Sign up

The influences of management capability on export performance of leather businesses in Thailand.
Article Type:
Company overview
Subject:
International business enterprises (Surveys)
International business enterprises (Usage)
Business planning (Surveys)
Business planning (Usage)
Business plans (Surveys)
Business plans (Usage)
Small and medium sized companies (Surveys)
Small and medium sized companies (Usage)
Tax deductions (Surveys)
Tax deductions (Usage)
Entrepreneurship (Surveys)
Entrepreneurship (Usage)
Author:
Ussahawanitchakit, Phapruke
Pub Date:
09/01/2007
Publication:
Name: Review of Business Research Publisher: International Academy of Business and Economics Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Business, international Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2007 International Academy of Business and Economics ISSN: 1546-2609
Issue:
Date: Sept, 2007 Source Volume: 7 Source Issue: 5
Topic:
Event Code: 830 Sales, profits & dividends; 150 Acquisitions & mergers; 240 Marketing procedures; 644 Exports; 200 Management dynamics Advertising Code: 84 Global Marketing Computer Subject: Company earnings/profit; Company acquisition/merger; Company business management
Product:
Product Code: 9920000 Multinational Corporations; 9912100 Planning; 9101104 Tax Deductions & Exemptions NAICS Code: 92113 Public Finance Activities

Accession Number:
177983908
Full Text:
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to examine the influences of management capability on export performance of leather businesses in Thailand. We attempt to understand how management capability is linked to export performance and how its components have different effects on export performance. In the existing literature, management capability is a key determinant of export performance. It consists of three components, including teamwork, organizational learning, and entrepreneurial orientation. The results present that teamwork, organizational learning, and entrepreneurial orientation have significant positive effects on export performance. These three components also play an important direct role in explaining and driving superior export performance. Giving potential discussion is effectively implemented in the study. Theoretical and managerial contributions are explicitly provided. Conclusion and suggestions and directions of the future research are described.

Keywords: Management Capability, Teamwork, Organizational Learning, Entrepreneurial Orientation, Export Performance

1. INTRODUCTION

Over the last few decades, the intensification of competition on a global scale has led to an increase in the number of firms seeking opportunities in international markets to achieve their goals and to safeguard their market position and survival (Leonidou, Katsikeas, and Samiee, 2002). With the acquisition of sustainable competitive advantage and great longer viability in the global competitive markets, exporting has become the most popular mode of international market entry. Also, exporting firms have attempted to exploit useful export strategies as precursors of export performance. Export strategies are the key determinants of an export performance. These strategies play significant roles in potentially achieving a competitive advantage and high export performance and success, including the establishment of internal competencies, the creativity of strategic capabilities, the support of cooperative strategies, the improvement of knowledge intensities, and the employment of export activities (Haahti, Madupu, Yavas, and Babakus, 2005). Firms can utilize these strategies to implement an ideal operating capacity and to improve production efficiency in order to create a competitive advantage, effectively promote more competitiveness, obtain better performance, and greatly gain longer viability in global competitive markets (Calantone, Kim, Schmidt, and Cavusgil, 2006). Searching for useful export strategies thus becomes an important way which firms must work very hard to acquire these strategies.

In the interest of the significance of utilizing export strategies, firms need to create and develop their strategies in dealing with changing organizational operations, external environments, and situations such as creating business networks, improving productivity and quality, and promoting entrepreneurship orientation (Ussahawanitchakit, 2005). Firms with a great usefulness of export strategies tend to effectively build and create customer values, quickly respond to customer needs, satisfaction, and expectations, and potentially succeed in the competitive markets. They have explicitly implemented an inter-firm relational capability to achieve more competitive advantages and receive high export success in the export channel environment (Ling-yee and Ogunmokun, 2001). With the need to capture superior export profits in the competitive, technological, and market environments, firms need to search for unique tools, strategies, and capabilities in order to strongly determine the export performances and successes. Similarly, cooperative strategies are important tools which these firms employ these strategies to enrich their knowledge base about export markets and improve their export performance and success, including the implementation of buyer-seller relationships in gaining superior export performance (Piercy, Katsikeas, and Cravens, 1997) and the exploitation of exporter-distributor relationships in having unique export performance (Nes, Solberg, and Silkoset, 2007).

