Title:
Double-ended stud with a thin fixed flange on the stud
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A double-ended stud with a thin fixed flange and a method for using same. A double-ended stud with a thin fixed flange is used to secure a structural member in place during mounting. A structural member is secured against a mounting member with the flange on the stud in proximity to the structural member with a nut on one end of the stud and tightened into place against a mounting member. The flange holds a structural member in place. The flange is thin enough not to require removal of the double-ended stud during completion of the remainder of the mounting process using other structural members and standard nuts and bolts. The precise thickness of the flange varies from application to application depending on the type of nut and bolt required for that particular mounting process, as well as the orientation of the structural member to the mounting member and expected forces applied to the flange during the mounting process.



Inventors:
Ritchie, William D. (Castle Hayne, NC, US)
Application Number:
10/025077
Publication Date:
06/19/2003
Filing Date:
12/18/2001
Assignee:
RITCHIE WILLIAM D,
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
52/745.21, 52/709
International Classes:
F16B5/02; (IPC1-7): E04B1/38
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
SLACK, NAOKO N
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Attorney At, Law Michael Mauney E. (P.O. Box 10266, Southport, NC, 28461, US)
Claims:

I claim:



1. A tool for temporary non-structural load-bearing attachment of a structural member during an assembly process which also allows for permanent structural load-bearing attachment of at least two structural members comprising: (a) a threaded stud of a predetermined diameter and construction to serve as a connector in a structural load-bearing capacity of at least two structural members; (b) a flange of a predetermined thickness, said predetermined thickness less than said predetermined diameter, permanently attached to said threaded stud; whereby said threaded stud with flange is used to mount a first structural member against a mounting member, said first structural member held in place during the assembly process by said flange and a first nut threaded onto a first portion of said threaded stud against said mounting member; a second structural member can then be attached on a second portion of said threaded stud with said flange between said second structural member and said first structural member with a second nut threaded on said second portion of said threaded stud to tighten said first structural member, said mounting member, and said third structural member in place in a structural load-bearing capacity and secured in place by said first nut and said second nut where said flange no longer bears any load in said assembly process.

2. A tool for temporary non-structural load-bearing attachment of at least two structural members of claim 1 wherein said predetermined thickness of said flange is only of a sufficient thickness to be a means for temporarily securing said structural member to said mounting member during mounting.

3. A tool for temporary non-structural load-bearing attachment of at least two structural members of claim 2 wherein said means for temporarily securing requires a predetermined thickness of said flange no greater than {fraction (1/10)} of said predetermined diameter of said threaded stud.

4. A connecting element for safety connection of girts to a girt clip during mounting of at least two girts comprising: (a) a threaded stud of a predetermined diameter and construction with a first and second threaded segment on said threaded stud defined by a flange of predetermined thickness permanently attached to said threaded stud with said first threaded segment on a first side of said flange and said second threaded segment on a second side of said flange; (b) at least two nut-like connectors with said nut-like connectors having a bore of a predetermined diameter and internal thread whereby said nut-like connectors thread onto said threaded segments of said threaded stud; whereby a first girt with a bore of a predetermined diameter is mounted against a girt clip with a bore of a predetermined diameter by passing said first segment of said threaded stud through said first girt's bore and said girt clip's bore, with said flange in proximity to said first girt clip and at least one of said nut-like elements is threaded onto said first threaded segment and tightened into place in proximity to said girt clip to hold said first girt in place so that a second girt with a bore of a predetermined diameter can then be mounted against said first girt by passing said second threaded segment of said threaded stud through said second girt's bore and securing said girt in place by use of at least one of said nut-like connectors threaded onto said second segment of said threaded stud.

5. A connecting element for safety connection of girts to a girt clip during mounting of at least two girts of claim 4 wherein said predetermined thickness of said flange is of a sufficient thickness to be a means for temporarily securing said girt to said girt clip during mounting.

6. A connecting element for connection of structural elements to a mounting element of claim 5 wherein is said means for temporarily securing requires a predetermined thickness of said flange no greater than {fraction (1/10)} (0.1) of said predetermined diameter of said threaded stud.

7. A method for temporarily attaching a structural member to a mounting member in an assembly process comprising: (a) placing a structural member and a mounting member in proximity to each other with bores in said first structural member and said mounting member aligned with each other; (b) placing a first threaded end of a threaded stud of a predetermined diameter having a flange of a predetermined thickness permanently mounted on said threaded stud through said aligned bores in said structural member and said mounting member and securing a nut-like connector to said first end of said threaded stud and tightening it into place; whereby said flange temporarily secures said structural member to said mounting member while allowing for permanent mounting of a second structural member without removal of said threaded stud from said temporary mounting.

