The relationship between the intentional teaching of reading
strategies and the increase in reading comprehension was studied. The
Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) reading pretest and posttest
scores of 57 subjects were analyzed to see if there was a significant
increase in performance after the reading strategies were taught. The
study also analyzed the difference in how the boys performed in
comparison to girls and the results were discussed to see if there was a
correlation with gender and reading gains and losses. There was a
significant increase in the NWEA post-test scores after the students had
received specific reading strategy instruction.
Teachers today are being called on to analyze and evaluate their
teaching practices (Taylor, Pearson, Peterson, & Rodriguez, 2003).
Due to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, strict guidelines have been
set that incorporate standardized testing to insure that all teachers
are teaching what they are required to and that all children are
learning what they need to learn (Harvey & Goudvis, 2000). Many
educators have been caught up in the standardized testing craze and have
lost sight of the fact that their primary goal is to increase
children's literacy abilities and not just get them ready for the
test (Jago, 2005). There is a plethora of research that teachers can use
to strengthen and solidify the reading pedagogy in their classroom
(Taylor et al., 2003).
In order to assure that the students under their care will receive
the best possible instruction in the area of reading, teachers need to
first understand and be knowledgeable of brain and gender-based
research. This research states that there are significant differences in
the way boys and girls learn how to read. Being aware not only of the
differences, but the reasons why, can help teachers of reading become
more effective and proficient in reaching all of the students in their
classrooms (Gurian & Ballew, 2003).
According to the National Reading Panel (NRP, 2000), there are five
specific practices that teachers should be using in their classrooms to
help children become better readers: "(a) phonemic awareness
instruction, (b) explicit, systematic phonics instruction, (c) repeated
oral reading practice with feedback and guidance, (d) direct and
indirect vocabulary instruction, and (e) comprehension strategies
instruction" (Taylor et al., 2003, p. 4).
Focusing on the area of comprehension strategies instruction,
teachers are discovering that reading comprehension is not something
children acquire as they read (Harvey & Goudvis, 2000). Harvey and
Goudvis (2000) note that researchers Linda Fielding and P. David Pearson
espoused that comprehension is now understood to be a process that
involves "knowledge, experience, thinking, and teaching" (p.
6). In order to help children become more proficient readers, certain
reading strategies have to be explicitly taught in order to help
students grow as readers. These specific strategies include (a) creating
mental pictures of what they are reading; (b) using background knowledge
to make connections; (c) asking questions before, during, and after they
read; (d) making inferences during and after reading; (e) determining
the most important ideas or themes; (f) synthesizing information; and
(g) using "fix-up" strategies when something doesn't make
sense (Zimmerman & Hutchins, 2003).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to see if there was a significant
difference between how students perform on reading tests after having
received the same instruction in using reading strategies. Instilling
the love of reading in a child can be an amazing accomplishment. Many
teachers strive to provide a variety of materials that will interest
their students and capture their curiosity (Parsons, 2004). They do all
of this in an effort to get them hooked into reading. While many
children will get captivated, if they are not able to begin to read and
understand the text on their own, they will lose interest in reading.
Many teachers use the phrase, "In order to become a better reader
you have to read, read, read!" Although it is true that this might
help increase children's fluency, vocabulary and even their
background knowledge, it will not help them gain valuable comprehension
skills needed to gain more understanding from the text (Mason, Meadan,
Hedin, & Corso, 2006). Furthermore, teachers have the responsibility
to teach children how to read and comprehend a variety of genres. Many
struggling readers are able to decipher and decode what they are
reading, but they get little out of their reading beyond that. If these
students are to be able to continue to grow as readers, they must be
intentionally taught the important reading strategies they need to gain
and construct meaning from what they read. These children need to see
these strategies modeled, they need to be led through guided practice,
and finally they need to be given time to practice these strategies
independently. To make sure that these students truly understand and
apply the strategies correctly, teachers have to listen to their
conversations as they discuss their readings with their peers. It is
important that their progress is monitored and that they have meaningful
conversations with the teacher about what they understand and what they
do not (Harvey & Goudvis, 2000).
A large amount, if not most, of the reading children do in the
upper elementary grades is nonfiction (Harvey, 1998). Content area
classes such as social studies, science, mathematics, and geography
expose students to texts that provide a myriad of important information
they need to be able to understand and learn. Children need to be taught
that different genres are approached differently. When they are able to
understand that an author has a specific purpose, they can read the
passage accordingly (Harvey, 1998).
