The present invention relates to a modular panel for the construction of buildings in general, having thermal and acoustic insulation characteristics.
 It is known that various kinds of prefabricated panels which must be assembled one another in order to obtain a vast range of civil and industrial buildings are already available in the building industry.
 A common characteristic of all currently commercially available prefabricated panels is that such panels are relatively heavy and in any case require lifting means for their handling. Moreover, known panels are scarcely versatile and accordingly do not allow to perform modifications with respect to the originally intended structure; accordingly, the obtainable solutions are very limited.
 Another problem of known solutions is due to the fact that a monolithic unit is not provided, and therefore such solutions are not always able to adequately withstand external stresses caused for example by natural phenomena.
 The aim of the invention is to solve the above mentioned problems by providing a modular panel for the construction of buildings in general whose particular characteristic is that it is particularly light and can therefore be handled and installed manually and therefore even in sites not served by lifting means.
 Within this aim, an object of the invention is to provide a modular panel which is particularly versatile, allowing to provide walls having any shape and to perform very simple interventions.
 Another object of the present invention is to provide a modular panel which allows easy insertion of utilities, with the possibility of forming chases without having to perform the traditional cutting operations.
 Another object of the present invention is to provide a panel which allows to provide a monolithic structure which is particularly rigid, with the possibility to withstand even intense external stresses, such as those arising from earthquakes and the like; moreover, the panel according to the invention allows to distribute the loads over the entire supporting surface, consequently simplifying the construction of the foundations.
 Another object of the present invention is to provide a modular panel which, thanks to its particular constructive characteristics, is capable of giving the greatest assurances of reliability and safety in use and is further competitive from a merely economical point of view.
 This aim and these and other objects which will become better apparent hereinafter are achieved by a modular panel for the construction of buildings in general, having thermal and acoustic insulation characteristics, characterized in that it comprises at least one contoured plate-like element made of insulating material, a first reinforcement net and a second reinforcement net being provided respectively on the faces of said at least one plate-like element and being joined one another by connecting elements which pass through said at least one plate-like element.
 Further characteristics and advantages will become better apparent from the description of a preferred but not exclusive embodiment of a modular panel for the construction of buildings in general, having thermal and acoustic insulation characteristics, illustrated only by way of non-limitative example in the accompanying drawings, wherein:
 With reference to the figures, the modular panel for the construction of buildings in general, having thermal and acoustic insulation characteristics, according to the invention, comprises a single panel, generally designated by the reference numeral
 A first reinforcement net
 The nets
 The bars
 According to a preferred embodiment, the plate-like element has a shape which is sinusoidal in transverse cross-section and a thickness which is variable according to the insulation requirements to be obtained.
 The vertical rods that form the nets
 The assembly is completed by producing, on both faces of the panels, a concrete casting
 At the longitudinal edges, the reinforcement nets can have a protruding portion
 It is also possible to provide a double modular panel, generally designated by the reference numeral
 The single panels
 In this case also, it is possible to provide the mutual connection of multiple double panels by using the protruding portions
 To complete the assembly, it is possible to provide corner panels, designated by the reference numeral
 It is also possible, as shown in
 It is also possible to provide, as shown in
 The floor panels, designated by the reference numeral
 An upper reinforcement net
 In this manner it is possible to cast the floor so as to provide a complete structural unit.
 In order to complete the building it is also possible to provide a staircase element constituted by a double panel, designated, in
 In practice, casting is performed together with the rest of the building, so that the staircase, or more specifically the ramp, is integrated with the monolithic structure.
 After the ramp has been obtained, it is completed by means of one of the different conventional methods that provide the steps according to the required types.
 Experimental tests that have been conducted have shown that the plate-like elements are preferably made of expanded polystyrene with a density of 25 kg/m
 Moreover, experimental tests that have been conducted have shown that the minimum distance between the plate-like elements for providing the double panel is 8-10 cm, so as to allow the concrete to flow freely without separating. Moreover, the optimum distance of the joints provided by the elements for connecting one another the reinforcement nets is preferably 15 cm in order to avoid unwanted deformations under the thrust of the concrete.
 The above described modular panel has an exceptional resistance to impacts, which became apparent when testing the behavior of the single or double panel when being hit by bullets, shrapnels and the like, and can be explained scientifically with the elasticity of the external plate-like elements formed by the panels.
 Moreover, the panel is particularly versatile, allowing to provide, with the single panel, curved walls simply by cutting the transverse rods of the reinforcement element that lies on the inside of the curve, cutting appropriately the polystyrene into vertical panels and shaping the outward net.
 It is also possible to achieve simple insertion of the utility elements, such as pipes for the hydraulic and electrical systems, since the chases can be produced by means of hot air on the internal polystyrene, both in the walls and in the floor slab, thus avoiding the onerous provision of conventional chases.
 An important aspect is further constituted by the fact that as soon as the central region of the double panel has been cast and the outer cladding alone of the single panel has been completed, the built spaces provide workers with immediate shelter from any kind of climate; by merely placing screens on the windows or doors, the workers can work while the space being built is heated or conditioned.
 It should be noted that the mechanical characteristics of the panel can be improved by using concretes with the addition of additives and that, for example, the single panel or the floor slab panel can be given greater load-bearing capacity by cladding their opposite surfaces and the corresponding nets with bands of unidirectional glass fibers and resin, after applying a coat of two-part epoxy resin to the surface of the polystyrene.
