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County records and major range extensions for West Cross Timbers' angiosperms from Tarleton State University's Hunewell Ranch in Erath County, Texas.
Article Type:
Report
Subject:
Angiosperms (Environmental aspects)
Ecology (Research)
Authors:
Harsley, S.
Nelson, A.D.
Pub Date:
05/01/2010
Publication:
Name: The Texas Journal of Science Publisher: Texas Academy of Science Audience: Academic; General Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Science and technology Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2010 Texas Academy of Science ISSN: 0040-4403
Issue:
Date: May, 2010 Source Volume: 62 Source Issue: 2
Topic:
Event Code: 310 Science & research
Geographic:
Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States

Accession Number:
253927802
Full Text:
Abstract. Data from floras are critical in establishing species' ranges. This knowledge is essential to conserving plant species and monitoring the spread of introduced species. New plant records in Erath County as well as information on the number of native, endemic, introduced and rare species are reported for an ongoing flora of the vascular plants at Tarleton State University's Hunewell Ranch. Species are compared to those occurring on the state noxious weeds and threatened or endangered species lists. Plant specimens were collected over a twelve month period from September 2006 to August 2007. Ninety-eight taxa were new to Erath County and 35 of these are major range extensions of plants into the West Cross Timbers. Ninety-one taxa are native and seven are introduced species. Five of the native species are endemic to Texas. No plants occurred on the stale noxious weeds list, are considered rare, nor were any threatened or endangered species discovered at Hunewell Ranch.

Comprehensive floristic knowledge of species composition and plant communities is fundamental to the preservation and management of plant species. The floristic knowledge of Erath County, located in the southwestern portion of the West Cross Timbers, is both dated and incomplete. The earliest known checklist of plants in Erath County was compiled by Lula C. Gough at Tarleton State University (TSU). Gough collected specimens from Erath County from 1921 to 1923, excluding Poaceae and Cyperaceae as part of her Master's degree from the University of Texas at Arlington (Gough 1923). In addition, a relatively recent atlas of state plants (Turner et al. 2003a; 2003b) has incomplete data for much of the West Cross Timbers including Erath County. The flora of Hunewell Ranch is part of a current and ongoing project to update and extend the floristic knowledge of Erath County.

Hunewell Ranch is currently owned and maintained by TSU in Stephenville, Texas, which is the Erath County seat. Few historical records of Hunewell Ranch exist, but it is believed that tanning operations included a haymaking enterprise, maintenance of cropland sites, and ranching from 1900 to 1935 (Vickery 1991). After World War 11, a dairy operation was maintained until approximately 1970. Hunewell Ranch was willed to TSU by Mr. and Mrs. Davis G. Hunewell (Parker 2001). Portions of the ranch are allocated to natural grasses, hay production, and the observation of native biota by students studying field ecology and wildlife sciences at TSU.

Hunewell Ranch is situated in the West Cross Timbers (WCT) region of Texas (Figure 1), which is a belt of woodland interspersed by prairie habitat, ranging from northern Oklahoma to north central Texas (Dyksterhuis 1948; Diggs et al. 1999; Hoagland et al. 1999). Typically this woodland habitat is not continuous and is occasionally breached by the Fort Worth Prairie (Diggs et al. 1999). Historically, this area has not been exploited for its timber, and as a result, many old growth forests remain (Diggs et al. 1999). Farming, ranching, and the cultivation of crops occurred on prairies and the fringes of woodlands (Hoagland et al. 1999). Negligent agricultural practices and fire suppression exacerbated erosion and the overgrowth of weedy species resulting in the suppression of native mid-to tall-grasses and the loss of original climax understory vegetation (Hoagland et al. 1999; Van Auken 2000). Invasion of native prairies and some woody plant communities by plants such as juniper and mesquite has occurred over large areas (Van Auken et al. 1988; Van Auken 2000).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

This investigation is part of an ongoing floristic study of Hunewell Ranch and Erath County. The purpose of this portion of the investigation is to document species that are new to Erath County and in some cases the West Cross Timbers.