This study attempted to research whether the explicit teaching of
reading strategies can increase reading comprehension and answer the
1. Will there be a difference between students' pre- and
post-Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) reading test scores after
teaching the following reading strategies: (a) questioning to clarify
meaning; (b) using background knowledge to make connections; (c) making
inferences and drawing conclusions; (d) visualizing or creating mental
images from what is being read; (e) determining the most important ideas
or themes; (f) synthesizing information; and (g) using
"fix-up" strategies such as skipping ahead, rereading, using a
dictionary, and reading passage aloud.
2. Will there be a significant difference in NWEA reading pre- and
posttest scores between boys and girls in all of the above areas?
The students' gain was monitored by a pre- and post-NWEA test.
This test was taken on the computer and measured the students'
ability in reading and math. Students took the test at the beginning of
the school year in October and once again at the middle of the year
(late January). The two reading scores were compared to see if students
had losses or gains as far as their comprehension was concerned. The
boys' and girls' scores were also analyzed and compared to see
if there was a significant difference in how they performed.
The null hypothesis was applied to this study. There will be no
significant difference between the means of the pre- and post-NWEA
reading tests after the explicit teaching of specific reading
strategies. There will also be no significant difference in how the boys
perform vs. the girls. The evidence of this will be based on the
comparison of the students' pre- and post-NWEA tests.
Limitations of Study
This study was limited due to the fact that only three fourth-grade
classes were examined. Participants were chosen according to the
convenience method (students from the researcher's school were
utilized). These results could not be generalized due to the fact that
students' growth could have also been influenced by other teachers
(most of them receive other help such as Title 1 or special education
services), learning styles, and self motivation on each student's
part. The students' gains were only analyzed using the NWEA test.
This also limits the study because educators usually take into account
more than one assessment to monitor student progress.
Review of Related Literature
Reading is a skill that is acquired at a young age and used
throughout life. Because of this, it is understood that it is, in fact,
probably one of life's most important skills that children must
master. Researchers believe that if a child does not learn the ins and
outs of reading (of which comprehension is a major part) by third grade,
they will fall so far behind their peers that they will never be able to
catch up (Geary, 2006). While reading fluency is important, a child
needs to be able to comprehend what he or she is reading in order to
begin to draw out the meaning from the text. If they are not able to get
past just reading words they will, in essence, become "a slave to
the actual printed word" (Young, 1989, p. 760).
Learning to Read and Reading to Learn
Children typically begin receiving formal instruction in reading
around the age of five, when they enter kindergarten. Every child begins
with different readiness skills and experiences; however, they do not
all learn how to read at the same age. Normally, children will begin
learning how to decipher the "code of reading" anytime between
the ages of five and eight (Johnson & Sulzby, 1999). Although it has
been widely accepted that children learn to read in the primary grades
and, as they approach third grade, are beginning to transition to a
read-to-learn phase of the reading process, Harvey (1998) believes that
this is actually a myth. Harvey states, "Reading is not nearly so
simple a process; we develop strategies to improve reading proficiency
well into adulthood" (p. 71).
Researchers agree that reading comprehension is a process. It is
the "interaction among word identification, prior knowledge,
comprehension strategies, and engagement" (Cunningham et al., 2004,
p. 186). The most basic part of comprehension is word identification. A
student learns to decode words at the beginning and starts to apply
rules about how words should look and sound. As they continue learning
how to read, word identification turns into not only decoding words, but
learning about the meanings of words and their positions in sentences.
They also begin to gain an understanding of how all these words fit
together to form a piece of information that will hopefully be of
interest or use to them (Cunningham et al., 2004).
Another important component of reading comprehension is the
activation of prior knowledge or making connections while reading.
Readers must be able to draw from their experiences to apply what they
are reading. If a student is not able to activate the schema necessary
for a specific piece of text, his or her comprehension will be either
distorted or greatly hindered (Young, 1989). Young students will, at
first, activate their schema (background knowledge and experience) and
then, as they grow as readers, they strengthen and build on it. This is
the reason why individuals may read a book several times and be able to
gain different meanings and perspectives every time they read it. They
are bringing new experiences to a text every time they read because
their lives are constantly evolving. This "layering of
experiences" also increases their ability to gain meaning from a
piece of text (Zimmerman & Hutchins, 2003 p. 45).
