only moderate.

[0009] This invention advantageously allows one to utilize wave energy of the ocean, thereby avoiding noise of the engines and motors, and prevent environmental pollution by reducing dependence on fossil fuels. This invention allows the benefits such as:

[0010] Power production from ecological clean and renewable sources of natural energy.

[0011] Improvement in ship performance parameters, including wholescale ship power supply.

[0012] Creating new automated, self-powered floating objects for continuous propulsion.

[0013] Power supply for coastal settlements, as well as ocean settlements of the future.

[0014] The invention accesses an inexhaustible energy source of the ocean to produce ship propulsion and to generate electrical energy. The basic principle behind the claimed invention is utilization of wave-induced oscillations of floating bodies through aid of gyroscope. To accomplish this, the oscillation driven gyro power plant is mounted on a ship. The heart of the gyro-power plant is the gyroscope supporting fulcrum shaft. This gyro power plant can produce electricity, power a pressure hydro-pneumatic system, or propel a float.

[0015] A first embodiment provides wave-powered ship propulsion. A wave-induced pitching motion of the ship is transformed into an amplified oscillating motion of an oscillating propulsor arm attached to the ship. A rear platform is rotatably mounted aft of the ship hull with a transverse axis. The platform is isolated from wave-induced pitching motion of the ship and stabilized with an aid of a gyroscope. A propulsor arm is pivotally supported at one end below the gyroscopically stabilized platform for a rotation about a first horizontal axis. The propulsor arm is also pivotally attached to the ship hull for a rotation about a second horizontal axis, with the second axis acting as a fulcrum. The pitching motion of the ship produces a relative movement between the first axis and the second axis, and causes a leveraged rotation of the propulsor arm about the second axis. This leveraged rotation produces an amplified oscillating motion of the propulsor arm in a vertical plane to provide propulsion to the ship.

[0016] A second embodiment teaches conversion of wave-induced motion to electrical energy using a gyroscope. The wave motion creates alternating force moment, which is transmitted to gyroscope via oscillating floating bodies. The gyroscope resists tilting by the wave-induced moment due to gyro precession, or gyrostatic moment. Floating bodies trimming against waves is a reason for its pitching or rolling, where a force moment is applied to the gyroscope through the energy converter. The energy converter transforms the slow oscillation motions to fast, one-way output shaft rotation. The gyro fulcrum hinders free float rocking through the loaded converter and causes trim increasing. The more energy converter is loaded, the more reactive fulcrum torque is created by the gyroscope as its reaction, and the faster gyro precession happens. Fortunately the rocking process happens periodically to both side. So the gyro precession goes to both sides also and the mean gyro axis can be stable enough time. A relative movement is produced between the stabilized gyroscope and oscillating floating bodies, which is used to generate power.

[0017] FIGS.

[0018] FIGS.

[0019]

[0020] FIGS.

[0021]

[0022] FIGS.

[0023] FIGS.

[0024] FIGS.

[0025] FIGS.

[0026] FIGS.

[0027] FIGS.

[0028] FIGS.

[0029] FIGS.

[0030] FIGS.

[0031]

[0032] FIGS.

[0033] FIGS.

[0034] FIGS.

[0035]

