Abstract.-This study provides an update to the endemic biota of
Arkansas by adding 19 species to the state list, including two fungi,
three gastropods, one araneid, two opilionids, two pseudoscorpions, one
diplopod, three collembolans, two trichopterans, one coleopteran, one
dipteran and one hymenopteran. In addition, seven species (one
pseudoscorpion, one collembolan, one bivalve, one ephemeropteran, and
three trichopterans) are removed from the state list and a synthesis of
new distributional records and changes in nomenclature are provided for
several species. This update brings to 126 the number of endemic species
of the state.
Robison et al. (2008) provided the most recent compilation on the
endemic biota of Arkansas. Their update brought to 113 (10 species of
plants and 103 species/subspecies of animals) the total number of
Arkansas endemic flora and fauna. However, several species were
inadvertently overlooked. The following 19 species are added to the list
of Arkansas endemics: two fungi, three gastropods, one araneid, two
opilionids, two pseudoscorpions, one diplopod, three collembolans, two
trichopterans, one coleopteran, one dipteran, and one hymenopteran. In
addition, seven species (one pseudoscorpion, one collembolan, one
bivalve, one ephemeropteran, and three trichopterans) are removed from
the state list; a synthesis of new distributional records are added for
two gastropods, one coleopteran, and one amphibian, and changes in
nomenclature are provided for three gastropods and two coleopterans.
This update brings to 126 the number of endemic species of the state.
LIST OF SPECIES
Material included.-The following is a listing of the species added
(Table 1) and removed from the state endemic list, including a synthesis
of new distributional records and changes in nomenclature for other
Additions to the State Endemic Fauna
Fungi, Mycetozoa, Dictyosteliaceae
Dictyostelium caveatum Waddell 1982
This cellular slime mold was described by Waddell (1982) from a
single isolate found on bat guano in total darkness in Blanchard Springs
Caverns, Stone County, Arkansas. It is considered to be a true Arkansas
endemic found in a single Ozark cave to date (Landolt et al. 2006).
Cryptovalsaria americana Vasilyeva & Stephenson 2007
This fungus was described by Vasilyeva & Stephenson (2007) from
specimens collected from the Ouachita Mountains Biological Station, 6.5
km west of Big Fork, Polk County, Arkansas. Collections of C. americana
were taken from the living bark of hazel alder (Alnus serrulata).
Animalia, Mollusca, Gastropoda, Polygyridae
Daedalochila (syn. Millerelix) bisontes Coles & Walsh 2006
The Buffalo River liptooth, Daedalochila bisontes was previously
thought to be D. (Millerelix) peregrina from specimens deposited in the
Causey collection at the University of Arkansas-Fayetteville and the
Hubricht collection at the Field Museum of Natural History-Chicago
(Coles & Walsh 2006). It is considered imperiled (G2) in rounded
global status (NatureServe 2009). The species inhabits limestone
outcrops in the Ozarks, including Madison, Newton, and Searcy counties
(Walsh & Coles 2002; Coles & Walsh 2006).
Xolotrema occidentale (Pilsbry & Ferriss 1907)
The Arkansas wedge, Xolotrema occidentale (syn. Triodopsis
occidentalis) is known only from Independence and Stone counties,
Arkansas (Pilsbry & Ferriss 1907; Walsh & Coles 2002). This
snail is considered critically imperiled (G1) in rounded global status
by NatureServe (2009) and a species of special concern in the state by
the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission (Anonymous 2004).
Marstonia ozarkensis (Hinkley 1915)
The Ozark pyrg, Marstonia ozarkensis (formerly Pyrgulopsis
ozarkensis) is known only from the type locality, the North Fork of the
White River above Norfolk, Baxter County, Arkansas (Hershler 1994).
Thompson & Hershler (2002) re-evaluated eastern North American
species assigned to Pyrgulopsis and recognized them as distinct species
of the genus Marstonia. Interestingly, Wu et al. (1997) lists a single
site on the North Fork of the White River in Ozark County, Missouri for
M. ozarkensis. However, efforts to relocate this species beyond the
single reported location in Missouri have been unsuccessful (Natureserve
2009). This snail has also likely been extirpated in Arkansas (Wu et al.