Especially, management capability is also an important strategy in learning international business environments, driving competitiveness, gaining competitive advantage, explaining export performance, and sustaining in the business operations. Here, management capability refers to the ability of firms to effectively acquire management knowledge and efficiently apply it to achieve competitive advantages and performance. It consists of teamwork, organizational learning, and entrepreneurial orientation (Avlonitis and Salavou, 2007; Mendibil and MacBryde, 2006; Panayides, 2007). Firm with greater management capability are likely to have higher competitive advantage and achieve better export performance. They attempt to rigorously build and create the strategy through management capability to perceive their objectives, including competitiveness, performance, and viability. Then, the relationships between management capability and export performance are necessary for academic researches to investigate and verify them.

This study is organized as follows. First, the debate regarding the management capability to generate higher order export performance is addressed. Second, the conceptual model linking to the mutual interaction and interplay of management capability and export performance is presented. Third, the research method used to test the hypotheses is discussed. Finally, the results derived from 165 firms of leather businesses in Thailand are presented. The study concludes by discussing implications for practice and theory, identifying limitations of the study, and providing directions for future research.

2. RELEVANT LITERATURE REVIEWS AND RESEARCH HYPOTHESES OF THE MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY-EXPORT PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIPS

In the light of the challenge of management capability-export performance relationships, this study aims at examining the influences of management capability on the export performance of leather businesses in Thailand. Management capability, an independent variable, is a key determinant of driving and explaining export performance. It includes teamwork, organizational learning, and entrepreneurial orientation. In this study, positive relationships between management capability and export performance are hypothesized definitely. Thus, the conceptual, linkage, and research model presents the management capability-export performance relationships, as shown in Figure 1.

2.1 Teamwork

Teamwork is defined as the ability of firms to ensure that the people working together in it have complementary skills and interactions that ease obtaining planned objectives and the creation of a team spirit with cohesion (Montes, Moreno, and Morales, 2005). It is the capacity to use technical and administrative innovations to meet the changing needs of their environment. Teamwork encourages these innovations to achieve superior organizational performance. Firms with a greater teamwork culture tend to effectively create, develop, and build a flexible high performance organization responsive to ongoing change and turbulent environment. Interestingly, teamwork has an important role in collaborating in problem solving and conflict resolution, communicating openly, goal setting and performance appraisal of the team, and planning and task coordination among members (Scott and Einstein, 2001). It reduces the resistance to change efforts and support the knowledge exchange through continuous self-assessment of teams. Also, teamwork is the essence of a work process together and it refers to the collaboration of work process toward a common task (Hoegl, 2005). It consists of six components, including communication, coordination, balance of member contributions, mutual support, effort, and cohesion. The quality of teamwork is directly related to performance. Accordingly, firms are likely to efficiently and effectively work in a directly interactive mode to achieve a common output through the aggregate of individuals' work products. Thus, firms exploit and utilize teamwork to learn competitive markets and environments, gain competitive advantage, and receive outstanding performance.

With the mentioned earlier, teamwork becomes a significant factor of creating firms' competitive advantage and performance. It definitely has an important influence on firms' organizational innovation which they implement it to meet customer needs and promote performance and success (Montes, Moreno, and Morales, 2005). Multinational enterprises have also faced the liability of foreignness, including a set costs associated with, among other things, unfamiliar operating environments, economic, administrative, and cultural differences, and with the challenges of coordination over geographic distances (Goodall and Roberts, 2003). They acquire teamwork strategy, culture, and capability to gain success and survive in the global market. Similarly, exporting firms tend to implement the culture of teamwork for gaining competitiveness and achieving performance in the international marketplace. Thus, teamwork is likely to have a positive and direct influence on export performance. Therefore,

Hypothesis 1: Firms with greater degree of teamwork are likely to have higher export performance.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