 The protection of the casting offered in double panels is decisive in coping with extreme climates at very low and very high temperatures; it has in fact been possible to pour concrete in a space at −30° C. without measuring, during setting, which is an exothermic phenomenon, any temperatures below +5° C.
 The same occurs at temperatures above 40° C., even in direct sunlight: in this case, the polystyrene not only insulates the casting but, by being impermeable, does not allow the cement mortar to dry too quickly.
 The parameters that regulate the hardening reaction of the concrete are ideal, since the curing of the casting in terms of temperature and humidity is perfect; moreover, it is possible to use any kind of additives to provide impermeable walls having particularly high-level mechanical characteristics.
 It should also be added that the single or double cavity wall that the panels provide in any building not only offers the highest values of thermal insulation and makes condensation impossible, but also provides high thermal inertia which prevents the temperature variations that occur when heating elements are switched on or off.
 The thickness of the roughcast and of the reinforced plaster provided on the inside of the building in fact has a mass which ensures a considerable accumulation of heat which is sufficient to extend the durations of the thermal cycles.
 Essentially, the internal layer of the casting acts like the inner glass pane of a double-glazing unit, where the polystyrene takes the place of the air.
 Fire resistance is particularly high, since the polystyrene, at temperatures of approximately 300-400° C., shrinks without producing emissions and forms vacuum regions which insulate the subsequent layers, producing drastic temperature drops.
 Underfloor heating systems find an ideal type of seating in the floor slabs of the system, since their copper or plastic pipes rest on the polystyrene elements, which prevent any form of downward loss.
 In practice, only the upper concrete casting is heated and, by being reinforced by the net of the panel, is not subject to cracks which might damage the floor.
 It is also possible to heat spaces, by means of the same system, even on their side walls, by arranging the copper piping in chases formed in the polystyrene, in the same manner that can be used to install water or electricity distribution systems.
 The acoustic attenuation obtained has remarkable values, thanks to the various densities and consequent barriers that the panel provides to sound wave transmission; the panel in fact ranges from thicknesses with a density of 2000/2500 kg/m
 All the components required by the building industry to produce any kind of building by means of panels are further obtained simply with two production machines, i.e., the machine for shaping the polystyrene and the machine for stapling and welding the nets.
 It is also possible to provide the conventional lattice having a triangular cross-section for floor slabs simply by using the same net of the panels, shaped so as to mutually lock the three rods that compose it.
 In this manner, there is no need of having to keep in stock the various conventional components, which must include all ranges of clay building components with their various heights, countless types of flat tiles, large hollow tiles, wood for formwork, and all the associated accessories.
 The structure formed by means of this panel allows to obtain a construction method which is particularly effective, since the building is monolithic and particularly rigid and capable of withstanding even intense external stresses.
 Since the entire structure is load-bearing, the loads transmitted to the ground are no longer concentrated but are distributed over the entire supporting surface; accordingly, it is no longer necessary to resort to extremely expensive foundation work and piling in the presence of clayey soils, since a simple perimetric curb is sufficient.
 The heat conduction coefficient is particularly low, thanks to the considerable layer of insulating material, since the entire structure is uniform; moreover, thermal bridges are eliminated and the entire structure has a wall temperature which is higher than the dew point temperature, avoiding formation of mold and condensation; the entire room is therefore more favorable from the point of view of microclimate, since the comfort in terms of temperature and humidity is improved by the higher average radiating temperature.
 It should also be added that the panel according to the invention as described above constitutes a throwaway formwork which allows to construct the building in a much shorter time than with conventional methods, with a significant saving of labor force, which need not be particularly specialized, yet allows to provide a very precise final casting.
 Another important aspect consists in that in the building under construction, where windows have to be provided, it is sufficient to simply cut the net and the polystyrene and the walled frame of the window is directly inserted in the resulting opening and thus closes the hole opened in the throwaway formwork of the double panel. When the concrete is poured, the walled frame is embedded directly in the structure, thus ensuring a perfectly airtight seal between the walls and the walled frame, obtaining results which cannot be obtained assuredly with other methods.
 Moreover, the lack of pillars protruding inside the building avoids unsightly constraints in arranging interior decoration, improving the flexibility of the enclosed spaces.
 It should also be added that by being able to provide thinner walls than with conventional methods, the useful available surface is consequently increased for an equal paid surface.
 In any case, the main advantage of the system is constituted by the considerable saving that can be achieved in building structures by using this type of construction, achieving at the same time an improvement in quality.
 Moreover, construction time also is reduced significantly, fully to the advantage of production costs and allowing, as mentioned, to work even at very low or very high temperatures, since once the panels have been positioned casting can be performed and the temperature of the casting remains optimum by way of the insulating effect of the formwork, which stores the heat generated in the exothermic reaction of the concrete.
 From the above description it is thus evident that the invention achieves the intended aim and objects, and in particular it is stressed once again that the installation of the panels is extremely simple and practical; being very light, such panels can be installed manually and can be arranged and shaped according to requirements before performing the concrete casting that covers the outer walls and is interposed, in the case of double panels, between the two plate-like elements.
 The invention thus conceived is susceptible of numerous modifications and variations, all of which are within the scope of the appended claims.
 All the details may further be replaced with other technically equivalent elements.
 In practice, the materials used, as well as the contingent shapes and dimensions, may be any according to requirements.
 The disclosures in San Marinese Patent Application No. SMA200000032 from which this application claims priority are incorporated herein by reference.