1997). It is considered G1 in rounded global status (NatureServe 2009)
and a species of special concern in Arkansas (Anonymous 2004).
Arthropoda, Araneae, Leptonetidae
Neoleptoneta arkansa (Gertsch 1974)
This troglophilic spider was described by Gertsch (1974) from
Blanchard Springs Caverns, Stone County, Arkansas. Dorris (1985)
included the species as Leptoneta arkansa in her checklist of Arkansas
Crosbyella distincta Goodnight & Goodnight 1942
This harvestman (an eyeless obligate cavernicole) was described by
Goodnight & Goodnight (1942) from specimens collected in
Wagler's Cave near Harrison, Boone County, Arkansas. It is
considered critically imperiled (S1) in the state (NatureServe 2009).
Crosbyella roeweri Goodnight & Goodnight 1942
This harvestman species was described by Goodnight & Goodnight
(1942). Specimens were collected in Tom Danforth Cave, Benton County,
Arkansas. This is an eyed troglophile that is considered S1 in Arkansas
Apochthonius diabolus Muchmore 1967
Muchmore (1967) described A. diabolus from a single male specimen
from Devil's Den Cave at Devil's Den State Park, Washington
County, Arkansas. This obligate cavernicole is considered S1 in the
state (NatureServe 2009).
Apochthonius titanicus Muchmore 1976
This pseudoscorpion was described by Muchmore (1976) from
individuals collected from Blanchard Springs Caverns, 5.6 km east of
Fifty Six, Stone County, Arkansas. Specimens were found under a piece of
paper near "The Titans". This obligate cavernicole is
considered S1 in Arkansas (NatureServe 2009).
Diplopoda, Julida, Parajulidae
Aliulus carrollus Causey 1950
This milliped was included as a state endemic by Robison &
Allen (1995) but inadvertently overlooked and not included by Robison et
al. (2008). The species was reported by Robison & Allen (1995) from
Carroll and Washington counties. However, additional specimens have been
reported from Benton and Searcy counties (Hoffman 1999). The species may
eventually be found in adjacent states as the type locality (Blue
Spring, Carroll County) is just south of the Missouri line (Causey 1950)
and sites in Benton and Washington counties are close to eastern
Hexapoda, Collembola, Hypogastruridae
Typhlogastrura fousheensis Christiansen & Wang 2006
This springtail species was described by Christiansen & Wang
(2006) from Foushee Cave, Independence County, Arkansas. A single adult
was collected by Norman and Jean Youngsteadt in May 1978. Additional
adult specimens were collected 27 years later by the same collectors
from bat guano in the same cave on 18 March 2005 (Christiansen &
Pygmarrhopalites youngsteadtii Zeppelini, Taylor & Slay 2009
Specimens of this springtail species were collected from Tom Barnes
Cave, Newton County, Arkansas (Zeppelini et al. 2009). This cave is
located in the Ozarks within the Buffalo National River.
Pygmarrhopalites buffaloensis Zeppelini, Taylor & Slay 2009
The holotype was collected from Walnut Cave, Newton County,
Arkansas (Zeppelini et al. 2009). This cave is located near the Buffalo
River, about 26 km upstream from the cave where P. youngsteadtii was
Cheumatopsyche robisoni Moulton & Stewart 1996
This caddisfly was described by Moulton & Stewart (1996) from
specimens collected from Strawn Spring, 0.8 km east of Caddo Gap,
Montgomery County, Arkansas. Additional specimens of C. robisoni were
collected from other sites in Garland, Montgomery and Polk counties,
Arkansas (Moulton & Stewart 1996). It appears this species is
endemic to small, spring-fed streams in the Ouachita Mountain
physiographic subregion. With additional collecting, C. robisoni may be
found just across the border in LeFlore County, Oklahoma (along Rich
Mountain) as specimens are available from sites just to the east. This
species is considered critically imperiled (G1) in rounded global status
Lepidostoma lescheni Bowles, Mathis & Weaver 1994
A single male L. lescheni was collected from Slocum Spring on Mt.
