The objective of this study is to examine the influences of
management capability on export performance of leather businesses in
Thailand. We attempt to understand how management capability is linked
to export performance and how its components have different effects on
export performance. In the existing literature, management capability is
a key determinant of export performance. It consists of three
components, including teamwork, organizational learning, and
entrepreneurial orientation. The results present that teamwork,
organizational learning, and entrepreneurial orientation have
significant positive effects on export performance. These three
components also play an important direct role in explaining and driving
superior export performance. Giving potential discussion is effectively
implemented in the study. Theoretical and managerial contributions are
explicitly provided. Conclusion and suggestions and directions of the
future research are described.
Keywords: Management Capability, Teamwork, Organizational Learning,
Entrepreneurial Orientation, Export Performance
Over the last few decades, the intensification of competition on a
global scale has led to an increase in the number of firms seeking
opportunities in international markets to achieve their goals and to
safeguard their market position and survival (Leonidou, Katsikeas, and
Samiee, 2002). With the acquisition of sustainable competitive advantage
and great longer viability in the global competitive markets, exporting
has become the most popular mode of international market entry. Also,
exporting firms have attempted to exploit useful export strategies as
precursors of export performance. Export strategies are the key
determinants of an export performance. These strategies play significant
roles in potentially achieving a competitive advantage and high export
performance and success, including the establishment of internal
competencies, the creativity of strategic capabilities, the support of
cooperative strategies, the improvement of knowledge intensities, and
the employment of export activities (Haahti, Madupu, Yavas, and Babakus,
2005). Firms can utilize these strategies to implement an ideal
operating capacity and to improve production efficiency in order to
create a competitive advantage, effectively promote more
competitiveness, obtain better performance, and greatly gain longer
viability in global competitive markets (Calantone, Kim, Schmidt, and
Cavusgil, 2006). Searching for useful export strategies thus becomes an
important way which firms must work very hard to acquire these
In the interest of the significance of utilizing export strategies,
firms need to create and develop their strategies in dealing with
changing organizational operations, external environments, and
situations such as creating business networks, improving productivity
and quality, and promoting entrepreneurship orientation
(Ussahawanitchakit, 2005). Firms with a great usefulness of export
strategies tend to effectively build and create customer values, quickly
respond to customer needs, satisfaction, and expectations, and
potentially succeed in the competitive markets. They have explicitly
implemented an inter-firm relational capability to achieve more
competitive advantages and receive high export success in the export
channel environment (Ling-yee and Ogunmokun, 2001). With the need to
capture superior export profits in the competitive, technological, and
market environments, firms need to search for unique tools, strategies,
and capabilities in order to strongly determine the export performances
and successes. Similarly, cooperative strategies are important tools
which these firms employ these strategies to enrich their knowledge base
about export markets and improve their export performance and success,
including the implementation of buyer-seller relationships in gaining
superior export performance (Piercy, Katsikeas, and Cravens, 1997) and
the exploitation of exporter-distributor relationships in having unique
export performance (Nes, Solberg, and Silkoset, 2007).
Especially, management capability is also an important strategy in
learning international business environments, driving competitiveness,
gaining competitive advantage, explaining export performance, and
sustaining in the business operations. Here, management capability
refers to the ability of firms to effectively acquire management
knowledge and efficiently apply it to achieve competitive advantages and
performance. It consists of teamwork, organizational learning, and
entrepreneurial orientation (Avlonitis and Salavou, 2007; Mendibil and
MacBryde, 2006; Panayides, 2007). Firm with greater management
capability are likely to have higher competitive advantage and achieve
better export performance. They attempt to rigorously build and create
the strategy through management capability to perceive their objectives,
including competitiveness, performance, and viability. Then, the
relationships between management capability and export performance are
necessary for academic researches to investigate and verify them.
This study is organized as follows. First, the debate regarding the
management capability to generate higher order export performance is
addressed. Second, the conceptual model linking to the mutual
interaction and interplay of management capability and export
performance is presented. Third, the research method used to test the
hypotheses is discussed. Finally, the results derived from 165 firms of
leather businesses in Thailand are presented. The study concludes by
discussing implications for practice and theory, identifying limitations
of the study, and providing directions for future research.