8. A method for temporarily attaching a structural member to a mounting member in an assembly process of claim 7 including making the predetermined thickness of said flange sufficient to be a means for temporarily securing said structural member to said mounting member during the assembly process.

9. A method for temporarily attaching a structural member to a mounting member in an assembly process of claim 8 including the step of making said predetermined thickness of said flange on said threaded stud no more than {fraction (1/10)} (0.1) in thickness of said predetermined diameter of said threaded stud.

Description:

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0001] 1. Field of the Invention

[0002] The present invention relates generally to a stud used to connect structural members to each other. More specifically, it relates to a doubled ended stud with a thin, fixed flange in the middle of the stud which is to be used in erection of buildings using metal structural members to assist with lapping of metal structural members to each other and a method for using the stud during the erection of buildings.

[0003] 2. Background of the Invention

[0004] Bolts having screw threads of different pitches whether running in the same direction or in opposite directions are known and are old in the art. Examples may be seen as early as the Tudor, U.S. Pat. No. 83,225. These studs are frequently seen in specialized applications. For example the Brown, U.S. Pat. No. 1,574,466, discloses a safety connection for use in power transmission. The Brown device is, in effect, two bolts attached at their heads with their shanks pointing in opposite directions. In the Brown '466 invention the heads of the bolts are separated by a shearing section which has a reduced cross sectional area determined by a shearing force common in that particular application. The Soleymani, U.S. Pat. No. 6,058,585, discloses a doubled ended stud with the shafts threaded in opposite directions and separated by a flange or knob. A holding tool threads onto each side of the stud to hold camshaft teeth in place during a particular operation. The Takahashi, U.S. Pat. No. 4,729,707, discloses a double-ended stud with oppositely threaded sides on the shank separated by a nut. The doubled sided shanks are used to connect threaded structural members.

[0005] As the above patents demonstrate, there is frequently a need for a highly specialized tool to fit a particular need arising out of an industry or building practice. In the metal building industry, vertical girders are used to support horizontal girts which are the horizontal structural members of the building. On the vertical girders, girt clips are disposed as a flat horizontal plate usually with four holes drilled in the plate. These girt clips are disposed at intervals on the vertical girders. Each girt clip will usually have a matching girt clip placed at the same height on an adjacent vertical girder. A horizontal girt will be placed on the two adjacent girt clips to form a horizontal support structure. The girts are bolted into place usually with four bolts through the holes on the girt clip. As one moves along the building on a line between two vertical girders, the question arises of how to mount the next girt to a girt clip which already has a girt mounted on it. In standard practice, it is necessary to remove the bolts with their securing washers and nuts from the first girt so that the second girt can be lapped over the first girt and aligned with the four holes on the girt clip. Then the four bolts, nuts and washers will be remounted and tightened into place, thus connecting the second girt and the first girt to the same girt clip on the same vertical girder.

[0006] However, this standard practice creates a safety problem. When the bolts supporting the first girt are removed, the first girt now rests on the girt clip supported only by force of gravity which allows the girt to slide and move about on the girt clip or even become disconnected from the girt clip. Consequently, there is a need for a means of attaching a girt to a girt clip which will secure the girt to the girt clip while still allowing a second girt to be lapped over the first girt and aligned with the bolts holes placed on the girt clip for mounting of both the first and the second girt.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0007] This invention is a simple, but ingenious device which efficiently and inexpensively solves the need for simultaneous securing of a first girt on a girt clip while making it possible to mount a second girt on the same girt clip without removing the securing means from the first girt. This device consists of a double threaded stud with a thin flat flange permanently mounted in the approximate middle of the threaded double stud. A first girt is placed on a girt clip with the holes in the girt aligned with the holes in the girt clip. The stud connector of this invention is mounted from above the first girt with a threaded end passing through the first girt in one of the four bolt holes in the girt through the matching bolt hole in the girt clip to the point that the fixed thin flange now rests against the girt. A nut and washer are then threaded through the end of the stud extending below the girt clip and tightened into place. The girt is now held into place by the stud, nut washer and flange. The flange must be thin enough to allow a second girt to be mounted on top of the first girt. The second end of the stud above the flange will now be extending above the second girt. A nut and washer will be tightened into place on this second end of the stud securing the first and second girts to the girt clip. Through the three remaining bolt holes a standard bolt with nuts and washers will be placed and tightened into place. The thin flange mounted on the girt of this invention is thin enough to allow the second girt to be mounted effectively flush against the first girt, but thick enough to secure the first girt into place against lateral movement or vertical movement during the mounting process. Although the flange is not thick enough or strong enough to secure the girt in place once it becomes a load bearing member, this is not required. The flange need only be strong enough to hold the girt in place against random or unexpected forces during the mounting of the girts to the girt clip. Consequently, the flange may be made thin enough to allow effectively flush mounting of the two girts while still remaining strong enough to hold the girt in place during mounting. This invention may be used in any application where there is a need to temporarily secure a structural member to a mounting piece while allowing for effectively flush mounting of a second piece against the structural member. The flange may be made strong enough to secure the structural member in place during mounting but thin enough to allow flush mounting of the second piece.