2.2 Organizational Learning

In this study, organizational learning is one of three dimensions of management capability and it is a significant factor of driving export performance. Organizational capability has gained strategic importance for firms. It refers to a collective capability based on experiential and cognitive processes and involving knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge utilization (Aragon-Correa, Garcia-Morales, and Cordon-Pozo, 2007). It seeks to respond to the challenges that arise in a constantly changing business environment and can help firms to confront their long-term survival difficulties. It is a true source of heterogeneity and of potentially sustainable competitive advantages according to their different capabilities for learning and adsorbing knowledge (Real, Leal, and Roldan, 2006). With the necessity of the organizational learning concept, organizational learning is a way for achieving competitive advantage and helping firms to become more innovate and improve their performance. Organizational learning is defined as the ability of firms to process, create, acquire, transfer, and integrate knowledge, and to modify their behaviors to reflect the new cognition with a view to improving their performance (Jerez-Gomez, Cespedes-Lorente, and Valle-Cabrera, 2005). It is a source of heterogeneity among organizations and a basis for a possible competitive advantage via a change in the traditional way of dealing with business management. Definitely, it is an essential element to successfully compete in a global marketplace. Similarly, organizational learning is the ingrained intra-organizational culture and values towards learning manifested via commitment to learning, sharing a common vision towards learning as well as intraorganizational knowledge sharing (Panayides, 2007). Firms with higher organizational learning tend to perform very well in the competitive markets. In the process of organizational learning, organizational values, market information processing behaviors, and organizational actions are important for firms to enhance and support themselves to have and implement (Wu and Cavusgil, 2006).

In the existing literatures, organizational learning is a major concept for explaining competitive advantage and affecting performance. It has a positive influence on relationship orientation and on the improvement of firms' effectiveness and performance (Panayides, 2007). Likely, organizational learning is capable of additionally reinforcing firms' sustainable competitive advantage and positively affecting the establishment of long-term relationships with strategic clients (Sabtos-Vijande, Sanzo-Perez, Alvarez-Gonzalez, and Vazquez-Casielles, 2005). It positively affects firm performance. Achieving global competitiveness in the markets, exporting firms also effectively and efficiently utilize organizational learning to meet customer values and expectations and gain superior export performance. Thus, organizational learning is likely to have a positive and direct influence on export performance. Therefore,

Hypothesis 2: Firms with the greater degree of organizational learning are likely to have higher export performance.

2.3 Entrepreneurial Orientation

With the key components of management capability, entrepreneurial orientation effectively plays a significant role in explaining export performance. It is the strategy-making processes and styles of firms that engage in entrepreneurial activities. Here, entrepreneurial orientation is defined as the organizational processes, methods, styles, practices, and decision-making activities employed by firms that lead to new entry (Lumpkin and Dess, 2001). It includes a propensity to act autonomously, a willingness to innovate and take risks, and a tendency to be aggressive toward competitors and proactive to relative marketplace opportunities. For the importance of business expansion, entrepreneurial orientation is the processes, practices, and decision-making activities that lead to new entry (Lumpkin and Dess, 1996). It has five dimensions, including autonomy, innovativeness, risk taking, proactiveness, and competitive aggressiveness. Likely, entrepreneurial orientation is an essential feature of high performing firms. It refers to a firm's strategic orientation, capturing specific entrepreneurial aspects of decision-making styles, methods, and practices (Wiklund and Shepherd, 2005). Firms with entrepreneurial-oriented behaviors tend to engage in product market innovations, undertake risky ventures, and come up with proactive innovations in order to beat the competitors. In the need to understand the concepts of entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial behaviors enhance firms to gain the creation of new businesses within the existing business and renewal or revival of ongoing businesses that have become stagnant or require transformation (Hult, Hurley, and Knight, 2004). Thus, entrepreneurial orientation is critical for the survival and growth of firms. Effectively gaining a successful study and explicitly meeting an interesting goal and objective, entrepreneurial orientation has been significantly implemented to explain and investigate its relationships with firms' performance and success.