2. RELEVANT LITERATURE REVIEWS AND RESEARCH HYPOTHESES OF THE
MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY-EXPORT PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIPS
In the light of the challenge of management capability-export
performance relationships, this study aims at examining the influences
of management capability on the export performance of leather businesses
in Thailand. Management capability, an independent variable, is a key
determinant of driving and explaining export performance. It includes
teamwork, organizational learning, and entrepreneurial orientation. In
this study, positive relationships between management capability and
export performance are hypothesized definitely. Thus, the conceptual,
linkage, and research model presents the management capability-export
performance relationships, as shown in Figure 1.
Teamwork is defined as the ability of firms to ensure that the
people working together in it have complementary skills and interactions
that ease obtaining planned objectives and the creation of a team spirit
with cohesion (Montes, Moreno, and Morales, 2005). It is the capacity to
use technical and administrative innovations to meet the changing needs
of their environment. Teamwork encourages these innovations to achieve
superior organizational performance. Firms with a greater teamwork
culture tend to effectively create, develop, and build a flexible high
performance organization responsive to ongoing change and turbulent
environment. Interestingly, teamwork has an important role in
collaborating in problem solving and conflict resolution, communicating
openly, goal setting and performance appraisal of the team, and planning
and task coordination among members (Scott and Einstein, 2001). It
reduces the resistance to change efforts and support the knowledge
exchange through continuous self-assessment of teams. Also, teamwork is
the essence of a work process together and it refers to the
collaboration of work process toward a common task (Hoegl, 2005). It
consists of six components, including communication, coordination,
balance of member contributions, mutual support, effort, and cohesion.
The quality of teamwork is directly related to performance. Accordingly,
firms are likely to efficiently and effectively work in a directly
interactive mode to achieve a common output through the aggregate of
individuals' work products. Thus, firms exploit and utilize
teamwork to learn competitive markets and environments, gain competitive
advantage, and receive outstanding performance.
With the mentioned earlier, teamwork becomes a significant factor
of creating firms' competitive advantage and performance. It
definitely has an important influence on firms' organizational
innovation which they implement it to meet customer needs and promote
performance and success (Montes, Moreno, and Morales, 2005).
Multinational enterprises have also faced the liability of foreignness,
including a set costs associated with, among other things, unfamiliar
operating environments, economic, administrative, and cultural
differences, and with the challenges of coordination over geographic
distances (Goodall and Roberts, 2003). They acquire teamwork strategy,
culture, and capability to gain success and survive in the global
market. Similarly, exporting firms tend to implement the culture of
teamwork for gaining competitiveness and achieving performance in the
international marketplace. Thus, teamwork is likely to have a positive
and direct influence on export performance. Therefore,
Hypothesis 1: Firms with greater degree of teamwork are likely to
have higher export performance.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
2.2 Organizational Learning
In this study, organizational learning is one of three dimensions
of management capability and it is a significant factor of driving
export performance. Organizational capability has gained strategic
importance for firms. It refers to a collective capability based on
experiential and cognitive processes and involving knowledge
acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge utilization
(Aragon-Correa, Garcia-Morales, and Cordon-Pozo, 2007). It seeks to
respond to the challenges that arise in a constantly changing business
environment and can help firms to confront their long-term survival
difficulties. It is a true source of heterogeneity and of potentially
sustainable competitive advantages according to their different
capabilities for learning and adsorbing knowledge (Real, Leal, and
Roldan, 2006). With the necessity of the organizational learning
concept, organizational learning is a way for achieving competitive
advantage and helping firms to become more innovate and improve their
performance. Organizational learning is defined as the ability of firms
to process, create, acquire, transfer, and integrate knowledge, and to
modify their behaviors to reflect the new cognition with a view to
improving their performance (Jerez-Gomez, Cespedes-Lorente, and
Valle-Cabrera, 2005). It is a source of heterogeneity among
organizations and a basis for a possible competitive advantage via a
change in the traditional way of dealing with business management.
Definitely, it is an essential element to successfully compete in a
global marketplace. Similarly, organizational learning is the ingrained
intra-organizational culture and values towards learning manifested via
commitment to learning, sharing a common vision towards learning as well
as intraorganizational knowledge sharing (Panayides, 2007). Firms with
higher organizational learning tend to perform very well in the
competitive markets. In the process of organizational learning,
organizational values, market information processing behaviors, and
organizational actions are important for firms to enhance and support
themselves to have and implement (Wu and Cavusgil, 2006).
