A review of the literature identifies content enhancement
strategies used by general education and special education teachers, who
collaborate and co-teach in science and social studies, for improving
reading comprehension skills. This paper provides general and special
education teachers at the middle school and secondary level with
numerous content enhancement strategies for effectively teaching science
and social studies to students with learning problems, who have
difficulty with reading comprehension. Specifically, the content
enhancement strategies reviewed in this paper assist students in
organizing the information presented while becoming actively involved in
the learning process, storing the new information in their memory,
retrieving the necessary information when needed, and generalizing the
components in other content areas.
The majority of secondary students with exceptionalities are
educated in general education classrooms, and few secondary teachers in
general education have training in special education. Most general
education teachers in Missouri only take one course in special
education, which provides an overview of the various exceptionalities.
Unfortunately, secondary teachers never learn how to implement effective
teaching strategies for students with learning problems; they learn the
importance of content knowledge in their specific area, yet they seldom
learn the significance of pedagogical content knowledge. Special
education teachers serve as consultants and provide direct and indirect
services by modeling instructional methods, but secondary educators
should be prepared to meet the needs of students with disabilities
throughout the day (Schloss, Smith, & Schloss, 2001).
McKenzie (1991) differentiated between two methods for providing
secondary special education services: a content approach and a skills
approach. A special education teacher using the content approach
provides instruction in the core subject areas to students, who will not
benefit from inclusion. The skills approach enhances basic reading,
writing, computation, and social skills so that secondary students with
disabilities can be more successful in the secondary classroom. McKenzie
(1991) reported that the content approach was used by 79% of the special
education teachers surveyed and the skills approach by 19%. Special
education teachers need to focus more on teaching the acquisition of
skills. Most special education teachers, who teach content, do not
possess a teaching certificate in the specific area, and students with
disabilities would benefit from staying in the classroom and learning
from a teacher who possesses expertise in the content area. Although
secondary teachers are responsible for academic instruction, they may
often lack the pedagogical knowledge associated with effective methods
for augmenting the success of students with disabilities.
Since many students with disabilities are unable to learn the
content material through common instructional methods, they would
benefit from differentiated instructional methods or adaptations.
Adaptations or techniques that help students identify, organize,
understand, and remember information are called content enhancements
(Schloss, Smith, & Schloss, 2001). According to Platt (1996) and
Schloss, Smith, and Schloss (2001), a content enhancement is based on
the premise that students learn more when (1) they are more actively
involved, (2) abstract concepts are presented in concrete form, (3)
information is organized, (4) relationships between pieces of
information are made explicit, and (5) important information is
differentiated between unimportant information. Specifically, in an
interview with Dr. Janis Bulgren as reported by Walther-Thomas &
Brownell (2000), content enhancement devices are instructional
techniques designed to achieve a single goal in promoting learning. Dr.
Bulgren distinguishes between a device and a routine; she states that a
device is may be an analogy, a study guide, table, diagram, visual or
verbal organizer, or a story that promotes understanding (Walter-Thomas
& Brownell, 2000). Dr. Bulgren expounds by identifying a routine,
which is a set of integrated instructional procedures revolving around
one of these specific teaching devices that is designed to promote broad
learning goals associated with acquiring, storing, expressing,
demonstrating, manipulating, or generalizing knowledge of content
information (Walter-Thomas & Brownell, 2000).
Special education teachers possess expertise in the development and
use of content enhancements and through collaborative efforts, they
model and teach general education teachers how to implement the methods
effectively in the classroom. All students benefit from content
enhancements, not only the students with disabilities. General education
teachers can recognize the relevance associated with the success of
content enhancements for all students.
In this review, the best practices for teaching specific content
enhancement strategies to students with learning problems are described
and summarized. Analysis of the literature reveals high effects for many
of the devices and routines, which have empirical support for improving
student performance in the areas of science and social studies. Specific
content enhancement strategies, which have emerged from a review of the
literature, are presented in the following categories: (a) content
enhancement devices (techniques) and (b) content enhancement routines.