Reading Strategies and Comprehension: Views and Beliefs
Researchers agree that reading strategies are part of a set of
skills that students need to use as they read. Students engage in the
use of not only one, but probably several strategies as they read
(Geary, 2006). In a study done by researchers Schunk and Rice (1992), it
was discovered that teaching children reading strategies often helps
them improve their comprehension. This is especially true for children
who have learning problems and have trouble with organization of their
thoughts or going through a process systematically. However, they
cautioned that explicit instruction won't always ensure that
students will be able to transfer their learning or put it into practice
when they read.(Schunk & Rice, 1992). Children don't always
apply what they learn about reading strategies because (a) they
don't realize that they can use the strategies outside of the given
lesson, (b) they do not understand how to change the strategy and make
it work for what they're doing, (c) it is hard for them to believe
that they can apply the strategy on their own, and (d) they don't
understand that the use of the strategies will bring them success
(Schunk & Rice, 1992). Thus, other researchers argue that "the
goal of comprehension instruction should be to improve readers'
ability to comprehend" (Johnston, 1985, p. 635). The strategies the
child is able to use when the teacher is not present is what they
believe is the important part of strategy instruction. So this belief
says that teaching "learning strategies" rather than just
reading strategies is important for improving reading skills as well
Brain Research on Gender and Reading Development
Because learning to read is a process that develops over time and
"involves mastery of a rich variety of skills" it is important
to know all of the factors that can affect how a child achieves literacy
(Paris & Jacobs, 1984, p. 2083). Research into brain development has
shed much light on the differences between male and female brains and
how they acquire, translate, and use knowledge (Gurian & Ballew,
2003). Girls tend to use more of their brains than boys and imaging
studies have shown that the female brain at rest is more active than a
male's "activated brain" (Gurian & Ballew, 2003, p.
10). Gurian and Ballew further point out:
This process can put boys at a significant disadvantage when they
are asked to begin to interpret the meaning of the text rather than just
decode the words. And if this wasn't enough to make reading
development difficult, hormones come into play in both males and females
to further complicate the matter.
Study after study points out the advantage that girls are more
likely to have in the area of reading acquisition because of how their
brains develop and because their bodies produce hormones that make
learning how to read come easily and more naturally to them. According
to the nation's report card, the National Assessment of Educational
Progress (NAEP), by the time boys reach high school, they have fallen
nearly twenty points behind girls in the area of reading. This shows
that these students are leaving high school unable to read at the
standard at which they are expected to function in society. An inability
to read then causes an inability for them to earn (Drehle, 2007).
Because of these facts, it is essential that boys have an equal chance
to develop their reading skills and their reading abilities (Bruemmer,
All of the research encountered reiterates the same message:
children who utilize reading strategies understand more of what they
read than children who do not (Geary, 2006). It has also been upheld
that proficient readers will use these strategies to make sense of what
they read, but non-proficient readers won't. In fact, poor readers
seem to not be aware of the fact that these strategies can help them
understand what they read (Taylor et al., 2003). The explicit teaching
of reading strategies can help catapult all struggling readers into a
zone where they can gain the self-confidence they need to go on to
become successful readers (Geary, 2006).
Methods and Procedures
This was a quasi-experimental study that employed a single-group
pretest-posttest design. The purpose of the study was to determine if
there would be an increase in the reading comprehension of the subjects
when they were explicitly taught certain reading strategies. The study
also tried to observe if there was a statistical significance between
the mean scores of the NWEA pretest and posttests between boys and
The explicit teaching of reading was the independent variable. The
subjects received explicit teaching of the following reading strategies:
(a) visualization; (b) making connections by activating prior knowledge;
(c) asking questions before, during, and after reading; (d) making
inferences and drawing conclusions during and after reading; (e)
determining the main ideas or recurring themes in the text; (f)
synthesizing information and; (g) using fix-up strategies (Zimmerman
& Hutchins, 2003, pp. 5-6). The students were given the NWEA reading
test before the study began to determine their grade level equivalent in
the area of reading comprehension. The test was repeated after the
explicit reading strategies were implemented. This was the dependent
variable. The data were analyzed using a matched t test. The results
between the boys and the girls were also analyzed using a matched t test
to see if there was a statistical difference in how boys performed vs.
girls after receiving explicit reading strategy instruction. The
increase of the mean scores in the boys' and girls' posttests
were also analyzed and compared to determine if they differed and, if
so, by how much.