LIST OF NUMBER SIGNS | |||

0 | converter, | 121 | frame guide, |

1 | generator, | 122 | pinion, |

2 | coupling, | 123 | roller bearing, |

3 | step-up gear, | 124 | hinge, |

4 | coupling, | 125 | stiffening rib, |

5 | spin rectifier, | 126 | stand, |

6 | speed-up gear, | 127 | pin, |

7 | gyroscope, | 128 | column, |

8 | gyro spin axis, | 129 | pin, |

9 | speed up drive, | 130 | mounting, |

10 | gimbal, | 131 | hole, |

11 | foot, | 132 | cylinder, |

12 | input shaft, | 133 | internal gear, |

13 | output shaft, | 134 | deck house, |

14 | rocking shaft, | 135 | engine, |

15 | shaft nest, | 136 | cargo hold, |

16 | bearing, | 137 | partition, |

17 | fore-aft axle, | 138 | rudder, |

18 | base plate, | 139 | propeller, |

19 | clearance, | 140 | shaft, |

20 | input shaft, | 141 | gearbox, |

21 | output shaft, | 142 | motor, |

22 | support, | 143 | deadwood, |

23 | shaft lock, | 144 | rudder house, |

24 | bearing, | 145 | gyro-ball, |

25 | carrier, | 146 | keel, |

26 | satellite gear, | 147 | battery hold, |

27 | satellite gear, | 148 | slot, |

28 | bevel gear, | 149 | slot, |

29 | cylinder, | 150 | keel guides, |

30 | bevel gear, | 151 | rocker guide, |

31 | twist spring, | 152 | pulley, |

32 | bevel pinion, | 153 | foil axle, |

33 | overrun clutch, | 154 | rudder stock, |

34 | main shaft, | 155 | foil base rib, |

35 | one way dram, | 156 | nozzle, |

36 | bevel gear, | 157 | hydraulic drive, |

37 | overrun clutch, | 158 | cylinder, |

38 | bearing spider, | 159 | hinge stop, |

39 | internal gear, | 160 | cylinder, |

40 | internal gear, | 161 | clutcj, |

41 | sun gear, | 162 | cantilever, |

42 | brake gear, | 163 | machine room, |

43 | bearing, | 164 | left space, |

44 | gear quadrant, | 165 | piston, |

45 | driven gear, | 166 | right space, |

46 | ring suspension, | 167 | stock, |

47 | guide, | 168 | control valve, |

48 | gear rack, | 169 | control valve, |

49 | xwivel carriage, | 170 | low pressure, |

50 | weight, | 171 | high pressure, |

51 | slider, | 172 | extra high pressure |

52 | liner drive, | 173 | control valve, |

53 | pinion, | 174 | spring-ball valve, |

54 | round drive, | 175 | spring-ball valve |

55 | roll, | 176 | spring-ball valve |

56 | opening, | 177 | spring-ball valve |

57 | support, | 178 | rest lever, |

58 | pipe union, | 179 | bearing, |

59 | guide slide, | 180 | rope, |

60 | brake, | 181 | ledge, |

61 | clutch frame, | 182 | shaft-pulley, |

62 | bush member, | 183 | spindle, |

63 | cylinder, | 184 | propulsor arm, |

64 | spline shaft, | 185 | bifoil, |

65 | stock mount, | 186 | wave line, |

66 | stock, | 187 | axle, |

67 | electromagnet, | 188 | corbel, |

68 | control valve, | 189 | axis, |

69 | high pressure, | 190 | bob, |

70 | low pressure, | 191 | vertical keel, |

71 | far position, | 192 | opposite wave |

72 | nut, | 193 | hull, |

73 | electromagnet, | 194 | pitch center, |

74 | nut, | 195 | pin, |

75 | electromagnet, | 196 | pin, |

76 | thrust washer, | 197 | pin, |

77 | tie-rod, | 198 | slide frame, |

78 | draw nut, | 199 | sliding bush, |

79 | gear off-position, | 200 | rocker, |

80 | spline, | 201 | spring, |

81 | screw, | 202 | spring, |

82 | brake, | 203 | corbel, |

83 | board, | 204 | corbel, |

84 | gyro rotor, | 205 | bottom, |

85 | rest, | 206 | tie-tube, |

86 | guider groove, | 207 | spline bush, |

87 | angle sensor, | 208 | gear, |

88 | angle sensor, | 209 | roller, |

89 | integrator, | 210 | spline bush, |

90 | integrator, | 211 | case, |

91 | amplifier, | 212 | cover, |

92 | amplifier, | 213 | frame, |

93 | moment drive, | 214 | cog, |

94 | moment drive, | 215 | cog, |

95 | gravity sensor, | 216 | cog, |

96 | suspension, | 217 | cog, |

97 | key, | 218 | spring, |

98 | counter weight, | 219 | spline bush, |

99 | pendulum, | 220 | inner dram, |

100 | cylinder, | 221 | beacon, |

101 | slip rings | 222 | bridge, |

102 | stator, | 223 | ladder, |

103 | rings assembly, | 224 | port-light, |

104 | socket, | 225 | floor, |

105 | synchro, | 226 | platform, |

106 | rotor, | 227 | sealing hose, |