In the existing literatures, organizational learning is a major
concept for explaining competitive advantage and affecting performance.
It has a positive influence on relationship orientation and on the
improvement of firms' effectiveness and performance (Panayides,
2007). Likely, organizational learning is capable of additionally
reinforcing firms' sustainable competitive advantage and positively
affecting the establishment of long-term relationships with strategic
clients (Sabtos-Vijande, Sanzo-Perez, Alvarez-Gonzalez, and
Vazquez-Casielles, 2005). It positively affects firm performance.
Achieving global competitiveness in the markets, exporting firms also
effectively and efficiently utilize organizational learning to meet
customer values and expectations and gain superior export performance.
Thus, organizational learning is likely to have a positive and direct
influence on export performance. Therefore,
Hypothesis 2: Firms with the greater degree of organizational
learning are likely to have higher export performance.
2.3 Entrepreneurial Orientation
With the key components of management capability, entrepreneurial
orientation effectively plays a significant role in explaining export
performance. It is the strategy-making processes and styles of firms
that engage in entrepreneurial activities. Here, entrepreneurial
orientation is defined as the organizational processes, methods, styles,
practices, and decision-making activities employed by firms that lead to
new entry (Lumpkin and Dess, 2001). It includes a propensity to act
autonomously, a willingness to innovate and take risks, and a tendency
to be aggressive toward competitors and proactive to relative
marketplace opportunities. For the importance of business expansion,
entrepreneurial orientation is the processes, practices, and
decision-making activities that lead to new entry (Lumpkin and Dess,
1996). It has five dimensions, including autonomy, innovativeness, risk
taking, proactiveness, and competitive aggressiveness. Likely,
entrepreneurial orientation is an essential feature of high performing
firms. It refers to a firm's strategic orientation, capturing
specific entrepreneurial aspects of decision-making styles, methods, and
practices (Wiklund and Shepherd, 2005). Firms with
entrepreneurial-oriented behaviors tend to engage in product market
innovations, undertake risky ventures, and come up with proactive
innovations in order to beat the competitors. In the need to understand
the concepts of entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial behaviors
enhance firms to gain the creation of new businesses within the existing
business and renewal or revival of ongoing businesses that have become
stagnant or require transformation (Hult, Hurley, and Knight, 2004).
Thus, entrepreneurial orientation is critical for the survival and
growth of firms. Effectively gaining a successful study and explicitly
meeting an interesting goal and objective, entrepreneurial orientation
has been significantly implemented to explain and investigate its
relationships with firms' performance and success.
Accordingly, entrepreneurial orientation is a key determinant of
performance (Knight, 2000). It helps firms improve competitive
advantage, performance, and viability. Firms with a greater
entrepreneurial orientation have superior performance and success. For
small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), entrepreneurial orientation
is related to SMEs' product innovativeness which SMEs implement it
to achieve performance, gain competitiveness, and enhance sustainability
(Avlonitis and Salavou, 2007). They definitely establish, create, and
build the entrepreneurial orientation skills in order to encourage their
abilities in satisfying customer needs and receiving their goals and
objectives. Similarly, exporting firms also exploit the entrepreneurial
orientation to survive in the global competitive markets and have
outstanding export performance. Thus, entrepreneurial orientation is
likely to have a positive and direct influence on export performance.
Hypothesis 3: Firms with the greater degree of entrepreneurial
orientation are likely to have higher export performance.
3. RESEARCH METHODS
3.1 Sample Selection and Data Collection Procedure
In this study, we selected firms in leather businesses of Thailand
as the sample. In all, 500 firms were randomly chosen from the list. A
mail survey procedure via the questionnaire was used for data
collection. The key participants in this study were marketing directors
or marketing executives of leather businesses in Thailand. With regards
to the questionnaire mailing, 72 surveys were undeliverable because some
firms were no longer in business or had moved to unknown locations.
Deducting the undeliverables from the original 500 mailed, the valid
mailing was 428 surveys, from which 191 responses were received. Of the
surveys completed and returned, only 165 were usable. The effective
response rate was approximately 39%. According to Aaker, Kumar and Day
(2001), the response rate for a mail survey, without an appropriate
follow-up procedure, is less than 20%. Thus, the response rate of this
study is considered acceptable.
