Creative Thinking in Business Organizations
Creativity has not been well defined as an operational component of
decision making in business organizations. It has been described as: the
act of awakening new thoughts, of rearranging old learning, and of
examining assumptions to form new theories, new paradigms, and new
awareness. The creative act is not an "act of creation" in the
sense of the Old Testament; it does not create something out of nothing
. Rather, it is the process of uncovering, selecting, reshuffling,
and synthesizing one's inventory of facts, ideas, and skills. The
more familiar the parts, the more striking the new whole. Ackoff and
Vergara defined creativity as:
... the ability of a subject in a choice situation to
modify self-imposed constraints so as to enable
him to select or produce courses of action or
produce outcomes that he would not otherwise
select or produce, and are more efficient or
valuable to him than any he would otherwise
have chosen [1, p. 9].
Creativity is any form of action that leads to results that are
novel, useful, and predictable. It is seeing analogies where no one else
sees them. It is a means of testing hidden assumptions and thereby
opening oneself or one's organization to needed changes. Creativity
and innovation are becoming extremely important to the success of all
business organizations because we are facing major and rapid changes in
the environment. We can foresee increases in the number of older
citizens, consolidation of the European market, energy shortages,
changes in workers' needs, and revolutions in fundamental
technologies just to name a few. To cope effectively with change,
organizations must become more innovative, developing the ability to
quickly plan and implement adaptions to change in their environments.
Arthur D. Little found in a survey of 1,000 Chief Executive Officers
that 92 percent considered innovation to be critical to the success of
their organizations .
Raudsepp proposes that a direct link exists between creativity and
important organizational outcomes such as productivity and quality
enhancement because creative thinking increases the quality of solutions
to organizational problems, helps stimulate profitable innovations,
revitalizes motivation, upgrades personal skills, and catalyzes
effective team performance . Evans points to the tendency in the
academic environment to overlook training in creative thinking. Due to
the evaluative nature of the university system, most students work their
way through the educational process without being taught some of the
basic skills for stimulating their own creative solutions for the myriad
problems they encounter in their jobs . That leaves such training to
the Human Resource Development Departments in most corporations. If a
worker's creative potential is not developed by internal training,
it is unlikely to be tapped in any other source.
It is obvious that the success of businesses in the rapidly
changing future will be determined by their ability to become more
creative. In order to achieve this outcome, creative thinking must be
designed into their human resource development programs and instilled in
their planning systems. After a discussion of the creative process, the
remainder of this article will focus on accomplishment of these two
The Creative Process
There are five basic steps in the creative process:
* Preparation. The first step requires a thorough
investigation to ensure that all parts of a problem
are understood fully. During the preparation
stage, one observes, searches for and
collects an inventory of facts and ideas, and
thinks freely. * Concentration. In this step, personal or
energies and resources are focused on
solving the problem, and a commitment is
made to find and implement a solution. * Incubation. During the
incubation step, there is
an internalization and a subconscious ordering
of gathered information. This may involve a
significant struggle - a subconscious conflict
between what is currently accepted as reality
and what may be possible. The creative thinker
must relax, sometimes distancing oneself from
the problem, and allow the subconscious to
search for possible solutions. A successful
incubation can lead to a harvesting of fresh ideas
and new ways of thinking about a problem. * Illumination (or the
Eureka connection). This is
the moment of discovery, the instant of solution
recognition as when Archimedes climbed into
his bath and observed the water overflowing the
tub. The mind connects a problem with a solution
through an observation or occurrence. * Verification. The last step
involves testing the
solution or idea. The creator seeks corroboration
and acceptance of the new approach.