Magazine, Logan County, Arkansas, and described by Bowles et al. (1994).
Additional specimens (both males and females) were collected from
several sites in seep locations in the central Ouachita Mountain region
of the state in Montgomery County (Moulton et al. 1999). A report
(Weaver 2002) of the species from Missouri and Oklahoma is erroneous (S.
R. Moulton II pers. comm.). However, additional collecting may reveal
populations in similar seep areas of eastern Oklahoma. This species is
considered G1 in rounded global status (NatureServe 2009).
Heterosternuta ouachitus (Matta &Wolfe 1979)
The species was originally described as Hydroporus ouachitus by
Matta & Wolfe (1979). The subgenus Heterosternuta was elevated to
generic status by Matta & Wolfe (1981). The species was originally
reported from sites in the Ouachita Mountains (Matta & Wolfe 1981).
However, Pippenger & Harp (1985) reported the range of H. ouachitus
reaches into the Ozark Mountains (Janes Creek, Randolph County). More
recently, Harp & Robison (2006) reported H. ouachitus from the
Strawberry River system in Izard and Sharp counties. Additional
specimens were reported from Long Creek (Searcy County), Beech Creek
(Newton County), and West Lafferty Creek (Izard County) by Longing &
Haggard (2009). Interestingly, Wolfe (2000) mentioned in couplets of
keys to Heterosternuta beetles, H. ouachitus probably occurs outside of
Arkansas; however, specimens have not yet been collected from adjacent
states or elsewhere (S. D. Longing, pers. comm.). The species is
considered imperiled (S2) in the state (NatureServe 2009).
Atomosia arkansensis Barnes 2008
This robber fly was described by Barnes (2008) from specimens
collected in blackland prairie at Grandview Prairie Wildlife Management
Area near Columbus, Hempstead County, Arkansas. The species is ranked S1
in the state (NatureServe 2009) due to its limited range.
Idris leedsi Masner & Denis 1996
A parasitoid wasp, Idris leedsi was described from a single female
collected using yellow pan traps from Baker Spring, 35.4 km NW of
Clarksville, Johnson County, Arkansas (Masner & Denis 1996).
Scelionids are solitary primary parasitoids of eggs of various spiders
Species Removed from the State Endemic Fauna
Villosa arkansasensis (Lea 1862)
The Ouachita creekshell was reported to be an Arkansas endemic by
Robison & Allen (1995) from Clark, Garland, Howard, Montgomery,
Pike, Polk and Saline counties. In addition, it was subsequently listed
as an endemic by Robison et al. (2008). However, Galbraith et al. (2008)
report specimens of V. arkansasensis from the Little River system of
McCurtain County, Oklahoma. It is a species of special concern in
Arkansas (Anonymous 2004).
Tartarocreagris ozarkensis (Hoff 1945)
This pseudoscorpion was described as Microcreagis ozarkensis by
Hoff (1945) from specimens collected from Devil's Den State Park
and Farmington, Washington County, Arkansas (Hoff 1945). The species
(=M. ozarkensis) was included as an Arkansas endemic by Allen (1988),
Robison & Allen (1995) and Robison et al. (2008). It is now known
from additional localities in Arkansas (Clark and Pulaski counties) and
Latimer County, Oklahoma (Muchmore 2001), and is ranked S1 in the state
Pseudosinella dubia Christiansen 1960
Christiansen (1960) described this troglobitic springtail from
specimens collected from Devil's Den Kitchen Cave, Devil's Den
Cave, and Granny Dean Cave, Washington County, Arkansas. It was again
reported from Devil's Den Cave by Peck & Peck (1982).
Subsequently, the species was reported from a cave in Dent County,
Missouri, and a cave in Adair County, Oklahoma (Slay et al. 2009).
Dannella provonshai (McCafferty 1977)
This mayfly was originally described by McCafferty (1977) from
specimens collected on the Mulberry River, Johnson County, Arkansas.