To test potential and non-response bias and to detect and consider
possible problems with non-response errors, the assessment and
investigation of non-response-bias was centered on two different
procedures: (1) a comparison of sample statistics and known values of
the population, such as number of employees, number of years in doing
business, and amount of capital funding, and (2) a comparison of first
wave and second wave data recommended by Armstrong and Overton (1977).
Neither procedure showed significant differences.
Empirically examining the relationships mentioned earlier, all
variables were obtained from the survey. Here, measurements of dependent
variable, independent variables, and control variables are described as
follows. Export performance is a dependent variable, and it refers to
the outcome of exporting products and services into foreign markets
(Rose and Shoham, 2002). This construct was measured using the scale
items introduced by Rose and Shoham (2002). These items gauged export
sales growth, export gross profit margin, export market share growth, as
well as five-year changes in export sales growth, export gross profit
margin, and export market share growth.
For the independent variables of the study, teamwork,
organizational learning, and entrepreneurial orientation are key
determinants of the relationships. First, teamwork was measured through
the ability of firms to ensure that the people working together in it
have complementary skills and interactions that ease obtaining planned
objectives and the creation of a team spirit with cohesion (Montes,
Moreno, and Morales, 2005). Four items were used to assess the
collaboration of problem solving and conflict resolution, communicating
openly, goal setting and performance appraisal of the team, and planning
and task coordination among members. Second, organization learning was
gauged through the collective capability based on experiential and
cognitive processes and involving knowledge acquisition, knowledge
sharing, and knowledge utilization (Aragon-Correa, Garcia-Morales, and
Cordon-Pozo, 2007). Four items were used to investigate the ability of
firms to process, create, acquire, transfer, and integrate knowledge,
and to modify their behaviors to reflect the new cognition with a view
to improving their performance. Third, entrepreneurial orientation was
evaluated through the organizational processes, methods, styles,
practices, and decision-making activities employed by firms that lead to
new entry (Lumpkin and Dess, 2001). Four items were applied to test the
propensity to act autonomously, a willingness to innovate and take
risks, and a tendency to be aggressive toward competitors and proactive
relative marketplace opportunities.
With the need to investigate the hypothesized relationships, firm
size, firm age, and firm capital are control variables. Firm size may
affect the ability to learn and diversify operations, and to survive in
the markets (Arora and Fosfuri, 2000). It was measured by the number of
employees in a firm. Firm age may influence a firm's technological
learning capacity, business activities, and the profitability of
operations (Zahra, Ireland and Hitt, 2000). It was measured by the
number of years a firm has been in existence. Also, firm capital may
impact the capacity of a firm to implement business strategies in order
to achieve superior performance (Ussahawanitchakit, 2005). It was
measured by the amount of money a firm has invested in the business.
First, factor analysis was utilized to examine, measure,
investigate, and assess the underlying relationships of a large number
of items and to determine whether they can be reduced to a smaller set
of factors. The factor analyses conducted were done separately on each
set of the items representing a particular scale due to limited
observations. With respect to the confirmatory factor analysis, this
analysis has a high potential to inflate the component loadings. Thus, a
higher rule-of-thumb, a cut-off value of 0.40, was adopted (Nunnally and
Bernstein, 1994). All factor loadings are greater than the 0.40 cut-off
and are statistically significant. Second, the reliability of the
measurements was evaluated by Cronbach alpha coefficients. In the scale
reliability, Cronbach alpha coefficients are greater than 0.70 (Nunnally
and Bernstein, 1994). The scales of all measures appear to produce
internally consistent results; thus, these measures are deemed
appropriate for further analysis because they express an accepted
validity and reliability in this study. Table 1 presents the results for
both factor loadings and Cronbach alpha for multiple-item scales used in
The ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis is used to
test and examine the hypothesized relationships and estimate factors
affecting a firm's export performance. Because all dependent
variable, independent variables, and control variables in this study
were neither nominal data nor categorical data, OLS is an appropriate
method for examining the hypothesized relationships between management
capability and export performance (Aulakh, Kotabe and Teegen, 2000).