The subjects selected for this study were fourth-grade students
from an elementary school in the Columbia Basin located in eastern
Washington. The sample was based on the convenience method because the
researcher used subjects from her school that were in the fourth grade.
A total of 57 students participated: 32 of the participants were male
and 25 were female. Of the 32 males who participated, 19 were Hispanic,
12 were Caucasian, and 1 was African American. Of the 25 females who
participated, 8 were Hispanic, 16 were Caucasian, and 1 was African
American. The study took place during the 2008-2009 school year.
The null hypothesis was applied to this study. It was determined
that there would not be a significant difference between the mean scores
of the students' pretest and posttest on the NWEA reading test
after explicit teaching of reading strategies was implemented to
increase the reading comprehension of the subjects. It was also
determined that there would not be a statistical significance between
the mean scores of the pre- and posttests between boys and girls.
The 57 subjects were given the NWEA reading test at the beginning
of the school year, in October, to determine their
grade-level-equivalent status. The subjects then received explicit
teaching of the specified reading strategies over a three month period.
The subjects were then given the NWEA test again in late January and the
results were analyzed using a matched t test. The boys' and
girls' pre- and post-NWEA test scores were also analyzed using a
matched t test to determine if there was a significant difference in how
the two groups performed. The increase of mean scores in the posttests
of the boys and girls were analyzed and compared also to determine if
either group had a higher increase than the other.
The NWEA reading test consists of 41 questions which test five
different sub-skills including (a) word recognition and vocabulary, (b)
reading comprehension-literal, (c) reading
comprehension-inferential/interpretive, (d) reading
comprehension-evaluation, and (e) literary response and analysis (NWEA,
n.d.f). After the test is taken, teachers can access a NWEA Measure of
Academic Progress (MAP) Report that lists the names of their students
and their test scores. The tests provide a Rasch uniT (RIT) score
"measures student achievement and growth" (NWEA n.d.a, p. 6).
A RIT scale is a measurement scale used by NWEA that "aligns
student achievement levels with item difficulties on the same
scale" (NWEA, n.d.e., [paragraph] 3).
The data in this study were analyzed using a matched t test. This
test was chosen because the same subjects were used throughout the study
and they were given both a pre-and posttest. All of the students'
pre- and posttests were analyzed and the level of significance was
determined to see if the null hypothesis would be rejected. The t
critical two-tailed results were analyzed to determine what the level of
significance was exactly.
The boys' and girls' scores were then separated and a
matched t test was calculated for each gender to determine if there was
a significant difference in pretests and posttests among the genders.
After the t test was performed on the scores of the boys and girls, the
scores were then compared to see if one gender showed more growth than
The scores of each participant who showed growth was then taken and
separated by gender. Each total of growth points was added up for each
gender and a matched t test was performed. The means of the boys'
growth and the girls' growth were then compared and analyzed to see
if there was a difference.
Students' pre- and post-NWEA reading test scores were analyzed
using a matched t test. Boys' and girls' scores were then
separated and also analyzed using the same test (matched t test) to see
if there was a significant difference between the means of the different
The students' pre- and post-NWEA scores were analyzed and the
mean of the pretest scores was found to be 201.82 and the mean of the
posttest scores was 207.14. There was a significant difference between
the pretest and posttest scores, t(56) = 4.59, p < .001, with the
mean of posttest scores being higher than the mean of pretest scores.
This was statistically significant enough to reject the null hypothesis
that stated there would be no significant increase in the comprehension
of students' scores after they were explicitly taught the seven
Seventy percent of the subjects tested (40 of 57) showed growth.
Twenty-six percent of the subjects tested (15 of 57) regressed, and out
of the 26% that regressed, 53% (8 of 15) regressed by a total of 4 or
more points. Two subjects of the 57 subjects tested, or .04%, showed no
change in their pre- and posttest scores.
The means for the boys' pre- and post-NWEA scores were 200.67
(pretest) and 204.03 (posttest) respectively. The mean scores for the
girls were 203.29 (pretest) and 211.16 (posttest). There was a
significant difference between the boys' pretest and posttest
scores, t(30) = 2.13, p < .05, with the mean of posttest scores being
higher than the mean of pretest scores. There was also a significant
difference between the girls' pretest and posttest scores, t(23) =
4.92, p < .001; the mean of the posttest scores was higher than the
mean of the pretest scores. Much of the research done on gender states
that girls tend to perform better in reading than boys. While the
numbers may indicate that the girls outperformed the boys, one cannot
ignore that there may be many reasons why it seems the girls performed
better than the boys (Gurian & Ballew, 2003).