STUDY SITE

Hunewell Ranch is located in the east-central part of Erath County (coordinates at the ranch gate are 32[degrees]12.901 N, 98[degrees]06.147W). Elevation ranges from 376 m to 408 m. The total area of the ranch is 474.3 ha. Hunewell Ranch is dominated by post oak-blackjack oak savannah, midgrass prairie, and tall grass bottomland habitats (Parker 2001). The ranch tends to be highly disturbed as a result of extensive livestock grazing. The incidence of juniper invasion is particularly problematic throughout the ranch (Vickery 1991). Periodic prescribed burning and juniper removal have been used to reduce brush invasion (Parker 2001). The area surrounding Hunewell ranch exhibits the gently rolling topographical relief typical of the WCT region.

Richardson Creek traverses the ranch in an east-west direction. Sycamore Creek is located in the southern half of the ranch and also runs in an east-west direction. There arc several stock ponds distributed across the ranch, ephemeral drainage ditches, and gentle sloping terrain typified by occasional flooding is prevalent (Parker 2001). Windthorst-Duffau and Maloterre-Purves-Dugout (Wagner et al. 1973) are the two primary soil associations on the ranch. The Windthorst-Duffau association tends to be moderately deep to deep soil, and varies from sandy to sandy-loam overlying reddish loamy soils and clayey soils. This association ranges from gently sloping to sloping. The Maloterre-Purves-Dugout association consists of shallow stony and gravelly, clayey soils overlying limestone bedrock (Wagner et al. 1973). This soil association primarily supports open prairie habitat, which is occasionally invaded by juniper and mesquite.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Field work was conducted at Hunewell Ranch over a twelve-month period from September 2006 to August 2007. Twelve localities within the ranch were visited monthly to collect plant specimens: however other sites were opportunistically sampled. All major plant communities and habitats occurring at Hunewell Ranch were sampled.

Specimens were processed at TSU Herbarium using standard herbarium procedures (Diggs et al. 1999). Each specimen from Hunewell Ranch was identified and classified as native, endemic, or introduced using Shinners and Mahler's Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas (Diggs et al. 1999). Plants from Hunewell Ranch were compared to those that occur on the Texas State-listed Noxious Weeds (USDA 2009), state threatened and endangered plant species list (TPWD 2009), and rare plants of Texas (Poole et al. 2007). Distributions of taxa were compared to those published in the Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Texas (Turner et al. 2003 a; 2003b). Taxa new to Erath County but occurring in bordering counties are listed in Table 1. Distributions new to Erath County and not reported from bordering counties are discussed as major range extensions for the WCT.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Ninety-one taxa are native and seven are introduced species. Five of the native species are endemic to Texas. No plants occurred on the state noxious weeds list, nor were any rare, threatened, or endangered species discovered at Hunewell Ranch.

Ninety-eight taxa are considered new records for Erath County (Table 1). Thirty-five of the taxa are major range extensions into the WCT and are discussed individually by family in the following paragraphs.

FAMILY ACANTHACEAL

Ruellia humilis Nutt. (Prairie-petunia; TAC 4218) is native herb found in prairies and open woods in southeastern and east Texas, west to the Panhandle and the Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999) but is considered rare in the western three-fourths of the state (Correll & Johnston 1970). The closets collection within the WCT is from Parker County (Turner et al. 2003a). However, more recently it has been found in Eastland County, which borders Erath County to the northwest (McPhail & Nelson 2005). The presence of prairie-petunia at Hunewell Ranch and in Eastland County extends the range of the species into the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY ALISMATACEAE

Sagittaria latifolia Willd. (Common arrowhead; TAC 370) is a native aquatic herb that is widespread in Texas occurring in lakes, ponds, or other wet areas (Diggs et al. 1999). The closest collection within the WCT is from Parker County (Turner et al. 2003a). Its collection in Erath County extends the known range southwestward in the WCT.

FAMILY ACANTHACEAE

Amaranthus hybridus L. (Slender pigweed; TAC 4220) is a native plant of eastern North America, Mexico, and northern South America and has become a naturalized weed in the Mediterranean region (Diggs et al. 1999). It has been collected from Eastland County in the WCT and its presence at Hunewell Ranch represents a northeastward range extension into the WCT.