Robison & Allen (1995) reported it was known only from the type
locality and Robison et al. (2008) included D. provonshai in their list
of endemics. However, the species has now been reported from Alabama,
Kentucky, New York, and Tennessee (McCafferty & Webb 2006;
NatureServe 2009; Ogden et al. 2009). In Arkansas, D. provonshai is
ranked S1 (NatureServe 2009).
Helicopsyche limnella Ross 1938
Ross (1938) originally described this caddisfly from an unknown
Arkansas county. Unzicker et al. (1970) listed seven sites for H.
limnella in Benton, Crawford, Madison, and Washington counties. Robison
& Allen (1995) included Benton, Clark, Crawford, Franklin, Garland,
Hot Spring, Johnson, Madison, Montgomery, Polk, Saline, and Washington
counties in the range of H. limnella. The species was also included in
the Arkansas endemic biota list of Robison et al. (2008). However, H.
limnella has now been reported from Missouri and Oklahoma (Moulton &
Ochrotrichia robisoni Frazer & Harris 1991
This microcaddisfly species was described by Frazer & Harris
(1991) from specimens collected from Bear Creek at St. Hwy 7, 3.2 km
south of Hollis, Perry County, Arkansas. The species is S1 in Arkansas
(NatureServe 2009) and has been reported recently from Oklahoma (Moulton
& Stewart 1996).
Paduniella nearctica Flint 1967
This caddisfly was originally described from specimens collected
from Devil's Den State Park, Washington County, Arkansas (Flint
1967); additional records include Johnson County, Arkansas (Moulton
& Stewart 1996). As such, it was included as a state endemic species
by Robison & Allen (1995) and Robison et al. (2008). However, P.
nearctica has now been reported from southern Missouri (Moulton &
New Distributional Records and/or Changes in Nomenclature
Daedalochila (syn. Millerelix) peregrina (Rehder 1932)
The White Liptooth was reported as Polygyra peregrina in Robison
& Allen (1995) and Robison et al. (2008). However, Coles & Walsh
(2006) found that the diagnostic characters used to define the genus
Millerelix sensu Emberton (1995) were unreliable and placed member
species into the senior genus Daedalochila Beck. The species is known
from Izard, Marion, Newton, Searcy and Stone counties (Robison &
Smith 1982). Walsh & Coles (2002) reported D. peregrina from Carroll
County. This snail is G2 in rounded global status (NatureServe 2009) and
a species of special concern in Arkansas (Anonymous 2004).
Patera clenchi (Rehder 1932)
The Calico Rock oval, P. clenchi was reported by Hubricht (1972)
only from a rock slide on Mt. Nebo, Yell County, Arkansas. Robison &
Smith (1982), Robison & Allen (1995) and Robison et al. (2008)
reported P. clenchi as Mesodon clenchi from Izard and Yell counties.
Walsh & Coles (2002) reported two new distributional records for P.
clenchi in Searcy and Scott counties. It is considered G1 in rounded
global status (NatureServe 2009) and a species of special concern in the
state (Anonymous 2004).
Inflectarius magazinensis (Pilsbry & Ferriss 1907)
This Magazine Mountain shagreen is only known to occur on the north
slope of Mt. Magazine in the Ozark National Forest of Logan County,
Arkansas (Pilsbry & Ferriss 1907). It was listed as an Arkansas
endemic by Robison & Smith (1982), Robison & Allen (1995) and
Robison et al. (2008) as Mesodon magazinensis. Caldwell (1986) was
unable to verify I. magazinensis from the south slope of Mt. Magazine;
however, additional specimens were reported from the north slope by
Walsh & Coles (2002). Its limited range makes it particularly
sensitive to any habitat alteration and it is therefore listed as S1 in
Arkansas (NatureServe 2009), as an endangered species in the state
(Anonymous 2004), and as a threatened species by the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service on 17 April 1989 (Anonymous 1989).
Heterosternuta sulphuria (Matta & Wolfe 1979)
This predaceous diving beetle was originally described as
Hydroporus sulfurus by Matta & Wolfe (1979) and included as an
Arkansas endemic by Robison & Allen (1995). The subgenus
Heterosternuta was elevated to the generic level by Matta & Wolfe
(1981). Specimens of this endemic species were originally collected from
Sulphur Springs, Benton County, Arkansas (Matta & Wolfe 1979).