Accordingly, entrepreneurial orientation is a key determinant of performance (Knight, 2000). It helps firms improve competitive advantage, performance, and viability. Firms with a greater entrepreneurial orientation have superior performance and success. For small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), entrepreneurial orientation is related to SMEs' product innovativeness which SMEs implement it to achieve performance, gain competitiveness, and enhance sustainability (Avlonitis and Salavou, 2007). They definitely establish, create, and build the entrepreneurial orientation skills in order to encourage their abilities in satisfying customer needs and receiving their goals and objectives. Similarly, exporting firms also exploit the entrepreneurial orientation to survive in the global competitive markets and have outstanding export performance. Thus, entrepreneurial orientation is likely to have a positive and direct influence on export performance. Therefore,

Hypothesis 3: Firms with the greater degree of entrepreneurial orientation are likely to have higher export performance.

3. RESEARCH METHODS

3.1 Sample Selection and Data Collection Procedure

In this study, we selected firms in leather businesses of Thailand as the sample. In all, 500 firms were randomly chosen from the list. A mail survey procedure via the questionnaire was used for data collection. The key participants in this study were marketing directors or marketing executives of leather businesses in Thailand. With regards to the questionnaire mailing, 72 surveys were undeliverable because some firms were no longer in business or had moved to unknown locations. Deducting the undeliverables from the original 500 mailed, the valid mailing was 428 surveys, from which 191 responses were received. Of the surveys completed and returned, only 165 were usable. The effective response rate was approximately 39%. According to Aaker, Kumar and Day (2001), the response rate for a mail survey, without an appropriate follow-up procedure, is less than 20%. Thus, the response rate of this study is considered acceptable.

To test potential and non-response bias and to detect and consider possible problems with non-response errors, the assessment and investigation of non-response-bias was centered on two different procedures: (1) a comparison of sample statistics and known values of the population, such as number of employees, number of years in doing business, and amount of capital funding, and (2) a comparison of first wave and second wave data recommended by Armstrong and Overton (1977). Neither procedure showed significant differences.

3.2 Variables

Empirically examining the relationships mentioned earlier, all variables were obtained from the survey. Here, measurements of dependent variable, independent variables, and control variables are described as follows. Export performance is a dependent variable, and it refers to the outcome of exporting products and services into foreign markets (Rose and Shoham, 2002). This construct was measured using the scale items introduced by Rose and Shoham (2002). These items gauged export sales growth, export gross profit margin, export market share growth, as well as five-year changes in export sales growth, export gross profit margin, and export market share growth.

For the independent variables of the study, teamwork, organizational learning, and entrepreneurial orientation are key determinants of the relationships. First, teamwork was measured through the ability of firms to ensure that the people working together in it have complementary skills and interactions that ease obtaining planned objectives and the creation of a team spirit with cohesion (Montes, Moreno, and Morales, 2005). Four items were used to assess the collaboration of problem solving and conflict resolution, communicating openly, goal setting and performance appraisal of the team, and planning and task coordination among members. Second, organization learning was gauged through the collective capability based on experiential and cognitive processes and involving knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge utilization (Aragon-Correa, Garcia-Morales, and Cordon-Pozo, 2007). Four items were used to investigate the ability of firms to process, create, acquire, transfer, and integrate knowledge, and to modify their behaviors to reflect the new cognition with a view to improving their performance. Third, entrepreneurial orientation was evaluated through the organizational processes, methods, styles, practices, and decision-making activities employed by firms that lead to new entry (Lumpkin and Dess, 2001). Four items were applied to test the propensity to act autonomously, a willingness to innovate and take risks, and a tendency to be aggressive toward competitors and proactive relative marketplace opportunities.

With the need to investigate the hypothesized relationships, firm size, firm age, and firm capital are control variables. Firm size may affect the ability to learn and diversify operations, and to survive in the markets (Arora and Fosfuri, 2000). It was measured by the number of employees in a firm. Firm age may influence a firm's technological learning capacity, business activities, and the profitability of operations (Zahra, Ireland and Hitt, 2000). It was measured by the number of years a firm has been in existence. Also, firm capital may impact the capacity of a firm to implement business strategies in order to achieve superior performance (Ussahawanitchakit, 2005). It was measured by the amount of money a firm has invested in the business.