FAMILY ASCLEPIADACEAE

Asclepias viridis Walter (Green milkweed; TAC 4230 ) is a native forb that occurs in east and southeast Texas as well as west in the West Cross Timbers and Edwards Plateau where it occurs on disturbed ground, prairies, ditch banks, and pastures and can become abundant in overgrazed areas (Diggs et al. 1999). Based on Turner et al. (2003a), this specimen represents a range extension for this species into the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY ASTERACEAE

Bidens frondosa L. (Beggar-ticks; TAC 4234) is a native forb that occurs in moist areas in east Texas west to the Rolling Plains and Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999). The nearest locality reported from the WCT is Parker County (Turner et al. 2003a) and its presence at Hunewell Ranch extends the range of this species southwest into the WCT.

Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. (Pieplant; TAC 4239) is a native forb that occurs along ditches, shorelines, and stream banks throughout Texas (Diggs et al. 1999). The nearest locality reported from the West Cross Timbers is Parker County (Turner et al. 2003a) and its presence at Hunewell Ranch extends the range of this species southwest into the WCT.

Erigeron modestus A. Gray (Plains fleabane; TAC 4241) is a common native plant that often inhabits gravelly or rocky limestone and occurs mostly south and west of the WCT into extreme west Texas (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The presence of this species at Hunewell Ranch extends the range of this plant into the southern portion of the WCT.

Gaillardia aestivalis (Walter) H. Rock var. aestivalis (Prairie gaillardia; TAG 4244) is a native forb that occurs in sandy open woods, prairies, and disturbed areas in East Texas, the WCT, and the Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999). The nearest locality reported from the West Cross Timbers is Parker County (Turner et al. 2003) and its presence at Hunewell Ranch extends the range of this species southwest into the WCT.

Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (L.) Hill. & Burtt. (Fragrant cupweed; TAC 4259) is a native forb that occurs in southeast and east Texas extending into the Edwards Plateau in wooded areas and roadsides with sandy soils (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The specimen collected from Hunewell Ranch would represent a range extension into the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY BORAGINACEAE

Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M. Johnst. (TAC 674), an introduced species originating in Europe, is often found in southeast and east Texas, the WCT, and the Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). It often occurs on ditch banks, roadsides, and other disturbed areas (Diggs et al. 1999). Its closest locality to Erath County is a relatively recent report from Eastland County (McPhail & Nelson 2005). The presence of this species in Erath County extends its range northeastward from Eastland County in the WCT.

FAMILY BRASSICACEAE

Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All. (TAG 4275) is a native of the Mediterranean region of Europe. It is a recent introduction to the United States and has apparently been increasing in abundance (Diggs et al 1999). It typically ranges across the Blackland Prairie, southeast and east Texas, and the Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003). The collection at Hunewell Ranch represents a major range extension north and west into the southwestern WCT. It is often in great abundance along the roadsides and disturbed fields in Erath County.

Thalspi arvense L. (Field pennycress; TAC 4278) is a native of Europe and occurs in the Edwards Plateau and the northeastern portion of the WCT, often inhabiting various types of soils in disturbed areas (Diggs et at. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The presence of this species at Hunewell Ranch expands its range into the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY CACTACEAE

Mammillaria heyderi Muehlenpf. (Flattened mammillaria; TAC 4279) typically inhabits limestone soils in prairie habitat and its range extends across southwest Texas into the Trans Pecos region and from south Texas, north into the Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The collection of this native cactus at Hunewell Ranch extends its range into the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY CAPRIFOLIACEAE

Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Japanese honeysuckle; TAC 4281), a native of Asia, is frequently cultivated and escapes becoming established in disturbed areas and woodland habitat across southeast and east Texas into the Rolling Plains and Edwards Plateau regions of Texas (Diggs ct al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The presence of this species at Hunewell Ranch extends its range into the southwestern WCT. This species could be problematic as it may become invasive in some ecosystems (Diggs et al. 1999).

