Title:
Ginkgo biloba flavonoid extract free of terpene and/or with a high flavonoid heteroside content
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A process for preparing a flavonoid extract from the leaves of ginkgo biloba comprising multiple distractions of the leaves of the ginkgo biloba with solvents wherein at least one of the extraction stages is a deterpenation step using a solvent of the formula RC(O)OR′ wherein R and R′ are individually lower alkyl.



Inventors:
O'reilly, Joseph (County Cork, IE)
Application Number:
09/837519
Publication Date:
11/22/2001
Filing Date:
04/18/2001
Assignee:
SOCIETE DE CONSEILS DE RECHERCHES ET D'APPLICATIONS SCIENTIFIQUES (S.C.R.A.S.)
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
426/583, 426/590, 426/650, 426/660, 426/438
International Classes:
A23C9/00; A23C9/123; A23C9/13; A23G3/34; A23G4/00; A23G4/06; A23L1/00; A23L2/00; A23L2/56; A23L5/20; A23L27/10; A23L27/20; A23L29/00; A61K36/16; C07D311/30; C07D311/32; C07H17/065; C11B9/00; C11B9/02; A61K127/00; (IPC1-7): A23L1/22
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
WONG, LESLIE A
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Charles A. Muserlian (c/o Bierman, Muserlian and Lucas 600 Third Avenue, New York, NY, 10016, US)
Claims:
1. A flavonoid extract from the leaves of the ginkgo biloba, essentially free of terpenes.

2. An extract as defined in claim 1, comprising maximally 1% and preferably less than 0.5% terpenes.

3. A flavonoid extract from the leaves of the ginkgo biloba comprising 28 to 35% flavonoid heterosides, preferably from 28 to 32%.

4. An extract as defined in any of claims 1 through 3, essentially free of terpenes and comprising from 28 to 35% flavonoid heterosides.

5. An extract as defined in claim 4, comprising maximally 1% terpenes, preferably maximally 0.5% terpenes, and from 28 to 32% flavonoid heterosides.

6. A procedure for preparing an extract as defined in any of claims 1, 2, 4, or 5, which comprises several stages of extraction from the leaves of the ginkgo biloba with solvents, characterized in that one of the extraction stages is a deterpenation stage and the solvent used is a compound of formula RC(O)OR′ in which R and R′ represent independently a lower alkyl, alone or mixed with a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon containing at least 5 carbon atoms.

7. A procedure as defined in claim 6, characterized in that the solvent used for the deterpenation stage is chosen from among methyl, ethyl, or propyl acetate, and comprises 0 to 20% saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon and especially heptane.

8. A flavoring composition comprising as flavoring ingredient an extract according to any of claims 1 through 5, alone or in association with other flavors.

9. A product flavored with a composition according to claim 8.

10. A product according to claim 9 which is a dairy product and especially yogurt.

11. A product according to claim 9 which is a drink and especially a non-alcoholic soft drink.

12. A product according to claim 9 which is a sweetened product such as chewing gum or candy.

13. The use of a composition according to claim 8 in food products.

14. The use [of a composition] according to claim 13, characterized in that the food product is a dairy product and especially yogurt.

15. The use [of a composition] according to claim 13 for drinks such as refreshing and nutritious drinks.

16. The use of an extract according to any of claims 1 through 4 as food flavoring.

Description:
[0001] The invention concerns a flavonoid extract of ginkgo biloba and more specifically an extract either substantially free of terpenes or with a high content of flavonoid heterosides, or free of terpenes and with a high content of flavonoid heterosides. This extract may advantageously be used as a flavoring agent. The invention likewise concerns a flavoring composition comprising such an extract and the use of this extract as a flavoring ingredient.