This process can lead to various types of creativity. First, there
is innovation or an original approach to a problem. Innovation involves
seeing the obvious before anyone else does. McDonald's entry into a
new market, fast food, is an example. Second, there is synthesis or the
combining of existing ideas from various sources into a new whole. A
number of organizations have expanded their markets by synthesizing new
services that they could offer in order to complement their existing
product lines. Third, extension involves expanding an idea to another
application. Fast food restaurants' success with the "drive
through" concept was extended to the banking as well as other
service industries. Fourth, there is the simple form of creative thought
termed duplication or the copying of good ideas from others. For
instance, the proliferation of fast food establishments that duplicated
the McDonald's concept with a minor differentiation of products or
A flexible, creative mind is an invaluable tool, a highly prized
and useful instrument that feeds one's beliefs in things not
proven, fosters one's faith in the unseen, and provides a gateway
for tapping personal potential. Previous writers have attempted to
demonstrate that creative thinking, like any other skillful activity
such as playing golf or sewing a dress, can be taught by stressing a few
basic approaches that have been recognized as effective by successful
creators and, very importantly, practiced to develop a facile talent
useful for problem solving in any field, business included [2,4,7,9,10].
To explore methods of training in creative thinking for business
decisions makers, a classic framework of business decision situations
will be reviewed and the role of creative thinking in each situation
will be discussed. Several approaches for stimulating creative thinking
for each type of business decision process will be presented in an
attempt to provide a modicum of guidance through the first few unsure
steps of introducing a part of oneself to the resolution of encountered
Thompson and Tuden proposed that decision issues involve two major
dimensions: agreement on goals (what to do) and agreement on
cause/effect relationships that will accomplish goals (how to do it)
. Though each dimension can assume a large range of values, for
simplicity each is dichotomized in their framework to distinguish
between high and low agreement among the many decision makers in the
organization, as shown in Figure 1 below. According to Thompson and
Tuden, there are four strategies appropriate for the four types of
decision issues: computation, judgment, compromise or negotiation, and
TABLE : Figure 1
Relationships (How to Do it?)
Low Judgment Inspiration
Computational strategy is appropriate when there is high agreement
in an organization regarding both goals and cause/effect relations. In
such an instance, decisions become fairly technical or mechanical
matters. This is what has been termed "programmed decision
making" and often is the kind of problem solving business education
programs tend to emphasize, making their graduates adept at commonly
necessary and useful tasks such as setting up automated systems to
reorder inventoried items or to achieve the optimization of variables
such as profit or output per hour.
In computational decision making, creativity takes several forms.
The problem solver must be capable of recognizing a business problem,
formulating or defining the problem, applying an appropriate technique
to identify a solution, and finally, implementing the solution in the
working organization. The concepts are illustrated in Figure 2 on page
TABLE : Figure 2
Problem recognition calls for a creative talent frequently
overlooked by business persons, the ability to differentiate the
important from the mundane, and the accompanying boldness to ignore
trivial problems while broader problems are searched for, investigated,
and solved. Here, the creative challenge is to recognize and apply
limited organizational resources toward only a few important problems
and to assign lower priority to the many trivial matters. All problems
are not created equal. Expanding one's view of the business as a
complex system of numerous, interrelated activities and digging for the
roots of the "surface" problem is a creative talent that
separates the effective business person from the overwhelmed fire
Formulating computational problems is a process of translation. The
decision maker must express the real world problem in another form,
commonly a mathematical one, in order to develop a solution. This
translation activity is enhanced by a knowledge of mathematical tools,
such as diagramming, graphing, picturing, and expressing relationships
in terms of known and unknown variables. Effective computational problem
solving requires considerable training in mathematical principles, and
the most powerful way to prepare to be a creative problem solver is to
build a solid foundation in the mathematical sciences. Applications of
management science and operations research techniques are well covered
in business schools, possibly to the unfortunate exclusion of creative
approaches of other types of decisions yet to be discussed. For an
excellent discussion on the incorporation of creative thinking to
management science/operations research topics, see Evans .
Problem recognition is a process of conditioning and sensitization.