107 | angle sensor, | 228 | sealing, |

108 | null-point, | 229 | anchor rope, |

109 | vertical, | 230 | lifting ring, |

110 | spin direction, | 231 | hollow ball, |

111 | cross track, | 232 | hole, |

112 | cantilever, | 233 | closed flap, |

113 | bell crank, | 234 | closed flap, |

114 | stop, | 235 | closed flap, |

115 | axle cover, | 236 | opened flap, |

116 | balance, | 237 | keg, |

117 | rest, | 238 | heavy base, |

118 | opened flap, | 239 | axle |

119 | opened flap, | ||

120 | winch, | ||

[0036] a—prefix of allowable parameter; {circumflex over ( )}, /, · ×( )—power, division, multiplication, square root signs;

[0037] x,y,z—axis′: longitudinal, transverse, vertical; X,Y—shift size for upper and lower weights;

[0038] ∫—integrating function; >—amplification; e—extreme highest point; ι—gyro inclination;

[0039] ι′—mesured inclination; W—angular momentum vector; Ω—angular speed; ο—pitch center;

[0040] h—height of the extreme point; JOK—gyro disk plane; JK—highest line tangent to gyro disk;

[0041] ιx, ιy—gyro inclinations to (x) and to (y) axis; α—extreme point course angle, peak wave slope;

[0042] P—precession, pitch; gyro power plant—gyroscope supported and rocking energized power plant; Wxy—projection of vector W to horizontal plane; Wz—projection of W-vector to vertical axis; Mz—force moment applied to a gyro; QWL—quit WL; H—amplitude foil swing stroke; B—buoyancy; LL—support force centers line; N—normal foil drag force; R—wave resistance; T—thrust; G—float gravity; Q—drag force vertical projection; b—vertical buoyancy projection; C—gravity center; J—moment of inertia; υ—specific material strength (maximum allowable tangent velocity for the circular loop gyroscope).

[0043] 1. Developing the Mechanical Structures Converting the Float Rocking to Customary Power.

[0044] 1.1. Physical Basis.

[0045] Each flank of the gyro power plant (

[0046] For further consideration let's build floating system of orthogonal coordinates on a floating object assuming that:

[0047] x—diametrical (longitudinal) axis being also axis of precession oscillations,

[0048] y—transverse axis being also an axis of pitching and of fulcrum support,

[0049] z—vertical axis (plumb).

[0050] If a floating object is a ship all these axis's are coincide with diametrical, transverse and vertical axis's of the ship. If a float object is something else the named orthogonal axis's may be chosen by any convenient way.

[0051] When the float is rocking the converter

[0052] Now the float can not freely pitch following to seas. Only its raised trim can pitch the float further. Overcoming reactive force moment from the converter case

[0053] 1.2. Two Stage Conversion ‘Float Rocking to Fast Uniform Shaft Revolution’.

[0054] The converter

[0055] where:

[0056] ωN—angular speed of the gear wheel number N as shown on

[0057] zN—number of teeth on the gear wheel number N as shown on

[0058] The converter

[0059] The second aggregate is the rotary oscillations rectifier

[0060] So any shaft

[0061] 2. Basics of Gyro Precession Control to Rush the Gyro Axis Mean-Line to Plumb.

[0062] 2.1. The Brake Method Controlling Gyro Precession.

[0063] Additionally to the rule: “the trim is to not exceed half of wave slope” (p. 1.1) we need to limit the load for gyro power plant. It is because the range of gyroscope precession swings increases when the growing load transmits the greater moment to the gyro frame

[0064] Also the important is the behavior of the gyro axis mean-line that must stay upright. To control its location the converter

[0065] There are two disadvantages of the break method of the gyro precession control. The first disadvantage is the necessity to turn temporally the float to left or to right in order to make forward or backward gyro axis mean-line drifts as the right or left side tilts. After that we can use this method for eliminating them. The second disadvantage of the break method is its disability when there is no rocking.

[0066] 2.2. The Gravity Polar and Cartesian Methods for the Gyroscope Precession Control.