3.3 Method

First, factor analysis was utilized to examine, measure, investigate, and assess the underlying relationships of a large number of items and to determine whether they can be reduced to a smaller set of factors. The factor analyses conducted were done separately on each set of the items representing a particular scale due to limited observations. With respect to the confirmatory factor analysis, this analysis has a high potential to inflate the component loadings. Thus, a higher rule-of-thumb, a cut-off value of 0.40, was adopted (Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994). All factor loadings are greater than the 0.40 cut-off and are statistically significant. Second, the reliability of the measurements was evaluated by Cronbach alpha coefficients. In the scale reliability, Cronbach alpha coefficients are greater than 0.70 (Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994). The scales of all measures appear to produce internally consistent results; thus, these measures are deemed appropriate for further analysis because they express an accepted validity and reliability in this study. Table 1 presents the results for both factor loadings and Cronbach alpha for multiple-item scales used in this study.

The ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis is used to test and examine the hypothesized relationships and estimate factors affecting a firm's export performance. Because all dependent variable, independent variables, and control variables in this study were neither nominal data nor categorical data, OLS is an appropriate method for examining the hypothesized relationships between management capability and export performance (Aulakh, Kotabe and Teegen, 2000). With the need to understand the relationships in this study, the research model of the aforementioned relationships is as follows:

Equation 1: Export performance = [[beta].sub.01] + [[beta].sub.1]teamwork + [[beta].sub.2]organizational learning + [[beta].sub.3]entrepreneurial orientation + [[beta].sub.4]firm size + [[beta].sub.5]firm age + [[beta].sub.6]firm capital + [epsilon]

Equation 2: Export performance = [[beta].sub.02] + [[beta].sub.7]teamwork + [[beta].sub.8]firm size + [[beta].sub.9]firm age + [[beta].sub.10]firm capital + [epsilon]

Equation 3: Export performance = [[beta].sub.03] + [[beta].sub.11]organizational learning + [[beta].sub.12]firm size + [[beta].sub.13]firm age + [[beta].sub.14]firm capital + [epsilon]

Equation 4: Export performance = [[beta].sub.04] + [[beta].sub.15]entreprenuerial orientation + [[beta].sub.16]firm size + [[beta].sub.17]firm age + [[beta].sub.18]firm capital + [epsilon]

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 2 shows the descriptive statistics and correlation matrix for all variables. With respect to potential problems relating to multicollinearity, variance inflation factors (VIF) were used to provide information on the extent to which non-orthogonality among independent variables inflates standard errors. The VIFs range from 1.37 to 3.06, well below the cut-off value of 10 recommended by Neter, Wasserman and Kutner (1985), meaning that the independent variables are not correlated with each other. Therefore, there are no substantial multicollinearity problems encountered in this study.

Table 3 presents the results of OLS regression analysis of the relationships between teamwork and export performance. In this study, management capability is a key factor of explaining export performance. Teamwork has a significant positive relationship with export performance ([b.sub.1] = 0.22, p < 0.08). It is a significant factor of creating firms' competitive advantage and performance and an important influence on firms' organizational innovation which they implement it to meet customer needs and promote performance and success (Montes, Moreno, and Morales, 2005). Firms with a greater teamwork are likely to definitely have stronger competitive advantage and effectively gain superior performance and success in the international competitive markets. Thus, Hypothesis 1 is supported.

For the second dimension of management capability, organizational learning has a direct important effect on export performance. Organizational learning is shown to have a significant positive influence on export performance ([b.sub.11] = 0.28, p < 0.03). It is a source of heterogeneity among organizations and a basis for a possible competitive advantage via a change in the traditional way of dealing with business management, an essential element to successfully compete in a global marketplace (Aragon-Correa, Garcia-Morales, and Cordon-Pozo, 2007). Firms with higher organizational learning tend to perform very well in the competitive markets through the implementation of organizational values, market information processing behaviors, and organizational actions to enhance and support themselves to achieve outstanding performance (Wu and Cavusgil, 2006). Similarly, exporting firms have exploited the culture of organizational learning to succeed in the global market. Thus, Hypothesis 2 is supported.