Content Enhancement Devices (Techniques)
The purpose of content enhancement devices is to promote learning
and comprehension. Content enhancements inform students of the purpose
of instruction, increase motivation, and use effective instructional
procedures (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2000). According to Haager and
Klingner (2005) powerful teaching devices are instructional tools that
the teacher uses to enhance learning. These devices are powerful in that
they enable the teacher to (a) focus on a specific point, (b) make
learning explicit, (c) prompt elaboration on specific points, and (d)
make ideas and relationships concrete (Haager & Klingner, 2005).
These devices include advanced organizers, graphic organizers, mnemonic
devices, and peer-mediated strategies.
Advanced organizers are often used at the beginning of a lesson.
The material is presented in advance of what is expected to be learned
by the students, and the presentation of the material allows a student
to mentally organize the new material with existing knowledge. The
material can include the tasks that will be performed, topics to be
presented, background information, new vocabulary, or anticipated
student outcomes (Schloss, Smith, & Schloss, 2001). Common features
of advanced organizers include linking the lesson content to prior
lessons or information, introducing the targeted content, explaining
tasks to be performed by the teacher and student, providing a rationale
for the lesson, and introducing materials and new vocabulary (Mercer and
Mercer, 2001). At-risk students learn are more likely to succeed, when
class content is structured around a set of advanced organizers. Figure
1 is a sample of an advanced organizer.
Graphic organizers are visual displays used by teachers to organize
information in a manner that makes the information easier to understand
and learn (Fisher & Schumaker, 1995). Many secondary teachers in the
areas of science and social studies rely heavily on textbooks for
presenting information to the students, which causes difficulty for
students with learning problems because they often have reading
comprehension problems. The use of a graphic organizer helps to
illustrate the relationship between two or more pieces of information
contained in a content area lesson (Schloss, Smith, & Schloss,
2001). Essentially, graphic organizers are flexible instructional tools
used to improve students' comprehension of stories, organization of
their own written stories, and understanding of difficult concepts.
Figure 2 is a sample of a graphic organizer.
These enhancement devices are designed to assist students in
remembering content information. Rather than focusing solely on rote
memory to remember vocabulary words, mnemonics link target words to
carefully chosen words or illustrations. Mnemonics provide students with
better ways to encode information, thus making it easier for them to
retrieve it (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 1998). According to Mastropieri
and Scruggs (2000) mnemonic devices are most effective when they are (a)
used to reinforce objectives to remember specific content information,
(b) directly taught and practiced, (c) combined with comprehension
instruction, and (d) included with application activities.
Types of Mnemonic Devices
Mnemonic devices include reconstructive elaborations, letter
strategies, and the keyword method. Reconstructive elaborations refers
to procedures for reconstructing information into more meaningful and
memorable forms (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2000). The reconstructions
provide more concrete information in a meaningful manner compared to
simple text and use pictures as aids for students to remember
information because pictures last much longer (Bender, 2002). Figure 3
is a sample of a reconstructive elaboration.
Letter strategies can involve the creation of an acronym or an
acrostic. An acronym is a first letter mnemonic, which requires the
student to learn the first letter of a word, e.g. TEENS, which
represents the sensory organs, including tongue, ears, eyes, nose, and
skin. Another acronym is HOMES, which represents the Great Lakes,
including Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior. Acrostics are
phrases, which require the student to learn the first letter of each
word in the phrase. For example, the acrostic "Please excuse my
dear aunt Sally" represents the order of operations to solve an
algebraic equation, including parentheses, exponents, multiplication,
division, addition, and subtraction.
Finally, the keyword method involves a word that sounds like the
word or factual material to be mastered (Bender, 2004). According to
Mastropieri and Scruggs (2000), the keyword method is used to strengthen
the connection between a new word and its associated information.
Keyword strategies have been successfully used to teach the following:
(1) foreign language vocabulary, (2) scientific terms, (3) English
vocabulary, (4) people and their accomplishments, (5) map locations of
the Revolutionary War battles, and (6) states and capitals, see figure
4, (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2000).