[0067] The polar type gyroscope precession control (

[0068] When the gyro axis mean-line shifts left or right side then the carriage

[0069] The Cartesian gyroscope precession control system (

[0070] 2.3. The Gyroscope Couplers Operating Description.

[0071] The couplers provide disconnection the gyroscope from the load in order to avoid its influence on the mean gyro axis alignment. The engaging and disengaging are accomplished (

[0072] When the cylinder

[0073] The other design of the gyroscope coupler (

[0074] The one more gyroscope coupler is shown on the

[0075] 2.4. The Automated Gyroscope Precession Control System.

[0076] In accordance with the typical chart (

[0077] The similar control loop is organized to reduce the mean value of gyroscope plane inclination (ιy) relatively the axis (y). It consists of: the angle sensor

[0078] To limit rocking interference more the system should be equipped (

[0079] The pendulum polar angles meter (

[0080] In fact the angular momentum vector W is deflected (

[0081] where:

[0082] 1—the length of the line x-y (

[0083] The

[0084] 2.5. Efficacy of the Gravity Force Moment Generators and Developing its Hydraulic Design.

[0085] The force moment generators

[0086] where:

[0087] wG—weight gravity,

[0088] 1—horizontal displacement of the weight

[0089] If the weight gravity wG=35 kN and 1=2 m then cM=70 kN·m. For our example the gyro disk has the rotation speed Ω=258.3 radian/sec, the gyro disk mass m=35.65 Mg, ρ{circumflex over ( )}2=2.88 m{circumflex over ( )}2, the moment of inertia J=102.7×10{circumflex over ( )}6 kg·m{circumflex over ( )}2, the angular momentum (formula 1—see Appendix) W=26.53×10{circumflex over ( )}9 N·m·sec. And the gyroscope precession speed under this force moment calculated with the formula 2 (see Appendix): ω=cM/W=7×10{circumflex over ( )}4/26.53×10{circumflex over ( )}9=2.64/10{circumflex over ( )}6 radian/sec. It means that during one hour the gyro precession is 0.0095 radian (or 0.545° per hour). This is too slowly. Earth revolves 27.5 times faster (15° per hour) that makes apparent precession much greater.

[0090] 2.6. Hydraulic Pressure Systems Operating the Gyro Axis Mean Drift.

[0091] 2.6.1. Polar System.

[0092] We need to generate the control moment cM 50-100 times greater, for example cM≧4 MN·m. Let's to try the hydraulic pressure system (

[0093] 2.6.2. Courtesan System.

[0094] Courtesan system contains four cylinders (

[0095] The advantage of both schemes is its elasticity providing for the force moment constancy independently of the gyroscope hesitation and the float body rocking.

[0096] 3. Peculiarities of Floating Objects Such a Ship Using the Gyro Power Production.

[0097] Watercrafts (like ships, boats, vessels, barges etc.) are the most wisely spread floating objects. They have deep-seated traditional architectures where no place exists for the gyro power plant disposition. This element did not exist before. Now we try to insert it in the ship architecture.

[0098] 3.1. The Ship with the Gyroscope Located in the Middle.

[0099] Here (

[0100] 3.2. A Ship of Two Floating Sections Joined by Hinges.

[0101] The other example of the ship with the gyro power plant (

[0102] Also the project is equipped with the heavy vertical telescopic keel

[0103] 3.3. The Floating Gyro Power Plant with the Hydraulic Converter of Rocking to Power.

[0104] Earlier (p.1.1) we have scrutinized the floating gyro power plant with the mechanical converter of rocking energy to the electrical power. The hydraulic converter also can be used for power production and ship propulsion separately or together with the mechanical one (

[0105] In this case each cylinder can operate by it through the hydraulic monitor (

[0106] If the mechanical converter

[0107] We see if the valve

[0108] This scheme of the gyro power plant with a few of cylinders (

[0109] 3.4. Rocking Ship Propulsion and a Ship Powered via the Gyroscope Support

[0110] The U.S. Pat. No. 09/323,857 offers the rocking ship propulsion using the long rocking keel propulsor. It consisting of two opposite longitudinally projected arms keeping under water flapping hydrofoils producing the thrust when the ship is rocking. To provide high speed of foil swings the arms are made as long as possible. The gyroscope gives the new possibility to increase the foil vertical swings under the rocking motion without essential arms lengthening.