What appears to be a problem to one individual may not be noticed by
another. To sharpen problem recognition skills, trainees can be
instructed to find and describe five problems commonly encountered in
their everyday work routine, write them down in a succint but
descriptive manner (e.g., on a 3x5 index card), and bring them to the
next training session.
Once collected, these problems can be used to sharpen another
necessary skill - separating the important from the trivial. Each
problem collector can arrange the five recognized problems in order of
perceived importance and share problem sets with a group of three or
four other participants to obtain their impressions of the proposed
prioritization. Feedback to the problem originator can also include the
clarity of problem definition. Often a group member's demand to
restate an unclear problem can lead the originator to see a new solution
(or a new problem) that had not previously been noticed.
A second stimulant to creative thinking concerning computational
problems is perhaps the simplest of all - practice. Enjoyable mental
exercise in the form of puzzles or games can aid a trainee in developing
different approaches for problem solutions. Spending the first few
minutes of a class on a short puzzle not only stimulates the receptive
student, but also sharpens mental skills, such as converting a problem
to a picture or diagram. Puzzles can also encourage students to learn
useful shortcuts that can help them "think on their feet." The
literature is replete with useful puzzles. A few examples are:
* A golfer's errant shot has landed inside a paper
bag. How can it be freed without touching the
bag or ball? (Answer: don't think about removing
the ball, consider removing the bag - burn
it.) * Consider an ordinary watermelon. Make a list
of 20 imaginative and widely disparate uses for
this fruit. This is an example of divergent
thinking, spreading out one's thought processes
to create as many alternatives to a problem as
possible - like a prism spreading out a single
beam of white light into an array of colors. * Think of two
seemingly different objects (like
the North Star and a piece of chalk) and connect
them with a stream of logical relationships.
This is an example of convergent thinking, concentrating
wild ideas toward a single objective
like a magnifying glass concentrating normal
sunlight into a single intense beam.
When cause/effect relationships are uncertain but goals are clear,
problems are solved based on the judgment of decision makers. Here,
further data collection, experimentation, or trial-and-error approaches
may enhance the decision maker's ability to judge the probability
of success of various solutions and make a reasonable, if not best,
choice. Marketing research concerned with identifying a saleable product
design is an example of this category of decision approach.
To effectively approach decisions which require judgment, the
problem solver can best become familiar with a variety of conceptual
tools, which can include practical, everyday living type of knowledge
gained from familiarity with hardware stores, lumber yards, sewing and
craft shops, etc. as well as more formalized tools and strategies
obtained from books and experienced co-workers. These can include
scientific and mathematical knowledge, ideas and practices from
engineering, political and military endeavors, social and economic
sciences, art and music and on to less formalized, sometimes outrageous
approaches including those derived from astrology, black magic, and
Anything that is of interest to any sector of humanity can be a
stimulus and a source of excitement to the curiosity of a good
judgmental problem solver because, without the solid footing established
by well developed cause/effect relationships, the problem solver must
make his or her own way toward the desired goal.
The use of analogies can enhance a creative thinker's personal
judgment by applying to current problems the knowledge gained through
past experiences. Trainees may write down the three things they know
best or enjoy most from their life experiences - playing basketball,
going to the beach, or eating a bagel. Then, presented with a problem
solving task, they apply the general principles of the familiar activity
to the new problem to extract an answer.
* Task: In 50 words or less describe the
* Solution: Life is like a bagel. It is delicious
Analogies with nature are frequently useful. Take the problem of
packaging potato chips. What in nature is similar to a potato chip? A
leaf, for one. Have you ever taken a stroll through the woods on a
pleasant autumn day? Dry leaves crumble under your feet like potato
chips. That's the problem. But wet leaves don't crumble, they
yield, compress, and remain whole. What if you formed still wet potato
chips into a uniform shape that permitted you to stack them neatly? An
entire bagful could be fit into a slender, protective canister. That, as
legend has it, was the origin of Pringles.