With the interest of management capability, entrepreneurial orientation is also a main factor of driving export performance. Entrepreneurial orientation is critically related to export performance. It has a significant positive influence on export performance ([b.sub.3] = 0.36, p < 0.04; [b.sub.15] = 0.35, p < 0.01). Entrepreneurial orientation is critical for the survival and growth of firms which firms have utilized it to enhance and gain the creation of new businesses within the existing business and renewal or revival of ongoing businesses that have become stagnant or require transformation (Hult, Hurley, and Knight, 2004). Firm with effectively implementing entrepreneurial orientation tend to efficiently improve competitive advantage, effectively achieve performance and success, and strongly viability. Thus, Hypothesis 3 is supported.

5. CONTRIBUTIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR RESEARCH

5.1 Theoretical Contributions and Future Directions for Research

This study is intended to provide a clearer understanding of management capability that has a significant positive impact on the need to sustain competitive advantage and gain export performance. The study provides unique theoretical contributions expanding on previous knowledge and literature of management capability and export performance. For advancing the field theoretically, this study is one of the first known studies to directly link management capability to export performance in the leather businesses of Thailand. This study attempts to comprehend the key components of management capability in the same model, including teamwork, organizational learning, and entrepreneurial orientation. In addition, this study assesses the importance of management capability relative to the export performance of the leather businesses in Thailand. According to the results of this study, the need for further research is apparent. Because this study finds that organizational learning has no significant influence on export performance under the research model that has three components of management capability in the same model, future research is needed to conceptualize the measurement of management capability and export performance and find some explanations about why each independent variable that is put in the different model is significant for the relationship model. While the importance of management capability still exists, this study finds that management capability can directly impact export performance. Future research is needed to collect data from a larger population and/or a comparative population in order to increase the level of reliable results.

5.2 Managerial Contributions

Another implication now exists for firm owners, executives, and managers. This study helps managers identify and justify key components that may be more critical in a rigorously international competitive market. Managers should effectively manage and utilize the components of management capability, including teamwork, organizational learning, and entrepreneurial orientation, to sustain and succeed. These managers may put more emphasis on management capability than on other variations. In the challenge of management capability, managers can implement teamwork, organizational learning, and entrepreneurial orientation within the organization, but they should also plan to expand their other strategies to include or graduate to an advanced business operation in order to continuously maintain and increase the levels of business excellence, competitive advantage, and competitiveness. To maximize the benefits of management capability, managers should provide other resources to support its effectiveness and create new opportunities in the global market.

6. CONCLUSION

This study aims at empirically investigating the influences of management capability on export performance in Thailand. Management capability has relevant significance on export performance. Three dimensions of management capability (teamwork, organizational learning, and entrepreneurial orientation) are hypothesized to effectively promote export performance. Also, the leather businesses in Thailand were selected as a sample of the study. In this study, management capability has a greater significance for explaining export performance. Interestingly, teamwork, organizational learning, and entrepreneurial orientation have a significant positive influence on Thai leather businesses' export performance. As growth and sustainability necessitates an increased excellent operation, research analyzing this methodology will contribute significantly toward understanding how leather businesses in Thailand utilize and exploit their management capability to efficiently improve business operations, effectively enhance competitive advantage, distinguishably gain performance and success, and critically achieve global competitiveness in the international marketplace.

REFERENCES

Aaker, David A., Kumar, V. and Day, George S. 2001. Marketing Research. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Aragon-Correa, J. Alberto, Garcia-Morales, Victor J., and Cordon-Pozo, Eulogio. 2007. Leadership and Organizational Learning's Role on Innovation and Performance: Lessons from Spain. Industrial marketing Management, 36: 349-359.

Arora, Ashish and Fosfuri, Andrea. 2000. Wholly Owned Subsidiary versus Technology Licensing in the Worldwide Chemical Industry. Journal of International Business Studies, 31(4): 555-572.

Aulakh, Preet S., Kotabe, Masaaki and Teegen, Hildy. 2000. Export Strategies and Performance of Firms from Emerging Economies: Evidence from Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Academy of Management Journal, 43(3): 342-361.