[0111] Let see the rocking propelled ship, supported by the gyroscope (

[0112] Once again the vertical keel

[0113] 3.5. Method of Steerage of Floating Objects.

[0114] The gyroscope mobility limited around the transverse axis y can hamper float maneuvering (

[0115] The float can't do any right turn safely if the mean gyro axis stays not up right (

[0116] When the input shaft

[0117] catching moment when the gyro main axis crosses the vertical plane,

[0118] clutching off the gyroscope temporally from any converter limiting the gyroscope freedom,

[0119] swerve the floating object to required course,

[0120] clutching on the gyroscope to the converter (for continuation of energy deriving).

[0121] The first step is made for a gyroscope precessing oscillatory, i.e. periodically crossing the diametrical plane and so at this moment the gyro main axis has the minimum drift from the plumb.

[0122] 4. The Retracting Rocking Ship Propulsor Rigged with the Uniform Deflecting Foil.

[0123] 4.1. The Uniform Foil Deflection.

[0124] The gyroscope gives possibility to use rocking motion to swing a foil propulsor. The propulsor

[0125] So even though the propulsor

[0126] 4.2. The Propulsor Retracting and Opening

[0127] And the third requirement is the propulsor must have retracting capability providing the maneuverability in straitened circumstances (channels, bays, ports etc.). For that it includes (

[0128] Before propulsor retracts the rocker should be aligned with the bottom guides

[0129] When the propulsor extends by the drive

[0130] 4.3. Working Process of the Propulsor.

[0131] The swings of the rocker

[0132] The motionless shaft-pulley

[0133] 5. The Torque (Force Moment) Generator Controlled Automatically

[0134] Earlier when we searched ways to control gyroscope precession in order to keep the gyro axis mean drift from the plumb as small as possible we used the brake

[0135] Complicated control system designed to switch on the brake

[0136] Losing the rocking energy in the brake process.

[0137] Here is developed the effective scheme creating the needed force moment and simultaneously saving the energy for useful utilization (

[0138] The required force moment value is set by the drive

[0139] The cylinder

[0140] When the shaft

[0141] The opposite force moment is created against the shaft

[0142] It is important the force moment generator can work also when the shaft

[0143] 6. Floating Power Plant Energized by the Heaving Process

[0144] In conditions when the navigating is not required the power production is much easier. It is because we don't need to steer the floating craft if we are only producing the power. It is enough to keep the gyro axis mean drift to minimum as possible. The power producing floating craft can have round shape and keep the gyro power plant as shown on the

[0145] Further the absence of the navigating necessity presents the possibility to remove the gyroscope and to build the simplest buoyant rocking power plant as shown on the

[0146] The lifting stage means also that the rope

[0147] When the hull

[0148] The buoyant rocking power plant can drift or be anchored with the anchor cable

[0149] Method for Analysis Force Interaction of a Rocking Float and a Gyroscope.

[0150] A.1. Basic Principles.

[0151] According the definition [2] a gyroscope should have the very high angular speed Ω about the main gyro axis and the great moment of inertia J so that the gyroscope angular momentum should be great as possible:

[0152] The principal theorem of the gyroscope expresses the interaction between a force moment M applied to the gyroscope to tilt it and its real movement (precession). If a force moment M acts on the gyroscope (

[0153] Everywhere signed vectors are subjected to the right screw rule. It means the rotation is directed similar swirling a right screw to drive it as the vector shows. This theorem is the basic rule to control the gyro axis mean drift. As shown on the

[0154] One of the basic gyroscope parameter is its moment of mass inertia [3] defined as follows:

[0155] where:

[0156] ρ—gyration radius,

[0157] χ—gyration coefficient (1—for circular hoop, 0.5—for disc),

[0158] m—gyro mass, it calculated as follows:

[0159] d—mass density,

[0160] Q—gyroscope volume.