Peer-Mediated Strategies (Peer Tutoring)
This content enhancement strategy involves classmates teaching one
another. Peer tutoring is a category of inclusive practice in which one
student (the tutor) acts as a teacher, providing instruction to a peer
(tutee) (Fisher & Schumaker, 1995). Peer tutoring is an
instructional method that is intended to assist in the development of
both academic and social skills among children with learning problems
(Bender, 2004). According to Maheady, Sacca, & Harper (1988), peer
tutoring can be successful with secondary students, who have learning
problems, in science and social studies if the teacher carefully plans
effectively and teaches the students how to ask questions, judge the
accuracy of a response, record, praise, provide corrective feedback, and
Types of Peer-Mediated Strategies
There are two specific models of peer-medicated strategies used at
the secondary level: class-wide peer tutoring and cooperative learning.
Class-wide peer tutoring involves dividing the students into pairs. They
alternate roles of tutor and tutee to master the content. Following the
teacher-led instruction in a structured format, the students tutor each
other on the same material, reinforcing correct responses and correcting
any errors. An example of class-wide peer tutoring involves the Peabody
Class-wide Peer Tutoring Model in reading, which is in Figure 5 (Fuchs
& Fuchs, 1992).
In class-wide peer tutoring, the entire class is divided into two
teams, and each pair of students accumulates points for its team by
responding correctly during the tutoring session. At the end of the two
week competition, a test is given over the skills studied, and
additional points are given to each team for correct test responses.
Each team's points are totaled, and the winning team is announced
(Pomerantz, Windell, & Smith, 1994).
Cooperative learning is another peer-mediated strategy. Cooperative
learning involves placing students in small groups of 3 - 5 students.
The students collaborate to complete academic assignments and achieve
academic goals (Schloss, Smith, & Schloss, 2001). To use cooperative
learning in the secondary classroom, teachers should follow these steps:
(1) select a task, (2) assign students to heterogeneous groups, (3)
pre-teach essential social skills, (4) monitor groups while they are
working, and (5) allow students to evaluate their performance (Schloss,
Smith, & Schloss, 2001). Figure 6 identifies students'
responsibilities when working in cooperative groups.
Study guides are flexible tools that teachers use to support
student understanding of textbook passages, which are often organized
poorly and difficult to comprehend for secondary students (Lovitt &
Horton, 1988). The study guide highlights the most important information
presented in the textbook. They can be used as a review prior to the
presentation of new information, during a lesson to maintain student
engagement, or after a lesson as notes (Boyle & Yeager, 1997). Study
guides have been designed with varying formats and can be used at any
time during the presentation of a lesson. For example, a study guide may
take the form of a teacher-prepared outline, given prior to reading a
chapter, listing the important main ideas from the chapter, or it may
consist of a list of questions, given following instruction,
highlighting the important main concepts and vocabulary terms in a unit
of study (Fisher & Schumaker, 1995). A sample study guide is
presented in figure 7.
Content Enhancement Routines
Curricular demands of secondary school may compound existing
learning problems (Deshler, Schumaker, Lenz, & Ellis, 1984). The
curriculum at the secondary level focuses primarily on content teaching
and learning. Content area demands center around learning
domain-specific and general concepts (Bulgren & Scanlon, 1998).
Understanding of concepts is the foundation of acquisition and
application of much knowledge in content areas (Meyer, 1991). According
to Fisher and Schumaker (1995), content enhancement routines are
inclusive teaching practices that combine an interactive instructional
sequence with a teaching device, and they are designed to involve
students during the learning process and to prompt teachers'
explicit use of the teaching device.
The primary responsibility of teachers at the secondary level is to
present the content. The students are concerned with implementing the
required skills to learn the material, yet many students with learning
problems have difficulty engaging the processes of learning. They often
fail to effectively use questioning techniques, analogic thought, or
recognize the structure of expository relationships (Bulgren &
Scanlon, 1998; Pressley & McCormick, 1995). Effective teachers at
the secondary level use explicit teaching routines to enhance student
learning. This is accomplished by explaining to the students the purpose
of the teaching device and routine along with using the same teaching
routine as an ongoing part of the instruction. Content enhancement
routines include comparison routines and concept mastery routines.
The comparison routine requires the students to complete a table,
which analyzes the similarities and differences between two or more
concepts. Dickson, Simmons, & Kameenui, (1995) identified the
following steps for helping students to compare and contrast concepts in
1. Identify two topics being compared and contrasted.
2. Look for key compare/contrast words such as "alike,"
"different," or "but."