FAMILY CHENOPODIACEAE

Chenopodium leptophyllum (Moq.) Nutt. ex S. Watson (slim-leaf goosefoot; TAG 4283) is a native forb that occurs mostly across the western portion of Texas (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The presence of this species at Hunewell Ranch would represent a major range extension into the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY CUSCUTACEAE

Cuscuta cuspidata Engelm. (Cusp dodder; TAC1406) is a native parasitic plant that occurs in the Edwards Plateau, East Cross Timbers. Panhandle, and the Rolling Plains regions of Texas (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The collection of this species at Hunewell Ranch extends the range of this species into the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY EUPHORBIACEAE

Chamaesyee prostrata (Aiton) Small (Prostrate euphorbia; TAC 4294) occurs along stream banks, prairies, and disturbed sites in clay soils throughout most of Texas (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The collection of this native species at Hunewell Ranch extends its range into the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY FABACEAE

Cercis canadensis L. var. canadensis (Eastern redbud; TAC 2375) is a native shrub or small tree that occurs on sandy or silty soils predominantly in northeastern Texas (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). Its collection from Hunewell Ranch serves as a major range extension into the southwestern WCT.

Lathyrus pusillus Elliott (Low peavine; TAC 4301) is a native legume that occurs in sandy and silty soils mostly in the southern one-half of Texas and the Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The presence of this species at Hunewell Ranch extends the range of this species into the southwestern WCT.

Mimosa strigillosa Torr. & A. Gray (Powderpuff; TAC 4304) is a native legume that occurs in southeast and east Texas to the coast, including the sourthern Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The specimen collected from at Hunewell Ranch extends its range into the southwestern WCT.

Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Coffee senna; TAC 4308), a native legume, occurs from the Edwards Plateau into southeast and east Texas in disturbed sites (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). Its collection at Hunewell Ranch extends its range into the WCT.

Vicia saliva L. (Narrow-leaf vetch; TAC 4310; 4312), introduced from the Mediterranean region of Europe, occurs in disturbed areas and its range extends from southeast and east Texas into the Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The presence of this species at Hunewell Ranch and a relatively recent report from Eastland County (McPhail & Nelson 2005) extends its range into the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY HYDROPHYLLACEAE

Phaceliapatuliflora (Engelm. & A. Gray) A. Gray var. teucrifolia (I.M. Johnst.) Constance (TAC 4313), a native forb, occurs in open woodlands of southeast Texas extending west and north into the Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The collection of this species from Hunewell Ranch would represent the first incidence of this variety in the WCT.

FAMILY IRIDACEAE

Sisyrinchium pruinosum E.P. Bicknell (Dotted blue-eyed grass; TAC 4314) is a common native plant occurring in prairies and disturbed areas across southeast and east Texas, the WCT, and the eastern Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003b). The presence of this species at Hunewell Ranch extends the range of this plant into the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY JUNCACEAE

Juncus bufonius L. (Toad rush; TAC 4317) is widespread, native rush found in damp soils throughout much of Texas including the Trans-Pecos, Edwards Plateau, and eastern Texas (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003b). The collection of this species from Hunewell Ranch extends the range of this species in the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY LAMIACEAE

Calamintha arkansana (Nutt.) Shinners (Ozark savory; TAC 2172) occurs on calcareous outcrops from east Texas, the Lampasas Cut Plain, and the Edwards Plateau (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). Its collection at Hunewell Ranch would represent the first incidence of this native species in the WCT.

Lycopus americanus Muhl. ex Barton (Virginia bugleweed; TAC 4324) is a native mint that occurs in low, wet, moist areas in the Panhandle, WCT, Lampasas Cut Plain, and the Edwards Plateau (Diggs ct al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The nearest locality to Erath County reported from within the WCT is Parker County and its presence at Hunewell Ranch extends the range of this species southwest into the WCT.

Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag. var. citriodora (Lemon bee-balm; TAC 4328) is a native mint that occurs in savannahs, prairies, and roadsides throughout Texas (Diggs et al. 1999). Turner et al. (2003a) reports only on a coastal variety, omitting the widespread typical variety. The specimen collected from Hunewell Ranch confirms the presence of the typical variety in the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY MALVACEAE

Sida abutifolia Mill. (Spreading sida; TAC 4336) is a widespread native occurring on rocky prairies, limestone outcrops, and roadsides across Texas, including the Trans-Pecos, Blackland Prairie, Edwards Plateau, WCT, and the East Cross Timbers (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). Our collection of this species at Hunewell Ranch extends its range into the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY ONAGRACEAE

Gauara longiflora Spach. (Tall guara; TAC 2879), a native forb, occurs mostly in the eastern one-half of Texas in open, disturbed habitats (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). Its presence at Hunewell Ranch would extend its range into the southwestern WCT.