A total of 20 boys showed an increase on their posttest scores as
compared to their pretest scores. Twenty girls showed an increase on
their posttest scores as compared to their pretest scores as well. When
the average gains for the boys (9.45) were compared to the average gains
for the girls (9.95) there was a difference of 0.50. However, a matched
t test performed on the total number of points gained by the boys and by
the girls resulted in the following outcome: t(38) = 0.29, p > .05.
This means that there was no statistical significance in how the boys
performed in comparison to the girls. This difference might, however, be
explained due to the fact that the average decrease in posttest scores
for the boys was 6.8 yet the average decrease in posttest scores for the
girls was 3.4.
Learning how to read is probably one of the most important skills
that a child will acquire in his/her lifetime. Mastering this skill
takes years and the processes involved in achieving success in this area
are numerous. However, many experts agree that reading comprehension is
one of the most important, if not major, parts of reading a reader must
be able to conquer before becoming a competent reader (Zimmermann &
This study investigated whether the explicit teaching of reading
strategies could have an impact on the increase of reading comprehension
for boys and girls. It further analyzed whether there was a significant
difference in how the boys performed in comparison to the girls.
The results showed that there was a significant increase in the
mean scores of the students' posttest in comparison to their
pretest scores. The findings supported other research and studies that
state that the intentional teaching of reading strategies has a positive
impact on the reading comprehension of students (Schunk & Rice,
1992). Most of the students involved in the study (40 out of 57) showed
growth in the area of reading comprehension after they received
instruction in how to use and apply the reading strategies. It cannot be
ignored however, that some of the growth achieved by the students who
increased their posttest scores could have also been attributed to
receiving extra help in other programs such as Title 1, special
education, after school program (at the school), or an after school
tutor program at a local church.
While there was significant difference in the mean scores of the
boys' posttests in comparison to the mean scores of the girls"
posttests (0.50), caution has to be taken when making assumptions about
gender and its role in reading performance. Although some gender studies
have stated that "girls are approximately one and a half years
ahead of boys in reading and writing competence, at all school
levels," it cannot be generalized that this is why the results came
out as they did (Gurian & Ballew, 2003, p.24). The mean scores of
the girls' pretests (203.29) and posttests (211.17) were higher
than the mean scores of the boys' pretests (200.68) and posttests
(204.03). This difference can be attributed to many things that have
nothing to do with gender such as previous instruction, motivation,
effort, parental support and help, and just general mental ability
The use of reading strategies should continue to be taught because
there did seem to be a connection with increase in reading
comprehension. Teachers need to make sure that children are familiar
with all of the reading strategies and that they are given plenty of
opportunities to use them. Some of the research pointed out that
although it seems students understand the reading strategies, they do
not transfer them to different genres of reading, and in many cases do
not understand their importance in their reading success (Schunk &
The NWEA can be a useful tool for planning strategy instruction.
Teachers need to use the NWEA results to not only plan their curriculum
to better meet the needs of their learners, but they need to ensure that
children are given feedback on their progress on a regular basis.
Children need to be aware that they are just as responsible for their
learning as the teacher who is guiding them. If they feel they have
ownership of their progress they might put forth extra effort into
Further research needs to be done in gender differences so that the
needs of all learners, boys and girls, are met. Teachers need to set
high expectations for all students and not label or stereotype their
abilities or weaknesses based on their gender. Along with research in
gender differences, research on different ways students learn could also
benefit children and give teachers insight into new methods and ways to
reach a wider audience of learners.
This study showed that the explicit teaching of reading strategies
can help increase the reading comprehension of students. Because
mastering reading is a life-long process, care should be taken so that
students have a strong foundation on which to build their skills. A
solid reading program that includes carefully planned instruction that
takes into consideration where students are and provides them with
feedback that can help them grow is essential.
Furthermore, this study has pointed out that it is important for
teachers to be aware that boys and girls are different and should take
care to address the differences in how they learn. It is no longer
appropriate to use the "one size fits all" method of teaching
in the classroom when research demonstrates that the same method does
not work for everyone.
Bruemmer, K. H. (2006, July). Teaching to biological gender
preferences in an all-boys Catholic school [Electronic version]. English
Journal, 95(6), 37-41.