With the need to understand the relationships in this study, the
research model of the aforementioned relationships is as follows:
Equation 1: Export performance = [[beta].sub.01] +
[[beta].sub.1]teamwork + [[beta].sub.2]organizational learning +
[[beta].sub.3]entrepreneurial orientation + [[beta].sub.4]firm size +
[[beta].sub.5]firm age + [[beta].sub.6]firm capital + [epsilon]
Equation 2: Export performance = [[beta].sub.02] +
[[beta].sub.7]teamwork + [[beta].sub.8]firm size + [[beta].sub.9]firm
age + [[beta].sub.10]firm capital + [epsilon]
Equation 3: Export performance = [[beta].sub.03] +
[[beta].sub.11]organizational learning + [[beta].sub.12]firm size +
[[beta].sub.13]firm age + [[beta].sub.14]firm capital + [epsilon]
Equation 4: Export performance = [[beta].sub.04] +
[[beta].sub.15]entreprenuerial orientation + [[beta].sub.16]firm size +
[[beta].sub.17]firm age + [[beta].sub.18]firm capital + [epsilon]
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 2 shows the descriptive statistics and correlation matrix for
all variables. With respect to potential problems relating to
multicollinearity, variance inflation factors (VIF) were used to provide
information on the extent to which non-orthogonality among independent
variables inflates standard errors. The VIFs range from 1.37 to 3.06,
well below the cut-off value of 10 recommended by Neter, Wasserman and
Kutner (1985), meaning that the independent variables are not correlated
with each other. Therefore, there are no substantial multicollinearity
problems encountered in this study.
Table 3 presents the results of OLS regression analysis of the
relationships between teamwork and export performance. In this study,
management capability is a key factor of explaining export performance.
Teamwork has a significant positive relationship with export performance
([b.sub.1] = 0.22, p < 0.08). It is a significant factor of creating
firms' competitive advantage and performance and an important
influence on firms' organizational innovation which they implement
it to meet customer needs and promote performance and success (Montes,
Moreno, and Morales, 2005). Firms with a greater teamwork are likely to
definitely have stronger competitive advantage and effectively gain
superior performance and success in the international competitive
markets. Thus, Hypothesis 1 is supported.
For the second dimension of management capability, organizational
learning has a direct important effect on export performance.
Organizational learning is shown to have a significant positive
influence on export performance ([b.sub.11] = 0.28, p < 0.03). It is
a source of heterogeneity among organizations and a basis for a possible
competitive advantage via a change in the traditional way of dealing
with business management, an essential element to successfully compete
in a global marketplace (Aragon-Correa, Garcia-Morales, and Cordon-Pozo,
2007). Firms with higher organizational learning tend to perform very
well in the competitive markets through the implementation of
organizational values, market information processing behaviors, and
organizational actions to enhance and support themselves to achieve
outstanding performance (Wu and Cavusgil, 2006). Similarly, exporting
firms have exploited the culture of organizational learning to succeed
in the global market. Thus, Hypothesis 2 is supported.
With the interest of management capability, entrepreneurial
orientation is also a main factor of driving export performance.
Entrepreneurial orientation is critically related to export performance.
It has a significant positive influence on export performance ([b.sub.3]
= 0.36, p < 0.04; [b.sub.15] = 0.35, p < 0.01). Entrepreneurial
orientation is critical for the survival and growth of firms which firms
have utilized it to enhance and gain the creation of new businesses
within the existing business and renewal or revival of ongoing
businesses that have become stagnant or require transformation (Hult,
Hurley, and Knight, 2004). Firm with effectively implementing
entrepreneurial orientation tend to efficiently improve competitive
advantage, effectively achieve performance and success, and strongly
viability. Thus, Hypothesis 3 is supported.
5. CONTRIBUTIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR RESEARCH
5.1 Theoretical Contributions and Future Directions for Research
This study is intended to provide a clearer understanding of
management capability that has a significant positive impact on the need
to sustain competitive advantage and gain export performance. The study
provides unique theoretical contributions expanding on previous
knowledge and literature of management capability and export
performance. For advancing the field theoretically, this study is one of
the first known studies to directly link management capability to export
performance in the leather businesses of Thailand. This study attempts
to comprehend the key components of management capability in the same
model, including teamwork, organizational learning, and entrepreneurial
orientation. In addition, this study assesses the importance of
management capability relative to the export performance of the leather
businesses in Thailand. According to the results of this study, the need
for further research is apparent. Because this study finds that
organizational learning has no significant influence on export
performance under the research model that has three components of
management capability in the same model, future research is needed to
conceptualize the measurement of management capability and export
performance and find some explanations about why each independent
variable that is put in the different model is significant for the
relationship model. While the importance of management capability still
exists, this study finds that management capability can directly impact
export performance. Future research is needed to collect data from a
larger population and/or a comparative population in order to increase
the level of reliable results.