Brainstorming techniques utilizing groups of workers are frequently
useful to help introduce a variety of ideas to a given problem
situation. The group is presented with a problem and each individual is
asked to provide possible solutions. All criticism is suspended in the
first phase of the process. Any and all ideas are encouraged, accepted,
and recorded. In the second phase of the brainstorming process, all
ideas are evaluated by the group for feasibility and a final choice is
Compromise or Negotiation
When there is agreement among organization members regarding
cause/effect relationships but disagreement over goals, a compromise or
negotiation decision strategy is appropriate. In this situation, the
decision maker should be cognizant of the political and power
relationships inherent in the business and be capable of applying
interpersonal as well as analytical skills toward the development of
solutions acceptable to other organizational members who may be
motivated by different goals.
Examples of business negotiation scenarios are plentiful and range
from formal labor/management contract talks to bargaining with the boss
for an afternoon's vacation. For compromise or negotiation
situations, not only the analytical skills of the decision maker play a
part but also his or her interpersonal skills. The successful
compromiser should be capable of applying the creative skill of seeing a
situation from another's (or perhaps several others') point of
view. This is not an instinctive talent, but one that can be developed
by practicing "three dimensional sensitivity," which enables
the bargainer to empathize with negotiating partners, appreciate their
viewpoint, present personally preferred goals in a positive light from
their respective, and, in the most favorable of circumstances, develop
solutions that enable all negotiators to win in the bargaining process.
A useful approach to thinking more creatively in compromising or
negotiating situations involves Assumptional Analysis . It involves
the exposure and examination of different assumptions held by various
stakeholders in a situation. The process can be effective when
attempting to discover common ground among negotiating parties or at
least to understand why little common ground exists.
Socialized man is not an open minded thinker. Perceptual filters
develop as a result of social, religious, and cultural traditions as
well as experiences accumulated through living and working. The process
of learning, so helpful in most aspects of decision making, can also be
detrimental because it tends to narrow our view of a situation. We
develop a talent for cutting out the "unuseful" perceptions of
a problem and seeing only those parts which we have learned are
important to us.
In attempting to see situations from the viewpoints of others,
prior learning can create empathetic barriers because a negotiator may
retreat prematurely into his or her personal comfort zone without
appreciating the outlook of other involved parties.
One exercise for looking at a situation from another's
viewpoint is to ask trainees to sit in another family member's
chair at the dinner table one night and then write a short description
of how that individual views the family unit, concentrating on the
assumptions that members makes about each family member's goals and
role in the home. The exercise might also be extended to the work place
by having the trainee assume the position of his or her boss and attempt
to describe the bosses' assumptions about workers' goals and
roles on the job.
Assumptional analysis is a useful creative technique for any
decision maker who finds it necessary to consider how another individual
or group approaches a business situation, such as negotiating a labor
contract or selling a product to a particularly tough customer.
Finally, when there is low agreement concerning both goals and
cause/effect relationships, there exists a need for what Thompson and
Tuden termed "inspirational" decision making or what current
researchers call leadership or visioning . Here, the decision
maker's preferred future is envisioned and communicated to excite
and unify the efforts of organizational followers. Without inspirational
decision making, it is doubtful that any solution on action would be
forthcoming when decision makers are groping in the dark for answers.
The development of business organizations' strategic plans is
probably the most familiar example of this type of decision situation.
At times, inspirational decision making may defy the safest
application of logic within the comfortable bounds of today's
certainty, but creative thinkers are not limited by the
"rules" that others have developed and applied. By definition,
they develop their own visions and create their own rules. This is the
risk and reward of inspirational decision making, the peril and promise
of creative thinking.