Cunningham, P. M., Cunningham, J. W., Moore, S. A., & Moore, D.
W. (2004). Reading and writing in elementary classrooms: Research based
K-4 Instruction (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. (Original
work published 2000).
Drehle, D. V. (2007, August 6). The boys are all right. Time,
Geary, P. (2006). Every child a reader: A national imperative
[Electronic version]. Reading Improvement, 43(4), 179-184.
Gurian, M., & Ballew, A. C. (2003). The boys and girls learn
differently: Action guide for teachers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Haertel, E. (1986, Spring). The valid use of student performance
measures for teacher evaluation [Electronic version]. Educational
Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 8(1), 45-60.
Harvey, S. (1998). Nonfiction matters: Reading, writing, and
research in grades 3-8. Markham, Ontario, Canada: Pembroke.
Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that work.
Markham, Ontario, Canada: Pembroke.
Instructional measure. (n.d.). Northwest Evaluation Association.
Retrieved April 5, 2008, from
Jago, C. (2005). Raising test scores one element at a time
[Electronic version]. Voices from the Middle, 13(2), 48-49.
Johnson, D., & Sulzby, E. (1999). Critical issue: Addressing
the literacy needs of emergent and early readers. In North Central
Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved May 13, 2008, from
Johnston, P. (1985, May). Teaching students to apply strategies
that improve reading comprehension [Electronic version]. The Elementary
School Journal, 85(5), 635-645.
Mason, L. H., Meadan, H., Hedin, L., & Corso, L. (2006).
Self-regulated strategy Development instruction for expository text
comprehension [Electronic version]. Teaching Exceptional Children,
Mason, L. H., Snyder, K. H., Sukhram, D. P., & Kedem, Y.
(2006). TWA +PLANS strategies for expository reading and writing:
Effects for nine fourth-grade students [Electronic version]. Teaching
Exceptional Children, 73(1), 69-89.
Northwest Evaluation Association. (n.d.a). Glossary of Terms.
Retrieved April 5, 2008, from
Northwest Evaluation Association. (n.d.b). Instructional Measure.
Retrieved April 5, 2008, from
Northwest Evaluation Association. (n.d.c). Measure student growth.
Retrieved April 5, 2008, from
Northwest Evaluation Association. (n.d.d). The reliability of NWEA
results. Retrieved April 19, 2008, from
Northwest Evaluation Association. (n.d.e). Research-based accuracy.
Retrieved April 19, 2008, from
Northwest Evaluation Association. (n.d.f). Sample Test Items.
Retrieved July 30, 2008, from
Paris, S. G., & Jacobs, J. E., (1984, December). The benefits
of informed instruction for children's reading awareness and
comprehension skills [Electronic version]. Child Development, 55(6),
Parsons, L. (2004, December). Challenging the gender divide:
Improving literacy for all [Electronic version]. Teacher Librarian,
Schunk D. H., & Rice M. J. (1992, Winter). Influence of
reading-comprehension reading strategy information on children's
achievement outcomes [Electronic version]. Learning Disabled Quarterly,
Taylor, B. M., Pearson, D. P., Peterson, D. S., & Rodriguez, M.
C. (2003). Reading growth in high-poverty classrooms: The influence of
teacher practices that encourage cognitive engagement in literacy
learning [Electronic version]. The Elementary School Journal, 104(1),
Young, J. D. (1989). A systematic approach to foreign language
reading instruction: What does the research suggest? [Electronic
version]. Hispania, 72(3), 755-762.
Zimmerman, S., & Hutchins, C. (2003). 7 Keys to comprehension:
How to help your kids read it and get it/New York: Three Rivers Press.
LUDIVINA PRADO, MED
Moses Lake School District
LEE A. PLOURDE, PH.D.
Central Washington Universio,-Wenatchee
Because the male brain is not as activated
in as many places, it becomes
overwhelmed by stimulation more
quickly, causing it to decide on the
importance of stimulants for their
necessary task. A lot goes untouched
by the male brain because it does
not attend to those things, preferring
to manage stimulation by "sticking
to a plan" (p. 12).
As a student takes a MAP test, he or
she is presented with items of vary
RITs, or levels of difficulty.
Once the MAP system determines
the difficulty level at which the student
is able to perform and the
system collects enough data to report
a student's abilities, the test ends and
the student is assigned an overall
RIT score (NWEA, n.d.e, [paragraph] 6).