[0002] Applications of extracts of ginkgo biloba in the field of medicine and cosmetics are well known. The extract EGb-761 is perhaps the best known in the medical field (The extract of ginkgo biloba [EGb-761], La Press Médicale, 1986, Vol. 31, Special Number, Masson Publishing Co.). This extract primarily includes two families of substances: the flavonoid and terpene substances. New extracts were defined which, in an unexpected way, modify the organoleptic [sensory] properties of certain foods such as drinks, dairy products, [and] sweets.

[0003] One of the aspects of the present invention therefore has as its object extracts which do not comprise any or only a small quantity of terpenes (ginkgolides and bilobalides) which have a high degree of therapeutic activity. Moreover, it has been found to be of interest to obtain extracts enriched with flavonoid substances: these are essentially the mono-, di-, and tri-glucosides of Kaempferol, of Quercetine, and of Isorhamnetine with glucose and with rhamnose.

[0004] The invention also has as its object a flavonoid extract of ginkgo biloba leaves free of terpenes. This means that the extract comprises flavonoid heterosides and small quantities of terpenes or no terpenes. If the extract comprises terpenes, the terpene content is a maximum of 1%, preferably a maximum of 0.5%.

[0005] The invention likewise has as its object a flavonoid extract with a high flavonoid heteroside content. This means that the extract comprises from 28 to 35% flavonoid heterosides, and preferably 28 to 32%. Such extracts are obtained preferably from the cut leaves of young ginkgo biloba trees.

[0006] The invention likewise has as its object a flavonoid extract free of terpenes and with a high content of flavonoid heterosides. This means that the extract is free of terpenes and comprises from 28 to 25% flavonoid heterosides, preferably from 28 to 32%.

[0007] More especially, the invention has as its object a flavonoid extract comprising maximally 1% terpenes and from 28 to 25% flavonoid heterosides. Preferably the extract comprises maximally 0.5% terpenes and from 28 to 32% flavonoid heterosides.

[0008] A flavonoid extract with a high content of flavonoid heterosides may be obtained by extraction under partial vacuum with an acetone-water mixture. After stages of delipidation, elimination of undesirable substances with various solvents and by precipitation, the extract solution is concentrated and the extract is dried in vacuo.

[0009] The invention likewise has as its object a procedure for preparing an extract free of terpenes as defined above. This procedure includes several extraction stages of extract of ginkgo biloba leaves with solvents, characterized in that one of the extraction stages is a deterpenation stage and the solvent used is a compound of formula RC(O)OR′ in which R and R′ represent independently a lower alkyl alone or mixed with a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon comprises at least 5 carbon atoms. The extraction stage may be effected at any stage of the process. The solvent used during the determination stage comprises preferably from 0 to 20% saturated aliphatic compound.

[0010] Extraction stages other than the deterpenation stage are known in the literature, especially in Patents EP 431535, EP 431536, EP 360556, and EP 324197. These patents are incorporated by reference into the present application.

[0011] In the above-indicated definitions, the term lower alkyl represents preferably an alkyl radical having from 1 to 6 atoms of linear or branched carbon and in particular an alkyl radical having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms such as the methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, and tert-butyl radicals. Solvents of formula RC(O)OR′ in which the R and R′ radicals represent methyl, ethyl, or propyl, and especially ethyl acetate, are preferably used.

[0012] The saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon may be chosen from among hexane, heptane, [or] octane. Heptane is preferably used.

[0013] The invention likewise has as its object a procedure for preparing an extract enriched with flavonoid heterosides as defined above. This procedure includes several stages of extraction from the leaves of ginkgo biloba with solvents, characterized in that one of the extraction stages is a stage of enrichment with flavonoid heterosides and that the solvent used, in a minimum quantity, is an alcohol, alone or mixed with a ketone, preferably acetone. The extraction stage may be carried out at any stage of the procedure. The alcohol used is preferably a lower alcohol such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, [or] butanol, and preferably butanol. The amount of solvent used may be from 3 to 12 parts, and preferably in the lower portion of this range.

[0014] An example is described below in the experimental part; the order of the extraction stages with the ethyl acetate/heptane mixture and the acetone-butanol mixture may be reversed.