Oenothera triloba W.L. Wagner (Evening-primrose; TAC 4342) is an endemic preferring open grasslands and disturbed habitat throughout much of Texas (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The presence of this species at Hunewell Ranch expands the range of this species in the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY RHAMNACEAE

Berchemia scandens (Hill) K. Koch (Supplejack; TAC 4352) inhabits woodland habitat in the eastern one-half of Texas (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The presence of this native species at Hunewell Ranch extends its range into the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY SCROPHULARIACEAE

Agalinus heterophylla (Nutt.) Small ex Britton (Prairie agalinis; TAC 4357) is a native forb occurring in prairies and open woodlands in the eastern one-half of Texas (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The nearest locality to Erath County reported from within the WCT is Parker County and its presence at Hunewell Ranch extends the range of this species into the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY TYPHACEAE

Typha latifolia (Cat-tail; TAC 370) ranges across most of Texas, usually inhabiting low, wet areas (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003b). Its collection at Hunewell Ranch confirms the presence of this native species in the southwestern WCT.

FAMILY ULMACEAE

Ulmus americana L. (American elm; TAC 4364) is a native tree that occurs in stream bottoms across most of Texas with the exclusion of the southern one-fourth of the state (Diggs et al. 1999; Turner et al. 2003a). The presence of this species in Erath County extends its range into the southwestern WCT.

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Jim Goetze for preparation of the figure and Tarleton State University Organized Faculty Research and the Department of Biological Sciences for partial funding of this project. Thanks are extended to Barney Lipscomb and Bob Lonard for critical reviews that improved the manuscript.

LITERATURE CITED

Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas-Research Foundation, Renner, Texas, 1083 pp.

Diggs, G. M., B. L. Lipscomb & R. J. O'Kennon. 1999. Shinners & Mahler's illustrated flora of North Central Texas. Botanical Research Institute of Texas. Fort Worth, Texas, 1626 pp.

Dyksterhuis, E. J. 1948. The vegetation of the western cross timbers. Ecological Monographs, 18:325-376.

Gough, L. C. 1923. The vascular plants of Erath County, not including Poales. Unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Texas, Arlington, 24 pp.

Hoagland. B. W., I. H. Butler, F. L. Johnson & S. Glenn. 1999. The Cross Timbers. Pp 231-245, in Savannahs, Barrens, and Rock Outcrop Plant Communities of North America. (R.C. Anderson, J.S. Fralish and J.M. Baskin eds.) Cambridge University Press, U.K.. 473 pp.

McPhail, S. & A. D. Nelson. 2005. Range extensions and county records for angiosperms from the southwestern Cross Timbers in Eastland County. Texas. Texas J. Sci.. 57(3):211-222.

Parker, J. 2001. Baseline inventory and key to the trees, shrubs, and woody vines on Tarleton State University's Hunewell Ranch, Erath County, Texas. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Tarleton State University. Stephenville, 144 pp.

Poole, J. M, W. R. Carr. D. M, Price & J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, 640 pp.

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 2009. Endangered and threatened plants in Texas and the United States. Austin. Texas. Available http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/endang plants/index.phtml. (Accessed: October 7, 2009).

Turner, B. L. H. Nichols, G. Denny & O. Doron. 2003a. Atlas of the vascular plants of Texas, Volume I. Fort Worth, Texas: Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 648 pp.

Turner, B. L., H, Nichols, G. Denny & O. Doron. 2003b. Atlas of the vascular plants of Texas, Volume II. Fort Worth, Texas: Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 240 pp.

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service. 2009. Texas State-listed Noxious Weeds. The PLANTS Database, National Plant Data Center. Baton Rouge, LA . Available http://plants.usda.gov (Accessed October 7, 2009).

Van Auken, O. W. & .J. K. Bush. 1988, Competition between Schizachyrium scoparhim and Prosopis glandulosa. Amer. J. Bot.. 75 (6):782-789.