One exercise for stimulating inspirational creativity involves
making room for new ideas by throwing out a few old ones that are no
longer useful. A decision maker may find it helpful to envision his or
her brain filled to capacity with experiences from the past and
assumptions about the future. No room exists for new ideas. To make room
the trainee is instructed to write down three things he or she has found
to be true in the past but are no longer true because the business
environment has undergone its inevitable changes. Ideas may involve such
issues as the "usual" price of energy, the "normal"
level of interest rates, actions that primary competitors would
"never" consider, or the "proper" role for women and
minorities at work. Once the ideas are committed to paper, they should
be carefully read, pondered, and then torn into pieces, and the
fragments should be dropped from a convenient window. Trainees should be
encouraged to watch them float away and resolve never to believe them
again. Now there is room in the brain for a few new ideas.
Another technique for stimulating inspiration about the unknown
future is to step outside one's own limited ways of thinking and
assume the creative outlook of others. When one's own creative
juices are dry, borrow someone else's. Trainees may write, for
example, the names of three diverse thinkers with whom they have some
familiarity - Clint Eastwood, Pope John Paul II, and their favorite
uncle. How do they envision the future? How would they be preparing for
your business problems in the year 2000? What would they do if they were
in the trainee's place today? Take the possible ideas of others and
hone them for personal use. Judge them, throw out the useless material,
but hang onto any new insights that might be gained.
Another possibility is attribute listing. With this technique, one
assumes that most "new" ideas are simply different
combinations of old elements. Attribute listing involves shifting
attributes from one thing to another. For example, trainees are
instructed to give the problem on which they are working, such as
devising a way to increase customer satisfaction, some new
characteristics borrowed from something else. How are your clients like
a sports car or a six year old daughter? What do these things need that
your clients may also need?
Attaching random words to a problem is another method of
stimulating inspirational creativity. Matching random words or phrases
with a problem can introduce free thinking and spark new ideas for
The Creative Planning Environment
If an organization is to reap the benefits of the creative skills
of its members, one of the primary areas of application must be the
planning activity of the business. The planning process is typically
described as a series of steps:
* An analysis of present resources to determine
the capabilities of the organization * A forecast of potential
threats and opportunities * The determination of a set of goals * The
development of a set of strategies for
The traditional planning process relies heavily on the
organization's ability to forecast future events. However, many
forecasts are based on statistical projections of past events and the
assumption that conditions will remain stable through future periods.
Given today's rate of environmental change, this is not a valid
assumption for most businesses. Planners must therefore become more
familiar and comfortable with predicting or envisioning, rather than
forecasting, the future. Envisioning is a creative process.
Unlike forecasts, visions are based on instinctive feelings
sometimes termed intuition or hunches and are not covered by the
defendable cloak of scientific rigor. Since so-called scientific
validity is lacking, creative planning can be an uncomfortable situation
for planners. Although many executives give lip service to engendering
creativity within their organizations, they have a tendency to stifle
creativity by implementing an operating strategy of simply
"muddling-through," adopting expedient solutions to
today's problems that will keep things together until tomorrow but
without a long term focus of future objectives and strategies. However,
muddling-through is not in the best interest of organizations, and
executives are beginning to realize that the true function of leadership
concerns their ability to tap the collective creativity of the
organization and direct it toward accomplishment of the
organization's long term goals.
Planners need to begin to apply new techniques for envisioning
their company's future and this calls for the use of a number of
applications of creative thinking techniques. Before these tools can be
effective, however, a creative climate must be established within the
organization through the leadership and support of upper management.
Such a creative climate should consist of the following attributes:
* Trust so that people can try and fail without
prejudice. * An effective system of internal and external
communication so that the organization and its
members are fully aware of needs and goals * A variety of
personality types within the organization
and on its planning teams * A culture that supports change * A
process to ensure the survival and ultimately
the reward of potentially useful ideas * A merit system that is
based, at least in part, on
the generation and implementation of innovative
Managers need to regularly assess their organization's
creative climate and level of creativity. Some criteria that can be used
to measure innovativeness within the business include:
* The number of new ideas being generated and
the percentage of new proposals being implemented
(this includes a reasonable number of
failures within the organization, because a
company with no failures is probably not taking
enough prudent risk) * The flexibility of the organization's
financial and accounting systems to permit new
approaches to survive * The originality of approaches to old
and to new opportunities * The independence of judgment exercised
members of the organization * The permissible degree of deviance
standard operating practices (not doing things
"the way they've always been done").