3. Determine organization of the compare/contrast structure. This
a. Whole/whole, where the author describes each topic separately,
with a different paragraph or set of paragraphs for each.
b. Part/part, where the author presents a feature-by-feature
comparison of two topics.
c. Mixed, where the author might first discuss each topic
separately, and then in another paragraph provide a feature-by-feature
4. Locate the explanation of how the topics are the same.
5. Locate the explanation of how the topics are different.
Semantic feature analysis is an activity intended to help students
learn the vocabulary and major concepts from a science or social studies
chapter (Bos & Anders, 1987; Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2000). The
following description identifies the process for implementing semantic
To use semantic feature analysis, first, analyze the content within
a chapter and develop a relationship chart as seen in Figure 8. The
chart contains all the vocabulary in a hierarchy of main ideas to lesser
ideas. The main ideas are placed along separate columns on the top of
the chart, and the related vocabulary are listed in separate rows along
the left side of the chart. Several blank spaces can remain to add new
ideas that result from class discussions. During instruction, present
the information on the chart and have students participate in the
discussion of the vocabulary and related concepts. After discussion,
students complete the relationship chart by marking whether or not the
words in the rows and columns are positively or negatively related or
unrelated (Bos & Anders, 1987; Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2000).
Concept Mastery Routine
The concept mastery routine is a content enhancement designed
around a concept diagram, and it includes the following components: (1)
concept name, (2) class or category of concept, (3) important
information associated with the concept, (4) instances and noninstrances
of the concept, (5) blank space for additions to the diagram, and (6)
concept definition (Bulgren, Deshler & Schumaker, 1993). Figure 9
contains a sample concept diagram.
In an interview with Walther-Thomas and Brownell (2000), Dr. Janis
Bulgren states that a concept mastery routine ensures that the students
have adequate knowledge of a concept to benefit from instruction. The
following is a description of a concept diagram by Dr. Janis Bulgren:
In a concept diagram, teachers work with students to develop
characteristics always, sometimes, and never present in the various
examples of the concept, and then to apply their knowledge to examples
and non-examples of the concept. These characteristics are then used to
form a definition of the concept. This process helps fill in the missing
information for students. Teachers use this type of routine to teach
concepts that are absolutely essential to the course content.
(Walther-Thomas & Brownell, 2000).
Much of the research validates the use of content enhancements at
the secondary level. Students with learning problems show improved
achievement; and in most studies examined by Fisher and Schumaker
(1995), the application of a content enhancement device or routine
significantly improved the performance of students without disabilities
as well. The effectiveness of content enhancements on student
achievement is contingent upon the combination of effective practices
and cognitive strategies. In a synthesis of research studies on the
effectiveness of content enhancements on the comprehension of expository
text for students with learning disabilities, Gajria et al. (2007)
revealed the following implications for practice:
1) The most obvious implication is that educational researchers and
practitioners must emphasize instructional methods that are based on
2) Another implication is the importance of specially designed and
adapted instructional materials during initial learning on expository
Students with learning problems require assistance with organizing
the material to be learned, activating prior knowledge, storing
information for retrieval, demonstrating a thorough understanding of the
material, and generalizing the content knowledge. Special education
teachers often serve as consultant teachers to general education
teachers and are available to assist in the development and
implementation of content enhancement strategies to assist students in
learning new material. General education teachers, who combine content
enhancements and cognitive strategies with best teaching practices,
enable students with learning problems to become independent in their
acquisition of content knowledge while achieving academic success in the
Bender, W. N. (2002). Differentiating Instruction for Students with
Learning Disabilities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press
Bender, W. N. (2004). Learning disabilities: Characteristics,
identification, and teaching strategies. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
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An interactive teaching strategy for facilitating learning from the
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Using cognitive frameworks for understanding. Teaching Exceptional
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learning strategies that promote understanding of content area concepts.
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Teaching adolescents with learning disabilities: Strategies and methods.
Denver, CO: Love Publishing.
Deshler, D. D., Shumaker, J. B., Lenz, B. K., & Ellis, E. S.