[0008] This simple but ingenious device eliminates a safety hazard in the erection of metal buildings using girts or metal structural members and greatly simplifies the process of mounting the structural members. It solves a long standing safety problem while allowing standard tools and standard procedures to be used for mounting girts to girt clips. There is no need to redesign girts or the girt clips when using the current invention. These and other features of the invention will be made clearer by the detailed descriptions which follow.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0009] FIG. 1 shows the prior art method of attaching two girts to a clip.

[0010] FIGS. 2A and 2B show the current invention.

[0011] FIG. 3 shows a prospective view of the current invention mounting a girt.

[0012] FIG. 4 shows a side view of the current invention is use.

[0013] FIG. 5 shows another application of the current invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0014] FIG. 1 shows a prior art connection of a first girt (10) and a second girt (20) to a girt clip (60) on a vertical girder (50). The first girt (10) has four bores which are aligned with matching bores on the girt clip (60). The first girt (10) extends to the viewer's left to the next girt clip (not shown) on a matching girder a predetermined distance away. The girt clip (60) on the girder (50) is mounted at the same height as is the matching girt clip (not shown) to the viewer's left on which the first girt (10) is mounted. A second girt (20) rests on top of and nests into the first girt (10) with four bores on the second girt (20) matching the four bores on the first girt (10) and on the girt clip (60). The second girt (20) extends to a girt clip (not shown) on an adjacent girder (not shown) to the viewer's right.

[0015] To some degree, construction practices vary from building to building and from construction worker to construction worker, but typically there will be a first girder in a building with a series of girt clips disposed at intervals on the girder for mounting of girts which run horizontally. On the first girder an end of a girt will be disposed and will be bolted into place. The other end of the girt will be extended to the matching girt clip on the next girder. Typically, one bolt will be secured into place using a washer and a nut. This bolt is used to temporarily secure the girt in place and is not considered a permanent means of mounting the girt on that girt clip. Usually, more than one girt will be mounted on a given girder and the worker may choose to mount all the girts that go on a particular girder starting from the top to the bottom or from the bottom to the top. However, once all girts are mounted on a girder and on the adjoining girder, it is then time to start mounting the adjacent and overlapping girt which goes from the second girder and the respective girt clip there to the third girder and a respective girt clip. In FIG. 1, this would be girt (20). However, a problem arises. The first girt (10) is secured in place by at least one bolt (62), washer (64), and nut (66). A portion of the bolt (62) extends above the first girt (10) which will make it impossible for flush or close to flush mounting of the second girt (20) unless the bolt (62), washer (64), and nut (66) are first removed. However, the removal of the bolt (62), washer (64), and nut (66) means at least for that time the first girt (10) is not secured on the girt clip (60). This is a safety hazard. In the past, the second girt (20) has been lapped into place on top of the first girt (10), then all bolts (62), usually four, washers (64), and nuts (66) are mounted and bolted into place securely fastening the first girt (10) and the second girt (20) to the girt clip (60) by the bolts (62), washers (64), and nuts (66). The problem has arisen in the transition when neither the second girt (20) nor the first girt (10) is secured to the girt clip (60) by any fastening means. This invention effectively solves this problem.

[0016] FIG. 2A shows a side view of the current invention. The double-ended stud (100) consists of a threaded stud (110) with a flange (120) fixed along the length of the threaded stud (110) with a portion of the threaded stud (110) extending on both sides of the flange (120). Nuts (66) are seen in proximity to the double-ended stud (100). Nut (66) is shown partially threaded on a portion of the threaded stud (110) while another nut (66) is seen poised above the threaded stud (110) and ready to be threaded on the threaded stud (110) in the direction shown by the arrows.

[0017] FIG. 2B shows in perspective the double-ended stud (100) with nuts (66) in proximity to each end of the threaded stud (110). The flange (120) must be fixed on the threaded stud (110) in a position to allow a sufficient portion of the threaded stud (1 10) to extend from both sides of the flange (120) to allow girts, washers, and nuts to be mounted on the threaded stud (110) and secured into place. The function of the invention will be seen more clearly in FIGS. 3, 4, and 5.