Van Auken, O. W. 2000. Shrub invasions of North American scmiarid grasslands. Ann, Rev. Ecol. Syst., 31:197-215.

Vickery, .J. N. 1991. Juniper invasion of riparian habitats in the cross timbers of Texas, Unpublished M.S. thesis. Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX, 34 pp.

Wagner, B. J., J. R. Thomas, E. R. Harris. E. Deleon, C. G. Ford & J. D. Kelley. 1973. Soil Survey of Erath County, Texas. USPA, Soil Conservation Service, 82 pp.

ADN at: nelson@.tarleton.edu

S. Harsley and A. D. Nelson

Department of Biological Sciences, Box T-0100

Tarleton State University

Stephenville, Texas 76402
Table 1. Floral records for Erath County that have also been reported
from bordering counties (Turner et al. 2003a; 2003b) including Bosque
(B), Comanche (C), Eastland (E), Hamilton (Ha), Hood (Ho), Palo Pinto
(P), and Somervell (S). For species that have common names, they are
included in brackets. Plants that are native (N) to Texas, endemic to
Texas (E), and introduced (I) are indicated. Tarleton State University
herbarium (TAC) accession numbers are included.

Family/Species/Common name            Bordering Counties  N/E/I  TAC

Apiaceae

Chaerophyllum tainturieri Hook.       C, E, Ha            N      4222
[Chervil]

Cymopterus macrorhizus Buckley        E, Ha               N      3137
[Big-root wavewing]

Eryngium leavenworthii Torr. & A.     B, C, E, Ha, P      N      4224
Gray [Leavenworth's eryngo]

Sanicula canadensis L. [Canada        P                   N      4225
saniclc]

Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link         P                   I      3755
[Hedge-parsley]

Aquifoliaceae

Ilex decidua Walter [Deciduous        C, S                N      4228
holly]

Asteraceae

Ambrosia psiloslachya DC. [Western    B, C, E, Ha, P      N      4231
ragweed]

Baccharis texana (Torr. & A. Gray)    P                   N      4233
A. Gray [Prairie baccharis]

Chaetopappa asteroides Nutt. ex DC.   C, E, Ha, Ho, P     N      4235
[Common least daisy]

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist      C, Ho, B            N      4237
var. glabrata (A. Gray) Cronquist
[Horseweed]

Grindelia nuda A.W. Wood [Rayless     B, C, P             N      4245
gumweed]

Helenium elegans D.C. [Sneezeweed]    P                   N      4247

Helianthus annuus L. [Common          E, Ha               N      4248
sunflower]

Hymenopappus scabiosaeus L'Her. var.  C, E, Ha, P         N      4252
corymbosus Torr. & A. Gray) Turner
[Old-plainsman]

Packera tampicana (DC.) C. Jeffrey    C, E                N      4253
[Yellowtop]

Parthenium hysterophorus L. [ False   B, Ha               N      4254
ragweed]

Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. [Canela]   C                   N      4257

Pyrrhopappus grandiflonts (Nutt.)     C, E                N      4261
Nutt. [Tuber false dandelion]

Senecio ampullaceus Hook. [Texas      C                   E      4262
groundsel]

Tetraneuris linearifolia (Hook.)      P                   N      4266
Greene

Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth.   c                   N      4267
& Hook. ex A. Gray [Cowpen daisy]

Xanthium strumarium L. var.           E, P, S             N      4268
canadense (Mill.) Torr. & A. Gray
[Cocklebur]

Brassicaceae

Lesquerella densiflora (A. Gray) S.   B, C, E, Ho, P, S   E      1374
Watson [Dense-flower bladderpod]

L. recurvata (Engelm. ex A. Gray) S.  B, Ha, Ho, S        E      4273
Watson [Slender bladderpod]

Campanulaceae

Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl.     E,Ha                N      4280
var. biflora (Ruiz & Pav.) T.R.
Bradley [Clasping
venus-looking-glass]

Commelinaceae

Tradescantia occidental is (Britton)  C, E, Ha, P         N      4284
Smyth [Prairie Spiderwort]

Convolvulaceae

Convolvulus equitans Benth. [Gray     C, E, Ha, P         1      4288
bindvvced]