(1984). Academic and cognitive interventions for LD adolescents: Part
II. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17, 170-187.
Dickson, S. V., Simmons, D., & Kameenui, E. J. (1995).
Instruction in expository text: A focus on compare/contrast structure.
LD Forum, 20(2), 8-15.
Fisher, J. B. & Schumaker, J. B. (1995). Searching for
validated inclusive practices: A review of the literature. Focus on
Exceptional Children, 28(1), 1-25.
Fuchs, D. & Fuchs, L. S. (1992). Class-wide peer tutoring to
accommodate student diversity in reading [videotape]. Nashville, TN:
Peabody College, Vanderbilt University.
Haager, D. & Klingner, J. K. (2005). Differentiating
instruction in inclusive classrooms: The special educator's guide.
Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Lovitt, T. C. & Horton, S. V. (1988). How to develop study
guides. Journal of Reading, Writing, and Learning Disabilities. 2,
McKenzie, R. G. (1991). Content area instruction delivered by
secondary learning disabilities teachers: A national survey. Learning
Disabilities Quarterly, 14, 467-470.
Mercer, C. D. & Mercer, A. R. (2001). Teaching students with
learning problems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.
Maheady, L., Sacca, K. C., & Harper, G. F. (1988). Class-wide
peer tutoring with mildly handicapped high school students. Exceptional
Children, 55, 52-89
Mastropieri, M. A. & Scruggs, T. E. (1993). A practical guide
for teaching science to students with special needs in inclusive
settings. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Mastropieri, M. A. & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). The inclusive
classroom: Strategies for effective instruction. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Meyer, L. A. (1991). Are science textbooks considerate? In C.M.
Santa & D.E. Alvermann (Eds.), Science learning: Processes and
applications (pp. 28-37). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Platt, J. (1996, April). Could this be magic? Instructional
approaches for students with mild disabilities within regular education
settings. Presentation at the annual meeting of the Council for
Exceptional Children. Orlando, FL.
Pomerantz, D. J., Windell, I. J., & Smith, M. A. (1994). The
effects of class-wide peer tutoring and accommodations on the acquistion
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disabilities. LD Forum, 19(2), 28-32.
Pressley, M. & McCormick, C. (1995). Advances educational
psychology for educators, researchers, and policy makers. New York, NY:
Schloss, P. J., Smith, M. A, & Schloss, C. A. (2001).
Instructional methods for secondary students with learning and behavior
problems. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
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Janis Bulgren. Intervention in School and Clinic, 35(4), 232-236.
JOSEPH M. SENCIBAUGH, PH.D.
Harris-Stowe State University
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Advanced Organizer for a Social Studies Lesson on Global Studies
The Civilizations of Africa
I. Influence of Geography
1. Limited navigability
C. Mountains and plateaus
A. The role of linguists
III. Oral Traditions
B. Importance to African clans, villages, and dynasties
IV. Music and Archeology
Source: Schloss, P. J., Smith, M. A., & Schloss, C. A. (2001).
Instructional methods for secondary students
with learning and behavior problems. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Figure 3 Sample Reconstructive Elaboration on Dwight D. Eisenhower
Facts to be taught: Dwight D. Eisenhower was a general in the
United States Army, who later became the president of the United
States. He was the supreme allied commander during the final years
of World War II and planned the famous "D-Day" invasion in which
the allied armies invaded France in order to force the German and
Italian forces to leave France and return to their own countries.
His election to President was, in a large measure, because of his
successful leadership in World War II.
Reconstructive elaboration: (Show an overhead transparency of
Eisenhower represented as the "tower" of a man--that is, taller
than others in the picture--with the letters "I Tower" and "WWII"
on his chest). To remember that Dwight Eisenhower was a great
general in World War II, remember the words 1-Tower. That should
help students remember his name. See it sounds like Eisenhower to
say "I-Tower." What does the "I" mean on his chest? What picture
will we think of when we hear Eisenhower? (Elicit response.) What
does the "WWII" on his chest mean? (Elicit responses.) Now, close
your eyes and describe this picture to me. Who is the tallest man
or "Tower" in this picture? (Elicit responses.) What letters are on
Source: Bender, W. N. (2002). Differentiating Instruction for
Students with Learning Disabilities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
Keyword Method for Teaching States and Capital Cities
State--Keyword Capital (Keyword) Mnemonic Picture
Kentucky (kennel) Frankfort (frankfurter) Dogs in a kennel
Tennessee (tennis) Nashville (cash) Playing tennis for
Florida (flower) Tallahassee (television) A flower on a
Source: Mastropieri, M. A. & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). The inclusive
classroom: Strategies for effective instruction. Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.