[0161] We need to determine size of the gyroscope with torque fulcrum able to resists against to the pitching force moment. The formulas substituting 5,4→3→1 and result transforming with formulas (2) and V=ω·R we have got the formula to calculate the gyroscope fulcrum moment capacity:

[0162] Now if we have input parameters: allowable gyroscope mass m, allowable velocities {overscore (ω)} (precession), V (peripheral) and required fulcrum moment M, we can define the required gyroscope radius as follows:

[0163] A.2. Physical Limitations for the Peripheral Gyro Velocity.

[0164] In conformity with [3] the stress in the rotation gyroscope is defined as follows:

[0165] where:

[0166] V—peripheral (tangent linear) velocity,

[0167] f—velocity factor (1—for circular hoop, 3—for disc).

[0168] If aσ—allowable stress (material strength) then we can calculate the allowable tangent linear disk velocity limit as follows:

[0169] where:

[0170] υ={square root}(

[0171] υ—the maximum tangent velocity for circular loop gyroscope expressed as the squire root of the integrated material property, i.e. specific material strength

[0172] The circle loop produced from the spring steel (d=7.8 mg/mm{circumflex over ( )}3 and strength aσ=1 kN/mm{circumflex over ( )}2, ss=128205 (m/sec){circumflex over ( )}2) allows the tangent velocity υ={square root}(ss)=358 m/sec.

[0173] A.3. The Allowable Gyroscope Precession Speed.

[0174] The total gyroscope inclination (climb) relatively the float hull I is sum of:

[0175] D—the maximum gyro axis mean drift,

[0176] Θ—the maximum roll angle (amplitude),

[0177] P—the maximum precession angle (amplitude).

[0178] So the allowable angle of precession hesitation depends of how precisely (perfectly) the gyro precession automated control system keeps the mean gyro axis upright, i.e. it depends of the controlled gyro axis mean drift D. And also it depends of the roll angle amplitude Θ. The better is the gyro precession automated control system then the gyro axis mean drift is smaller. The allowable gyro precession angle (amplitude) is calculated as follows:

[0179] Now we can define the allowable precession angular speed:

[0180] where:

[0181] T—pitching period of the floating body.

[0182] If aP=0.3 radian (17.2 degrees) and the pitching period T=6 sec then {circumflex over (ω)}=0.2/sec.

[0183] A.4. Capability Evaluation Examples for a Gyro Power Plant Mounted on Floats Like a Ship.

[0184] A.4.1. An Ordinary Ship as an Example of a Floating Body.

[0185] The reason of float pitching is the gap between the buoyancy vector and the float gravity center (

[0186] Let's consider a floating body like a ship then its trim Δ is the difference in draught between the bow and stern. It is measured in centimeters (cm). There exists the formula to calculate the specific moment to trim Δ=1 centimeter [5]:

[0187] where:

[0188] G—ship weight,

[0189] A—longitudinal metacentre height (altitude),

[0190] L—ship length on waterline.

[0191] If the trim is measured with angle δ (radians) between static QWL and trimmed WL then the trim Δ can be calculated as follows [5]:

[0192] If the trim Δ is known then the sea work force moment applied to the ship is defined as follows:

[0193] To make clear our reasoning we suppose the best ideal variant for transmission waves energy to the ship and thus to the gyro power plant when the only work load resists against sea action. In this ideal case the waving will pitch the ship with the constant moment and trim. So the work load level causes its corresponding trim. Let's to assume the wave period T=6 sec then the average wave height h=2.5 m and its length λ=56 m are accepted from the hand book [4]. It also helps us to calculate a mean peak wave slope α=0.14 radians (it is 8 degrees) with the formula:

[0194] Let's assume the load resistance of the gyro power plant causes the trim δ=0.02 radian. Because the ship pitching motion lags behind wave sloping α with the trim δ then between each contiguous peak slopes (half wave) the size of pitch angle motion is defined as φ=2×(α−δ). And whole pitch stroke for single wave has the size:

[0195] For our example the slope of a single wave accomplishes angle motion 4·α=0.56 radians during its period but the ship pitching stroke is only φ=0.48 radians. The greater work load moment M the less work stroke φ is accepted by the gyro power plant. The derived power arises while δ<α/2.

[0196] The power produced by the gyro power plant using seas motion can be calculated with formula:

[0197] where:

[0198] ξ—the gyro power plant efficiency coefficient.