Avlonitis, George J. and Salavou, Helen E. 2007. Entrepreneurial Orientation of SMEs, Product Innovativeness, and Performance. Journal of Business Research, 60: 566-575.

Calantone, Roger J., Kim, Daekwan, Schmidt, Jeffrey B., and Cavusgil, S. Tamar. 2006. The Influence of Internal and External Firm Factors on International Product Adaptation Strategy and Export Performance: A Three-Country Comparison. Journal of Business Research, 59: 176-185.

Goodall, Keith and Roberts, John. 2003. Only Connect: Teamwork in the Multinational. Journal of World Business, 38: 150-164.

Haahti, Antti, Madupu, Vivekananda, Yavas, Ugur, and Babakus, Emin. 2005. Cooperative Strategy, Knowledge Intensity, and Export Performance of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises. Journal of World Business, 40: 124-138.

Hoegl, Martin. 2005. Smaller Teams-Better Teamwork: How to Keep project Teams Small. Business Horizons, 48: 209-214.

Hult, G. Tomas M., Hurley, Robert F., and Knight, Gary A. 2004. Innovativeness: Its Antecedents and Impact on Business Performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 33: 429-438.

Jerez-Gomez, Pilar, Cespedes-Lorente, Jose, and Valle-Cabrera, Ramon. 2005. Organizational Learning Capability: A Proposal of Measurement. Journal of Business Research, 715-725.

Knight, Gary. 2000. Entrepreneurships and marketing Strategy: The SME under Globalization. Journal of International Marketing, 8(2): 12-32.

Leonidou, Leonidas C, Katsikeas, Constantine S. and Samiee, Saeed. 2002. Marketing strategy determinants of export performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business Research, 55: 51-67.

Ling-yee, Li and Ogunmokun, Gabriel O. 2001. The Influence of Interfirm Relational Capabilities on Export Advantage and Performance: An Empirical Analysis. International Business Review, 10: 399-420.

Lumpkin, G.T. and Dess, Gregory G. 1996. Clarifying the Entrepreneurial Orientation Construct and Linking It to Performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1): 135-172.

--. 2001. Linking Two Dimensions of Entrepreneurial Orientation to Firm Performance: The Moderating Role of Environment and Industry Life Cycle. Journal of Business Venturing, 16: 429-451.

Mendibil, Kepa and MacBryde, Jillian. 2006. Factors that Affect the Design and Implementation of Team-Based Performance Measurement Systems. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 55(2): 118-142.

Montes, Fco. Javier Liorens, Moreno, Antonia Ruiz, and Morales, Victor Garcia. Influence of Support Leadership and Teamwork Cohesion on Organizational Learning, Innovation, and Performance: An Empirical Examination. Technovation, 25: 1159-1172.

Neter, John, William Wasserman & Michael H. Kutner. 1985. Applied Linear Statistical Models: Regression, Analysis of Variance, and Experimental Designs, 2nd Edition. Homewood: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.

Nes, Erik B., Solberg, Carl Arthur, and Silkoset, Ragnhild. 2007. The Impact of National Culture and Communication on Exporter-Distributor Relations and on Export Performance. International Business Review: 1-20.

Nunnally, Jum C. and Bernstein, Ira H.. 1994. Psychometric Theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Panayides, Photis M. 2007. The Impact of Organizational Learning on Relationship Orientation, Logistics Service Effectiveness and Performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 36: 68-80.

Piercy, Nigel F., Katsikeas, Constantine S., and Cravens, David W. 1997. Examining the Role of Buyer-Seller Relationships in Export Performance. Journal of World Business, 32(1): 73-86.

Real, Juan C., Leal, Antonio, and Roldan, Jose L. 2006. Information Technology as a Determinant of Organizational Learning and Technological Distinctive Competencies. Industrial Marketing Management, 35: 505-521.

Rose, Gregory M. and Shoham, Aviv. 2002. Export performance and market orientation: Establishing an empirical link. Journal of Business Research, 55: 217-225.

Santos-Vijande, Maria Leticia, Sanzo-Perez, maria Jose, Alvarez-Gonzalez, Luis I., and Vazquez-Casielles, Rodolfo. Industrial Marketing Management, 34: 187-202.