Additional historical records include sites in Izard, Newton, and Searcy
counties. More recently, however, Longing & Haggard (2009) reported
new distributional records for H. sulphuria in Benton, Newton, and
Washington counties, including the first report of the species from the
entrance of a cave. With additional collecting, this dytiscid may
eventually be found outside of Arkansas in adjacent states (S. D.
Longing, pers. comm.).
Chordata, Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae
Plethodon caddoensis Pope & Pope 1951
The Caddo Mountain salamander, Plethodon caddoensis was reported to
be an Arkansas endemic in Howard, Montgomery, and Polk counties (Robison
& Allen 1995). Trauth & Wilhide (1999) reported new geographic
records for P. caddoensis from two sites in Pike County. This salamander
is considered a species of special concern in the state (Anonymous
In summary, the present study brings to 126 species the number of
endemic biota of Arkansas. Nineteen species have been added to the state
list since the last update in 2008. In addition, seven species (one
pseudoscorption, one springtail, one bivalve, one ephemeropteran, and
three caddisflies) are removed from the state list and a synthesis of
new distributional records is added for two endemic gastropods, one
endemic coleopteran, and one endemic amphibian. Changes in nomenclature
are provided for three endemic gastropods and two endemic coleopterans.
Appreciation is extended to D. Bowles (National Park Service), G.
L. Harp (Arkansas State University), G. Leeds (U. S. Forest Service), S.
D. Longing (UA-Fayetteville), J. C. Morse (Clemson University), S. R.
Moulton, II (U.S. Geological Survey), F. Spiegel (UA-Fayetteville), S.
Stephenson (UA-Fayetteville), and J. S. Weaver, III (New Hampshire) for
providing information on Arkansas endemics. We also thank S. R. Moulton,
II for critically reviewing the manuscript. Funding for MES was provided
by the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, The Nature Conservancy
(Arkansas Field Office), and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Arkansas
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Pygmarrhopalites Vargovitsh, 2009 (Collembola, Symphypleona,
Arrhopalatidae) in United States. Zootaxa, 2204:1-8.
Chris T. McAllister, Henry W. Robison and Michael E. Slay
RapidWrite, 102 Brown Street, Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas
71913 Department of Biology, Southern Arkansas University Magnolia,
Arkansas 71754 and The Nature Conservancy, 601 North University Avenue
Little Rock, Arkansas 72205
CTM at: email@example.com
Table 1. Biota added to the state list of endemic species of Arkansas
and counties of occurrence.
Taxon County/Counties Reference
Dictyostelium Stone Landolt et al.
Cryptovalsaria Polk Vasilyeva &
Daedalochila Madison, Newton, Searcy Coles & Walsh
Xolotrema Independence, Stone Walsh & Coles
Marstonia ozarkensis Baxter Hershler
Neoleptoneta arkansa Stone Gertsch (1974)
Crosbyella distincta Boone Goodnight &
Crosbyella roeweri Benton Goodnight &
Apochthonius Washington Muchmore
Apochthonius Stone Muchmore
Aliulus carrollus Benton, Carroll, Searcy, Hoffman (1999)
Typhlogastrura Independence Christiansen &
fousheensis Wang (2006)
Pygmarrhopalites Newton Zeppelini et
youngsteadti al. (2009)
Pygmarrhopalites Newton Zeppelini et
buffaloensis al. (2009)
Cheumatopsyche Garland, Montgomery, Polk Moulton &
robisoni Stewart (1996)
Lepidostoma lescheni Logan, Montgomery Moulton et al.
Heterosternuta Howard, Izard, Newton, Pike, Longing &
ouachitus Randolph, Searcy, Sharp * Hazzard (2009)
Atomosia arkansensis Hempstead Barnes (2008)
Idris leedsi Johnson Masner & Denis
* There are natural heritage records that also exist for Johnson and
Pope counties (NatureServe 2009).