Cupressaceae

Juniperus pinchotii Sudw. [Red-berry  B,S                 N      4290
juniper]

Cuscutaceae

Cuscuta indecora Choisy var.          C                   N      4292
indecora [Showy dodder]

Euphorbiaceae

Chamaesyce geyeri (Engelm.) Small     Ho                  N      4293
[Geyer's euphorbia]

Fabaceae

Dalea aurea Nutt. ex Pursh [Golden    C, E, Ha, P         N      4295
dalea]

D. compacta Spreng. var.pubescens     C, E                N      2395
(A. Gray) Barneby [Showy
prairie-clover]

D. multiflora (Nutt.) Shinners        B, C, E, Ha, Ho     N      2408
[Round-head dalea]

D. tenuis (J.M. Coult.) Shinners      B, C, Ha, Ho, P     E      4297
[Prairie-clover]

Desmodium paniculatum (L.)            P                   N      4299
D.C.

[Panicled tick-clover]
Lespedeza texana Britton [Texas       Ho, S               N      2449

bush-clover]
Prosopis glandulosa Torr. [Honey      C                   N      4305

mesquite]

Hydrophyllaceae
Phacelia strictiflora (Engelm. & A.   C, E, Ho, S         N      2080
Gray) A. Gray var. lundelliana

Constance

Iridaceae
Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill.      Ha                  N      2094

[Bermuda blue-eyed-grass]

Juglandaceae
Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K.     B                   N      4316

Koch [Pecan]

Juncaceae
Juncus torreyi Coville [Torrey's      C                   N      4319

rush]

Krameriaceae
Krameria lanceolata Torr. [Trailing   B, E, Ha, P         N      4322

ratany]

Lamiaceae
Monarda fistulosa L. var. mollis      P                   N      4331

(L.) Benth. [Wild bergamot]

Lentibulariaceae
Urticularia gibba L. [Cone-spur       P                   N      4332

bladderwort]

Liliaceae
Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britton     C, E, Ha, S         N      4333

[Crow-poison]

Nyctaginaceae
Mirabilis linearis (Pursh) Heimerl    E                   N      4337

[Linear-leaf four-o-clock]

Oleaceae
Forestiera pubescens Nutt. var.       B, Ho, P            N      4338

pubescens [Spring-herald]

Onagraceae
Gauara brachycarpa Small [Plains      Ho                  N      4340

gauara]

Papaveraceae
Argemone albiflora Hornem. subsp.     s                   N      4343
texana G.B. Ownbey [White

prickly-poppy]

Polygonaceac
Eriogonum annuum Nutt. [Annual wild   C, E, P             N      4347

buckwheat]
Polygonum amphibium L. var. emersum   C                   N      4346

Michx. [Water smartweed]

Ranunculaceae
Anemone berlandieri PritZ.            B, E. Ha, S         N      4350

[Ten-petal anemone]
Ranunculus sceleratus L. [Blister     Ha                  N      4351

buttercup]

Rosaceae
Rubus oklahomus L.H. Bailey           P                   N      4355

[Dewberry]

Sapotaceae
Sideroxylon lanugisonum Michx.        B,C                 N      4356
subsp. oblongifolium (Nutt.) T.D,

Perm. [Chittamwood]

Scrophulariaceae
Castilleja indivisa Engelm. [Texas    Ha                  N      4359

paintbrush]
Leucospora multifida (Michx.) Nutt.   P, S                N      4360

[Narrow-leaf conobea]
Nuttallanthus texanus (Scheele) D.A.  B, C, P, S          N      4358

Sutton [Texas toad-flax]

Solanaceae
Datura wrightii Regel [Sacred         Ha, Ho              N      4362

datura]

Urticaceae
Parietaria pensylvanica Muhl. ex      S                   N      4366
Willd. var. pensylvanica

[Pennsylvania pellitory]

Verbenaceae
Verbena canescens Kunth [Gray         C, Ha, S            N      4367

vervain]

Viscaceae
Phorodendron tomentosum (DC.)         C                   N      4370

Engelm. ex A. Gray [Mistletoe]

Vitaceae
Cissus incisa Des Moul. [Cowitch]     Ho, S               N      4372
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