If nothing new is happening in a business, executives should examine
themselves to see what type of climate they are creating.
Establishing a creative climate takes time and effort and often
challenges the standard management practices of controlling and
maximizing the efficiency of internal operations, but payoffs can be
high. Once the creative climate is established, the organization will be
able to tap one of its most underutilized assets, the collective
creativity of its members.
For creativity to be effective, it must be directed. This means
that the organization must specify its goals in measurable terms, and
this is not often easy. As Mad Magazine's Alfred E. Neuman tell us,
"Most people don't know what they want, but they're
pretty sure that they don't have it." Through
management's communication of objectives, organization members can
begin to explore innovative methods to accomplish them. Then, only by
knowing well a firm's products and customers can members direct
their creative efforts toward the success of the business.
Once objectives are established and communicated throughout the
organization and information concerning products and customers is widely
disseminated, individuals and groups within the business can begin to
direct their creative thinking toward the long term success of the firm.
Organization members need to be made aware that management is
instituting, by design, a more creative environment, which is intended
to elicit and support innovative ideas. A formal announcement should be
made followed by a series of training sessions to impart creative
thinking skills to workers. Everyone should be encouraged to
participate. A system for submitting new ideas should be established and
follow-up for each submittal, especially those that cannot be
implemented, should be guaranteed.
This article discusses the need for creativity in organizations to
ensure their viability in the future. The Thompson and Tuden framework
of organizational decision situations is proposed as a useful basis for
structuring training sessions in creative thinking and a few techniques
for improving creativity for each type of decision situation were
presented. The role of creative thinking in a firm's planning
process was discussed as were methods for establishing and assessing a
creative climate within a business organization. A few necessary steps
to institute a creative climate were also presented.
Business organizations wishing to survive and thrive in the
turbulent future must begin to instill confidence in their members
concerning their personal abilities to confront and make sense out of
uncertain situations, specifically problems encountered at work. This
confidence can be developed through the introduction of some well
established techniques for improving personal creativity and through the
development of upper management support for a creative process are
beneficial to a of the creative process are beneficial to a enhance
productivity and quality and to the individual employee through the
improvement of a valuable personal skill which can lead to increased
self-esteem and greater satisfaction with the work environment.
[1.] Ackoff, R.L. and E. Vergara. "Creativity in Problem
Solving and Planning: A Review." European Journal of Operations
Research, Vol 7, 1981, pp. 1-13.
[2.] Arieti, S. Creativity: The Magic Synthesis. New York: Basic
[3.] "Common Sense, Experiences Are Not Enough: It's Time
to Get Creative." Marketing News, January 18, 1988, p. 7.
[4.] De Bono, E. The Five-Day Course in Thinking. New York: The New
American Library, 1967.
[5.] Evans, J.R. "Creative Thinking and Innovative Education
in the Decision Sciences." Decision Sciences, Vol 17, No. 2, 1986,
[6.] Koestler, A. The Act of Creation. New York: The Macmillan Co.,
[7.] May, R. The Courage to Create. New York: W.W. Norton, 1975.
[8.] Mitroff, I.I. and R.H. Kilmann. Corporate Tragedies. New York:
[9.] Osborn,A.F. Applied Imagination. New York: Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1953.
[10.] Perkins, D.N. The Mind's Best Work. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1981.
[11.] Raudsepp, E. "Establishing a Creative Climate."
Training and Development Journal, April 1987, pp. 50-53.
[12.] Thompson, J.D. and A. Tuden. "Strategies, Structures and
Processes of Organizational Decision." In Thompson, J.D. et al.,
eds. Comparative Studies in Administration. Pittsburgh: The University
of Pittsburgh Press, 1959.