[0199] If the longitudinal metacentre altitude A=41 m, the ship weight=2304 kN and the length L=35 m, then the use formula (11) gives the specific moment sought μ=27 kN·m/cm. When δ=0.02 radian then Δ=7 cm and the load moment M=189 kN·m. Now the potential power (ξ=1) is calculated with the formula (19) is

[0200] A.4.2. A Ship of the Pendulum Layout as Example of a Floating Body.

[0201] This effective way of energy transmission is possible if a ship has the pendulum layout (

[0202] And the ship body adds it as additional power to pitching process during wave period. So the inducted pitching enables the ‘ship-pendulum’ to overcome the bigger resistance force moment of the gyro power plant. Disregarding of the energy losses we can evaluate additional the heaving (scend) power as:

[0203] For our example Ψ=2304 kN×2.5 m/6 sec=960 kW.

[0204] So the total power accepted by the ‘ship-pendulum’ is sum of pitching and heaving energies:

[0205] The maximum evaluation of it for our example is ∃=960+30.24=990.24 kW. If to suppose the consumption coefficient ç=0.5 and efficiency coefficient ξ=0.4 then: the total energy usage η=0.5×0.4=0.2, the use power input is 495.12 kW and the use power output is 198 kW. It is enough to propel the ship fast as 10 knots in heavy sea. The force moment applied to the gyro power plant and provided by the gyroscope is defined by reversing the formula (19) and taking ç=0.5 into account:

[0206] For our example this moment M=495.12 kW×6/0.56=5.305×10{circumflex over ( )}6 N·m. Here we have took φ=4·α because the ‘ship-pendulum’ continues to pitch and to follow to a wave until the trim δ=0. Heaving (scend) energy is accumulated by the ‘ship-pendulum’ as kinetic in time of wave lowering causing it to continue swing far from the wave hollow to inflection point where a wave has the peak slope as well as the ‘ship-pendulum’ has the pick pitch angle.

[0207] A.5. The Gyro Power Plant Basic Geometric and Motion Parameters.

[0208] Now all input parameters are ready to calculate the constructive gyro power plant parameters. In our example the floating body width is β=5.64 m, so the gyro disk radius can not be more then 2.5 m. Let's take the gyro radius R=2.4 m. Using the formula (7) and (9) we obtain

[0209] the gyroscope disk mass m=5.305×10{circumflex over ( )}6/(0.2×0.5×1.732×358×2.4)=35.65 Mg; the volume Q=4.57 m{circumflex over ( )}3, and thickness H=0.2525 m, the weight 350 kN, the linear velocity V=620 m/sec, rotation speed Ω=258.3 radian/sec. The mass ratio of circle hoop shaped and some other way shaped equal gyroscopes is calculated as follows:

[0210] For hoop/disc γ0.5×1.732=0.866. If we take the internal hoop radius 0.8×R{circumflex over ( )}2=1.92 m then we obtain mass m=30.9 Mg, volume Q=3.96 m{circumflex over ( )}3, weight 303 kN, the thickness H=0.61 m, linear speed υ=358 m/sec; rotation speed Ω=149.17 radian/sec. We see the circle hoop has not significant weight advantage against the equal gyroscope shaped as a disk. Everywhere here we did not take the safety factor into account.

[0211] A.6. Conclusions and Basic Layout Improvement.

[0212] Numerical calculations have shown that the gyro power plant mounted with the layout shown on the

[0213] In order to come nearer to practice the more acceptable layout to transmit the fulcrum moment is developed and given on the

[0214] [1] D. N. Reshetov. Machine elements. Russia. Moscow. Publishing house Mashinostroenie. 1989.

[0215] [2] J. P. Den Hartog. Mechanics. Dover Publications, Inc. New York. 1948.

[0216] [3] Kurt & Reiner Gieck. Engineering Formula. 7^{th }

[0217] [4] Long-range cruise captain's hand book. Russia. Moscow. Publishing house Transport. 1988.

[0218] [5] V. B. Jinkin. Theory and ship design. Russia. St-Petersburg. Publish. house Shipbuilding. 1995.