[0018] FIG. 3 shows in simplified form the first step in using the double-ended stud (100) to mount a girt (10) to a girt clip (60). The first girt (10) is resting on the girt clip (60) with the bores in the first girt (10) aligned with the holes in the girt clip (60). The double-ended (100) stud is brought into position from above the first girt (10) with a portion of the threaded stud (110) passing through the bore in the first girt (10) and the girt clip (60) until the flange (120) is flush against the first girt (10). A nut (66) is seen in position below the double-ended stud (100) and specifically ready for threading onto the threaded stud (110) from below. The nut (66) will be tightened into place fixing the first girt (10) onto the girt clip (60) because the first girt (10) is secured between the flange (120) and the girt clip (60) by the pressure of the nut (66) now threaded on the threaded stud (110). A washer (not shown) may be placed between the nut (66) and the girt clip (60). The flange (120) is fixed in place along the length of the threaded stud (110). The flange (120) may be made quite thin. It is not designed to secure the first girt (10) against significant shearing or upward forces. This is a temporary mounting for the first girt (10) using the double-ended stud (100). Its purpose is to secure the first girt (10) to the girt clip (60) temporarily during the mounting process and until the second girt (20) (not shown) can be mounted on the double-ended stud (100).

[0019] FIG. 4 shows the first girt (10) and the second girt (20) mounted on the girt clip (60) using the double-ended stud (100) and one bolt (62), washer (64), and nut (66) mounting. Here, the first girt (10) will be mounted on the girt clip (60) using the double-ended stud (100). The flange (120) will be above the first girt (10). The nut (66) will be threaded and tightened into place from below the girt clip (60) on the threaded stud (110) so that the flange (120) is pressed against the first girt (10). This holds the first girt (10) in place. The second girt (20) is then aligned and mounted. The second girt (20) will be mounted over a portion of the threaded stud (110) that is above the flange (120) (as seen in FIG. 4) with the flange (120) between the second girt (20) and the first girt (10). A nut (66) and optionally a washer (64) will be used to tighten the second girt (20) into place on the double-ended stud (100). Then in the other three bores on the first girt (10) and the second girt (20) a standard bolt (62), washer (64), and nut (66) will be threaded and tightened into place. As in a conventional mounting, the first and second girts (10, 20) will be secured into place by the use of multiple points of attachment, usually four, three having the standard nut, washer, and bolt arrangement, with the fourth using the double-ended stud (100). The function of the flange (120) will have been served and no longer is needed to hold the first girt (10) in place, but rather the nuts (66) threaded on both ends of the threaded portion (110) through double-ended stud (100) are tightened and will now hold both the first and second girt (10, 20) in place with the same degree of security as would be achieved by a standard nut, washer, and bolt arrangement.

[0020] FIG. 5 shows the double-ended stud (100) used to mount a girder (200) to a first girder clip (400). Unlike the girts (10, 20) shown in FIGS. 1-4, the girder (200) is not mounted to a first girder clip (400) using gravity to rest the girder (200) on the first girder clip (400). Rather the mounting surfaces on the girder (200) and first girder clip (400), with bores therein, are mounted vertically. A second girder clip (not shown) will be used on the side of the girder (200) opposite of the first girder clip (400). Unlike the mounting in FIG. 3 and 4, here gravity, rather than keeping the girder (200) in place on the first girder clip (400) during mounting, will tend to force it downward creating an inherent instability. Therefore, the double-ended stud (100) can be used to mount the girder (200) to a first girder clip (400) by use of the flange (120). Here, the double-ended stud (100) can be used to secure the girder (200) into place against the first girder clip (400) by extending the threaded stud (110) through a bore in the girder (200) through a matching bore in the first girder clip (400), then using a nut (66) to tighten the girder (200) into place against the flange (120) on one side and the first girder clip (400) on the other side. Thus, a second girder clip (not shown) can be easily aligned and mounted into place against the girder (200) which is secured against the first girder clip (400) by means of a flange (120) and a nut (66). A second girder clip (not shown) will be mounted against the vertical support (500) like the first girder clip (400). The bores in the second girder clip (not shown) will pass through a threaded stud (110) of double-ended stud (100) mounting the girder (200) against the first girder clip (400). Then, nuts (66) (not shown) will be threaded into place and tightened. Use of the double-ended stud (100) greatly simplifies mounting a girder (200) against a vertical surface (500) using girder clips (400) because it is only necessary to mount the first girder clip (400) securely against the vertical surface (500) before the girder (200) is mounted against the first girder clip (400). Use of the flange (120) and the double-ended stud (100) only temporarily secures the girder (200) in place then, a second girder clip (not shown) can be easily added and secured against the mounting surface (500). The mounting is completed by securing the second girder clip (not shown) against the vertical surface (500), then bolts and nuts will be used to complete the mounting of the girder (200).