Scott, Susanne G. and Einstein, Walter O. 2001. Stargeic Performance Appraisal in Team-Based Organizations: One Size Does Not Fit All. Academy of Management Executive, 15(2): 107-116.

Ussahawanitchakit, Phapruke. 2005. Effects of E-Commerce on Export Marketing Strategy and Performance: An Empirical Study of Thai Firms. Review of Business Research, 5(3): 46-54.

Wiklund, Johan and Shepherd, Dean. 2005. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Small Business Performance: A Configurational Approach. Journal of Business Venturing, 20: 71-91.

Wu, Fang and Cavusgil, S. Tamer. 2006. Organizational Learning, Commitment, and Joint Value Creation in Interfirm Relationships. Journal of Business Research, 59: 81-89.

Zahra, Shaker A., Ireland, R. Duane and Hitt, Michael A. 2000. International Expansion by New Venture Firms: International Diversity, Mode of Market Entry, Technological Learning, and Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5): 925-950.

Dr. Phapruke Ussahawanitchakit earned his Ph.D. at Washington State University in 2002. Currently he is an assistant professor of accounting, a deputy dean of academic affairs, and a director of graduate studies at Faculty of Accountancy and Management, Mahasarakham University, Thailand.

Phapruke Ussahawanitchakit, Mahasarakham University, THAILAND
TABLE 1
RESULTS OF MEASURE VALIDATION

           Items                Factor Loadings     Cronbach Alpha

Export Performance                  .88-.93              0.89
Teamwork                            .72-.86              0.75
Organizational Learning             .83-.91              0.87
Entrepreneurial Orientation         .83-.89              0.74

TABLE 2
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND CORRELATION MATRIX

            Variables                EP          TW          OL

Mean                                  3.53         4.20       4.14
Standard deviation                    0.98         0.53       0.58
Export performance (EP)
Teamwork (TW)                         0.20
Organizational learning (OL)          0.33 **      0.67 **
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO)      0.40 **      0.62 **    0.67 **
Firm size (FS)                        0.01        -0.05       0.00
Firm age (FA)                        -0.17        -0.04       0.05
Firm capital (FC)                     0.15        -0.11      -0.01

            Variables                EO          FS

Mean                                  3.79       173.25
Standard deviation                    0.65        98.25
Export performance (EP)
Teamwork (TW)
Organizational learning (OL)
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO)
Firm size (FS)                       -0.13
Firm age (FA)                        -0.03         0.23
Firm capital (FC)                     0.01         0.57 **

            Variables                FA          FC

Mean                                 16.25        82.50
Standard deviation                    5.45        56.20
Export performance (EP)
Teamwork (TW)
Organizational learning (OL)
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO)
Firm size (FS)
Firm age (FA)
Firm capital (FC)                     0.11

** p<.01

TABLE 3
RESULTS OF OLS REGRESSION ANALYSIS (a)

Independent                            Models
Variables                          1           2

Teamwork                          0.22*       0.13
                                 (0.40)      (0.30)
Organizational learning           0.18
                                 (0.39)
Entrepreneurial orientation       0.36 **
                                 (0.33)
Firm size                         0.14        0.05
                                 (0.14)      (0.15)
Firm age                         -0.22 *     (0.19)
                                 (0.14)      (0.15)
Firm capital                      0.14        0.23
                                 (0.16)      (0.17)
Adjusted [R.sup.2]                0.15        0.14

Independent                            Models
Variables                          3           4

Teamwork

Organizational learning           0.28 **
                                 (0.26)
Entrepreneurial orientation                   0.35 ***
                                             (0.23)
Firm size                         0.06        0.12
                                 (0.14)      (0.14)
Firm age                         -0.21 *     (0.20)
                                 (0.14)      (0.14)
Firm capital                      0.21 *      0.17
                                 (0.16)      (0.16)
Adjusted [R.sup.2]                0.11        0.15

* p<.10

** p<.05

*** p<.01

(a) Beta coefficients with standard errors in parenthesis.
Gale Copyright:
Copyright 2007 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.