[13.] Von Oech, R. A Whack on the Side of the Head: How to Unlock
your Mind for Innovation. New York: Warner Books, 1983.
Editor's Note: If you would like contact faculty members about
any of the activities reported below, pleasee direct your inquiries to
the Business Research Institute.
Thomas Chen (Economics and Finance) attended the Finance Department
Chairperson's Round Table Session at the Midwest Finance
Association Annual Meeting held in Chicago in March 1990.
Robert J. Mockler (Management) had three papers published: (1)
"A Knowledge-Based System for Estimating Risks Inherent in a
Proposed KBS Project, "Expert Systems, February 1989; (2) "An
Integrative Management Approach to Developing Knowledge-Based Systems
Management, Journal of Microcomputer Systems Management, Summer 1989;
and (3) "Developing Effective Knowledge-Based Systems: Overcoming
Cognitive, Organizational, and Individual Behavior Barries,"
Information Resources Management Journal, Winter 1989.
Robert J. Mockler (Management) wrote a book entitled Computer
Software to Support Strategic Planning Decision Making, which is to be
published in 1990 by The Strategic Planning Society/European Planning
Federation, Henley-on-Thames, England.
Charles Wankel (Management) received a grant valued at $20,000 in
terms of on-line database access from Dialog Information Services of
Palo Alto, California. The grant is to support a series of projects in
the area of management information systems technology. This is his
fourth grant from Dialog.
Young Back Choi (Economics and Finance) had a paper entitled
"Adam Smith's View of Human Nature: A Problem in the
Interpretation of the Wealth of Nations and the Theory of Moral
Sentiments" published in the Fall 1990 issue of Review of Social
Economy. A book review of Helmut Schoeck's Envy: A Theory of Social
Behavior appeard in the Southern Economic Journal in April 1990. A
review of Alice H. Amsden's book Asia's Next Giant: South
Korea and Late Industrialization will appear in the Eastern Economic
Journal soon. He served as a discussant at the History of Economics
Society Conference at Lexington, Virginia in June 1990 and at the Nagoya
International Symposium on the Bicentenary of the Death of Adam Smith at
Nagoya, Japan in April 1990.
Justin P. Carey (Management) is th co-author with Alice T. Carey,
M.D. of a chapter entitled "Therapeutic Management of
Socio-Economic Conflict in a Suburban Culture," which appears in
the reference textbook Cross-Cultural Research in Human Development,
published by Praeger-Greenwood.
Anthony Pappas (Economics and Finance) presented a paper entitled
"Competition in the Securities Markets: Trends and Challenges"
at the Annual Convention of the New York State Economics Association at
Ithaca, New York In October 1990.
Harry Meyer (Management) had an article entitled "Inventory
Accuracy - Is it Worth It" published in the American Production and
Inventory Control Society Journal in mid-1990. Another article entitled
"Eight Steps to a Successful Inventory Accuracy Program - A Case
Study" will be published later in the same journal.
PHOTO : Larry W. Boone is Assistant Professor of Management at St.
John's University in Jamaica, New York.
PHOTO : A. Thomas Hollingsworth, formerly Director of the Business
Research Institute and Professor f Management at St. John's
University, New York, is now Dean of the School of Business at Florida
Institute of Technology in Melbourne, Florida.
Thompson and Tuden's Organizational
Agreement on Goals
(What to Do?)
Agreement on High Computation Compromise
Practical Approaches for Creative Thinking
Agreement on Goals
(What to Do?)
Problem Recognition Assumption
High Math Skills Analysis
Agreement on and Games)
Relationships Analogy Room for New Ideas
(How to Do it?) Low Brainstorming Assumption of Others'
mysteries of life to a 10 year old
when it is fresh and warm. Often,
however, it is just hard. The hole in
the middle is its great mystery; what
is it, and why is it there? Yet, it
wouldn't be a bagel without it .