[0015] An extract according to the invention simultaneously modifies the olfactory profile and the taste profile of the product tested. By way of its organoleptic properties, this extract may be used for the preparation of aromatic compositions of various types. It may be used alone or in association with other flavoring ingredients currently used. Thus, the use of such a flavonoid extract is anticipated in food products. As food products, one may cite dairy products such as for example yogurts, refreshing or nutritious drinks, and more especially refreshing drinks without alcohol such as orange drinks or tonics based on quinine, but likewise sweetened products such as for example chewing gum.

[0016] The amount used in a flavoring composition or a flavored product may vary over a wide range of values: it is understood that this value depends on the product into which the flavor or the flavoring composition is incorporated, but also on the nature and amount of other constituents of the flavoring composition and upon the desired effect.

[0017] The flavonoid extract according to the invention is used in concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.1% by weight relative to the total weight of the flavored product, preferably between 0.001 and 0.05%. In the case of dairy products, the flavonoid extract concentration may range from 0.005 to 0.045%. In the case of products such as chewing gums, the flavonoid extract concentration may range from 0.01 to 0.04%. In the case of food products such as refreshing or nutritious drinks, the flavonoid extract concentration may range from 0.002 to 0.02%.

[0018] The following examples are presented to illustrate the invention and are not in any case to be considered as limiting the scope of the invention.

EXAMPLE 1

Procedure For Obtaining a Flavonoid Extract

[0019] The leaves of ginkgo biloba are extracted with 6 to 12 parts (preferably 8) of water comprising 60% acetone at 50 - 60 degrees C and the solution is concentrated so as to reduce the percentage of acetone to less than 3%. This solution is cooled and the lipids are eliminated by decantation. The aqueous solution is extracted with 2 to 5 parts of ethyl acetate comprising 0 to 20% heptane. The resulting solution is extracted with a minimum amount of an acetone - butanol mixture (0 to 15% acetone) in the presence of ammonium sulfate. The organic phase is concentrated; after adding ethanol, the solution is again concentrated. After a new dilution with ethanol, the solution is cooled and the insoluble precipitates are filtered out. The resulting solution is concentrated, dried, and finally pulverized to recover the flavonoid extract in the form of a homogeneous powder.

EXAMPLE 2

Sensory Analysis

[0020] A sensory analysis of a flavonoid extract as obtained in Example 1 was carried out for a certain number of food products (dairy products, refreshing drinks, and chewing gums) with or without flavonoid extract.

[0021] Sixty tasters participated in this analysis. For each sensory item (acidity, bitterness, sweetness, saltiness) each taster indicated an intensity grade from 0 to 5 corresponding to an increasing degree of evaluation of the product tested.

EXAMPLE 2a

Dairy Products

[0022] 1

Conventional
Qsolid yogurtLight solid yogurt
(mg/pot)0102501025
Acidity432.532.53
Bitterness2.52.52.522.51.5
Sweetness12.522.522.5
Saltiness11.52322
Conventional
Qmixed yogurtLight mixed yogurt
(mg/pot)0101501015
Acidity432.522.52
Bitterness222.522.52
Sweetness22.52432
Saltiness22.5222.52
QSweetened natural drinking yogurt
(mg/l)050100
Acidity33.53
Bitterness11.51.5
Sweetness3.533
Saltiness111
Q = amount of extract

[0023] The natural astringency of the extract balances well the fundamental flavors of dairy products by attenuating the acidity of traditional products. The extract appeared to be very complementary with the dairy and fruit characters.

EXAMPLE 2b

Refreshing Drinks

[0024] 2

Quinine-
Qbased tonic drinkOrange drink
(mg/l)050100050100
Acidity22.532.533.5
Bitterness32.5323.54
Sweetness2.52.53.53.52.54
Saltiness0.50.50.5211

[0025] The astringency of the extract is harmoniously blended with that of the drinks, and more especially with that of quinine grade drinks and/or bitter barks such as Indian Tonic®.