[0021] There are a variety of practices used in the construction industry where it is necessary to secure a structural member into place against a mounting device temporarily while other structural members are aligned and placed before the mounting is complete. In these circumstances, the current invention can be used to temporarily secure a structural member in place during the mounting process. This facilitates and simplifies the mounting process. Other mounting member can then be attached and secured into place using either standard nuts and bolts or by using two nuts on the double-ended stud (110) of the current invention.

[0022] Manufacturing of a double-ended stud (100) with the flange (120) is, to a large degree, determined by the application in which it is to be used. It should be kept in mind that the flange (120) is not used for full load bearing where it must resist high stress or shearing forces. Rather, the purpose of the flange (120) is to simply hold a structural element, either a girt (10) or a vertical girder (200) in place so that it can be mounted and secured in more conventional fashions with other bolts (62) and nuts (66). When bolts are used as mechanical fasteners, they are ordinarily classified according to standards set by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The most commonly used type of structural bolts are the ASTM-A307 steel bolt, the ASTM-A325 steel bolt, and the ASTM-A490 steel bolt. The ASTM-A307 bolt is a low carbon steel fastener primarily used in light structures subject to static loads. The high strength A325 and A490 bolts are heavy hex structural bolts. The A325 bolts are made by heat treating, quenching, and tempering medium carbon steel. The A490 bolt is a quenched and tempered alloy steel bolt, which has higher mechanical properties as compared with the A325 high strength bolt. For applications using low carbon steel fasteners like the A307 bolt, welding would be one acceptable way of attaching the flange (120) to the double-ended stud (100). In circumstances requiring higher strength fasteners, the flange (120) could be manufactured as part of the double-ended stud (100). The exact methods of manufacturing the double-ended stud (100) and the flange (120) will vary from circumstance and use to which the double-ended stud (100) will be put. Moreover, the double-ended stud (100) in most applications will be made corrosion resistent. This could be by a galvanizing process or by the material used in construction of the stud (100) and the flange (120) such as stainless steel. The applications shown in FIGS. 2-5 are not slip critical applications. That is to say the girts (10) and (20) and the girder (200) are firmly fastened in place through the bores in the girts (10) and (20) or girder (200) which closely match in size the threaded portion (110) (usually the bores are 2 mm larger than a bolt). In circumstances where slots are used instead of bores, there could be slippage of the construction element being mounted. In such slip critical applications, the frictional coefficient of the fasteners can be important and, under those circumstances, the size of the flange (120) and the construction materials used to make the double-ended stud (100) and the flange (120) could become important. For example, galvanizing tends to reduce the coefficient of friction, which can be undesirable in slip critical applications. The precise thickness required for the flange (120) will vary from circumstance to circumstance. As stated above, the American Society for Testing and Materials have set standards both for the type of steel that is required to be used in a bolt and for the diameter of the bolt for different applications. Ordinarily, the flange (120) is made of the same material as is required of a bolt by the ASTM standards for a particular application. However, because the flange is not used in full load-bearing circumstances to secure a girt or girder to a mounting member, the flange (120) need be no thicker than is required to secure a girt or girder during the mounting process. Moreover, it is desirable to have the flange (120) as thin as possible since it is ordinarily desirable to have as close to flush mounting of girts and girders as is possible. Consequently, it is difficult to be specific as to how thick the flange (120) should be relative to the diameter of the double-ended stud (100) on which the flange (120) is mounted. In applications such as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the flange (120) is subject to less stress or force than is in the application shown in FIG. 5. Therefore, it is believed in commercial applications the flange (120) will have a thickness based on the particular application used. However, it is believed the flange (120), in virtually all applications, will be no more than {fraction (1/10)} (0.1) of the diameter of the bolt (hence of the double-ended stud (100)) that is required by the ASTM standards for that particular application. It will be a simple matter of engineering calculations known to one of ordinary skill in the art to know exactly how thick the flange (120) must be relative to the diameter of the load-bearing double-ended stud (100) that is required by ASTM standards for that particular application. These and other variations are well understood by one of skill in the art and the exact manufacturing method and materials can be varied without departing from the inventive concept embodied in the foregoing specification.