Figure 5 Peabody Class-Wide Peer Tutoring Model
In this program, all students are paired with a partner. After the
teacher announces the reading selection and tells the class to
start, the stronger reader reads the passage aloud to the partner
for 5 minutes. The roles are then reversed, and the weaker reader
reads for 5 minutes. During oral reading, the partner follows along
and corrects the reading errors. After the 10-minute total reading
session is a 2-minute "Retell" session, in which the weaker reader
is prompted to answer the following questions:
* What did you learn first?
* What did you learn next?
The partner provides feedback on the answers. In the third segment,
"Paragraph Shrinking," the weaker student is asked by the partner
to provide the following information for each paragraph:
* Name the "who" or "what."
* State the most important thing about the who or what.
* Say the main idea in 10 words or less.
If an error is made, the partners are told to say, "No, that's not
quite correct," and encourage the student to skim through the
passage for the answer. The last segment is the "Prediction Relay,"
which is composed of four segments:
Predict -- What do you predict will happen next?
Read -- Read half a page.
Check -- Did the prediction come true?
Summarize -- Name the who or what.
-- Tell the most important thing about the who or what.
-- Say the main idea in 10 words or less
Source: Mastropieri, M. A. & Scruggs, T. E. (2000). The inclusive
classroom." Strategies for effective instruction. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.
Student Cooperative Learning Roles in the Full Option Science System
Reader Reader reads all print instructions, ensures
that all students in the group understand the
task, and summarizes the activity.
Recorder Recorder is responsible for recording all the
data, including observations, predictions,
and Estimations. This involves using pens,
pencils, and the appropriate chart and graph paper.
Getter Getter is responsible for getting all the necessary
materials and for returning them at the end of the
activity. This involves walking and carrying
equipment, such as trays, microscopes, water,
slides, pans, and eye droppers.
Starter Starter begins the manipulations of the materials,
supervises the assembly of materials, and ensures
that all group members have equal opportunity at
using the hands-on materials.
Source: Mastropieri, M. A. & Scruggs, T. E. (1993). A practical guide
for teaching science to students with special needs in inclusive
settings. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Study Guide on Astronomy Using a Framed Outline
A. Sun and Earth
1. The Sun is the star closest to Earth. It provides the--,--, and
energy for the life.
2. Changes in solar energy output affect the Earth's--,--, and
weather, as well as modern power transmission and communication
B. Sun's Structure
1. The three outer layers of Sun are called the Sun's--.
a. The--, from the Greek "light ball," is the visible surface of
b. The--from the Greek "color ball," is a thin, transparent layer
that extends about 10,000 kilometers above the photosphere.
c. The--, from the Latin "crown," is the outermost atmosphere just
above the chromosphere.
2. Photons are repeatedly absorbed and re-emitted at lower energies in
3. Circulating currents of gas in the--transfer energy as heat to the
C. Sun's Surface
1. Optical telescopes reveal that the photosphere has a grainy
2. --, jets of gas up 10,000 kilometers tall and 1000 kilometers
across, rise like fiery spikes into the chromosphere around the
edges of --, which are large, organized convection cells.
3. Bright, white surface patches, called --, from the Latin "little
torches," may be visible near the Sun's limb. Their appearance seems
to signal coming solar activity.
Semantic Feature Relationship Chart
Type of Life Location Extinct
Important Plant Animal Sea Land Lakes Extinct Extinct
Key: + = positive relationship; -- = negative relationship;
0 = non relationship; ? = uncertain
Source: Bos, C. S. & Anders, P. L. (1987). Semantic feature analysis:
An interactive teaching strategy for facilitating learning from the
text. Learning Disabilities Focus, 3(l), p. 57.