EXAMPLE 2

Chewing Gums

[0026] 3

MentholatedChlorophyllOther mentholated
chewing gumchewing gumchewing gum
U (mg/unit)0360612036
Freshness421231231
Tartness431221221
Sweetness33.54234344
Herbal flavor024234124
U = unit

EXAMPLE 3

Descriptive Test

[0027] This test was conducted with several varieties of yogurts. Sixty tasters, consumers of natural yogurts, participated in the test. The method used was a comparative test of sensory profiles. The questionnaire contained 9 to 10 descriptive items according to the “solid” or “mixed” variety tested. Each taster indicated on a 10 cm nonstructured scale for each item the perceived intensity and this was carried out successively for all of the products. The results obtained are the following:

EXAMPLE 3a

[0028] Product tested: solid yogurts 0% of fatty matter, with or without the addition of 0.04% of a flavonoid extract as obtained in Example 1. 4

Variety with extractVariety without extract
StandardStandard
DescriptorAveragedeviationAveragedeviationtS
Firmness6.681.356.581.520.81
Overall intensity5.001.724.771.721.42
of aroma
Smooth consis-6.542.036.341.791.18
tency in the
mouth
Denseness4.901.544.731.730.97
Fatty sensation2.311.982.041.911.95
in the mouth
Fruity taste2.652.100.701.028.361%
Fermented taste2.992.333.222.131.28
Acid taste2.742.072.671.980.33
Bitter taste2.071.821.421.313.951%
t = Student's “T” in paired series; S = degree of significance

[0029] The variety with the flavonoid extract is distinguished in a highly significant way as having a more pronounced fruity taste and a more intensely bitter taste than the variety without flavonoid extract.

EXAMPLE 3b

[0030] Product tested: Fatty solid yogurts, with or without the addition of 0.04% flavonoid extract as obtained in Example 1.

[0031] Variety with extract Variety without extract 5

Variety with extractVariety without extract
StandardStandard
DescriptorAveragedeviationAveragedeviationtS
Firmness7.651.607.381.362.065%
Overall intensity4.851.854.811.920.27
of aroma
Smooth consis-7.011.996.872.120.92
tency in
mouth
Denseness6.262.055.461.914.921%
Fatty sensation4.172.083.541.953.591%
in mouth
Fruity taste2.251.990.841.196.041%
Fermented taste2.622.062.662.190.24
Acid taste2.621.722.611.590.05
Bitter taste1.691.551.531.490.88
t = Student's “T” in paired series; S = degree of significance

[0032] The variety with the flavonoid extract is distinguished in a highly significant way as having a denser consistency in the mouth, a more intense sensation of fat in the mouth, and a more pronounced fruity taste and, in a significant way, as having a firmer consistency on the spoon than the variety without flavonoid extract.

EXAMPLE 3c

[0033] Product tested: fat mixed yogurts with or without the addition of 0.04% flavonoid extract as obtained in Example 1.

[0034] Variety with extract Variety without extract 6

Variety with extractVariety without extract
StandardStandard
DescriptorAveragedeviationAveragedeviationtS
Denseness5.291.715.221.710.56
on spoon
Ropy consistency3.521.913.501.800.20
on the spoon
Overall intensity4.361.694.321.680.27
of aroma
Smooth sensation8.231.488.171.630.66
in mouth
Denseness3.991.964.062.040.45
Fatty sensation3.722.013.421.821.77
in mouth
Fruity taste2.601.921.091.315.971%
Fermented taste3.192.202.942.271.11
Acid taste3.102.002.471.712.635%
Bitter taste2.001.781.531.572.355%
t = Student's “T” on paired series; S = degree of significance

[0035] The variety with the flavonoid extract is distinguished in a highly significant way as having a more pronounced fruity taste and, in a significant way, as having a more acidic taste and a more bitter taste than the variety without flavonoid extract.