5.2 Managerial Contributions
Another implication now exists for firm owners, executives, and
managers. This study helps managers identify and justify key components
that may be more critical in a rigorously international competitive
market. Managers should effectively manage and utilize the components of
management capability, including teamwork, organizational learning, and
entrepreneurial orientation, to sustain and succeed. These managers may
put more emphasis on management capability than on other variations. In
the challenge of management capability, managers can implement teamwork,
organizational learning, and entrepreneurial orientation within the
organization, but they should also plan to expand their other strategies
to include or graduate to an advanced business operation in order to
continuously maintain and increase the levels of business excellence,
competitive advantage, and competitiveness. To maximize the benefits of
management capability, managers should provide other resources to
support its effectiveness and create new opportunities in the global
This study aims at empirically investigating the influences of
management capability on export performance in Thailand. Management
capability has relevant significance on export performance. Three
dimensions of management capability (teamwork, organizational learning,
and entrepreneurial orientation) are hypothesized to effectively promote
export performance. Also, the leather businesses in Thailand were
selected as a sample of the study. In this study, management capability
has a greater significance for explaining export performance.
Interestingly, teamwork, organizational learning, and entrepreneurial
orientation have a significant positive influence on Thai leather
businesses' export performance. As growth and sustainability
necessitates an increased excellent operation, research analyzing this
methodology will contribute significantly toward understanding how
leather businesses in Thailand utilize and exploit their management
capability to efficiently improve business operations, effectively
enhance competitive advantage, distinguishably gain performance and
success, and critically achieve global competitiveness in the
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Zahra, Shaker A., Ireland, R. Duane and Hitt, Michael A. 2000.
International Expansion by New Venture Firms: International Diversity,
Mode of Market Entry, Technological Learning, and Performance. Academy
of Management Journal, 43(5): 925-950.
Dr. Phapruke Ussahawanitchakit earned his Ph.D. at Washington State
University in 2002. Currently he is an assistant professor of
accounting, a deputy dean of academic affairs, and a director of
graduate studies at Faculty of Accountancy and Management, Mahasarakham
Phapruke Ussahawanitchakit, Mahasarakham University, THAILAND
RESULTS OF MEASURE VALIDATION
Items Factor Loadings Cronbach Alpha
Export Performance .88-.93 0.89
Teamwork .72-.86 0.75
Organizational Learning .83-.91 0.87
Entrepreneurial Orientation .83-.89 0.74
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND CORRELATION MATRIX
Variables EP TW OL
Mean 3.53 4.20 4.14
Standard deviation 0.98 0.53 0.58
Export performance (EP)
Teamwork (TW) 0.20
Organizational learning (OL) 0.33 ** 0.67 **
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) 0.40 ** 0.62 ** 0.67 **
Firm size (FS) 0.01 -0.05 0.00
Firm age (FA) -0.17 -0.04 0.05
Firm capital (FC) 0.15 -0.11 -0.01
Variables EO FS
Mean 3.79 173.25
Standard deviation 0.65 98.25
Export performance (EP)
Organizational learning (OL)
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO)
Firm size (FS) -0.13
Firm age (FA) -0.03 0.23
Firm capital (FC) 0.01 0.57 **
Variables FA FC
Mean 16.25 82.50
Standard deviation 5.45 56.20
Export performance (EP)
Organizational learning (OL)
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO)
Firm size (FS)
Firm age (FA)
Firm capital (FC) 0.11
RESULTS OF OLS REGRESSION ANALYSIS (a)
Variables 1 2
Teamwork 0.22* 0.13
Organizational learning 0.18
Entrepreneurial orientation 0.36 **
Firm size 0.14 0.05
Firm age -0.22 * (0.19)
Firm capital 0.14 0.23
Adjusted [R.sup.2] 0.15 0.14
Variables 3 4
Organizational learning 0.28 **
Entrepreneurial orientation 0.35 ***
Firm size 0.06 0.12
Firm age -0.21 * (0.20)
Firm capital 0.21 * 0.17
Adjusted [R.sup.2] 0.11 0.15
(a) Beta coefficients with standard errors in parenthesis.