Sarah's dream/"No Fate": doubling in Terminator II.
Author:
Brooks, Christopher
Pub Date:
01/01/2004
Publication:
Name: Post Script Publisher: Post Script, Inc. Audience: General; Trade Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Business; Business, international Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2004 Post Script, Inc. ISSN: 0277-9897
Issue:
Date: Wntr-Spring, 2004 Source Volume: 23 Source Issue: 2

Accession Number:
128671363
Full Text:
The idea of the "double" has served science-fiction narratives for a long time. A brief list of movies using doubles might include Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1932) and the double from within; Frankenstein and the "other" as double; Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1956) and the alien double; and any number of clone-oriented movies of today, including Multiplicity (1996), Alien Resurrection (1997), and Star Trek: Nemesis (2002).

All use a second character that somehow mirrors a protagonist. Mr. Hyde acts out the antisocial impulses of his double, Dr. Jekyll, in a statement of psychological id and superego functions. Frankenstein's wretch, when rejected by his maker, destroys what Victor Frankenstein loves, exposing the role of nurture and nature within an individual's "progeny." The pods of the Body Snatchers duplicate human beings in appearance but eliminate higher emotions in a commentary on conformity and individuality. Science fiction films, it appears, employs the double as effectively and frequently as any other literature. James Cameron's Terminator films, especially the second feature, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, employ a complex scheme of doubles to comment on a society that has become extremely dependent on the machine--perhaps dangerously so.

The 1991 classic Terminator II opens with an image of a young girl on a swing, then quickly turns to a nightmare image of humans battling machines, including skeletal-looking hunter-killers to remind the viewer that the machines base their ideas on human forms. In this transition from domestic peace to war, the theme of doubling is initiated and resounds throughout the remainder of the film. Most prevalent are those scenes where Linda Hamilton's buff and tough Sarah Connor character observes families at play and likens them to her own situation. Especially telling is the dream sequence when she sees herself (as played by her twin sister, Leslie Hamilton Gearren) recreating with her children at a small playground which includes the swinging girl of the opening credits. This scene initially depicts a world unfettered by fate, illustrated in the randomness of play and the smiling, seemingly carefree smile of Hamilton's double, but it concludes with the nuclear destruction of Los Angeles and the vaporizing of both versions of Sarah, one sick with the awareness of what is happening and the other ignorant of her immediate demise. When Connor wakes from this dream, the camera shows what she has carved on the table top where she has slept: "No Fate."

These words echo John Connor's message to his mother as delivered by Kyle Reese in the original Terminator: "There is no fate but what we make for ourselves." This scene also underlines the doubling theme of the cinematic narrative, for knowledge of human destiny--in this case, the subjugation of human beings by machines--motivates all of the action and brings all of the major characters and their doubles into play. In other words, Sarah and John Connor and Schwarzenegger's T-800 character all work to create a world in which fate is unknown once again, while Robert Patrick's T-1000 character attempts to validate the existence of a prescribed, "fated" time line that assures his existence and the domination of humans by machines.

Literature of the "double" provides a great deal of insight into how to examine such films. In Stories of the Double Albert J. Guerard writes, "The issues are real [...] whether the experience of seeing one's double lead to a sense of resurrection or to a descent into psychosis" (1). He further suggests that "characters who seem occultly connected [...] may also be referred to as doubles. A minor character may reenact a major character's traumatic experience. [...] A strong feeling of sympathetic identification may lead to a sense of doubleness, [...] recognition of the self one might have been" (3). All of these types of doubling play a part in Terminator II and its assertion about fate.

Sarah Connor continually is reminded of and sometimes sees "the self [she] might have been" when she dreams of her other life. Meanwhile, she is being pursued by a device that doubles as a policeman, a security guard, a foster mother, and, in the climax, as Sarah Connor herself. The two terminators, meanwhile, represent what Robert Rogers has called "the diabolic double," the oft-seen pairing of very similar characters, one socialized and benevolent, the other anti-social and destructive (2). Doubles war over Sarah, her son John, and the family of Miles Dyson to determine which fate-line survives.

Terminator II, of course, picks up the story of Sarah Connor from the original Terminator film where Sarah Connor is soft, passive, has big hair, and is indecisive. She works at a fast-food chain, keeps an iguana for a pet, and mopes over broken dates. She originally has no more concept of fate--hers or anyone's--than can be expected of a very ordinary person. This "soft" Sarah is the image, the "other self," of the playground dream: a woman never compelled to examine or question her own existence, who can live in the type of blissful ignorance that her double cannot. (1) The Sarah of the sequel is muscular, sleek, and very tough: she knows what fate has in store for humankind and cannot bear it, yet cannot overcome her total self-awareness of her role in the world. In the dream sequence, she is outside the fenced playground, yelling "run" at her double, who seems to momentarily see her, yet cannot comprehend the meaning of her presence.

As Sarah is divided into these two selves, she comes to personify the "descent into psychosis" cited by Guerard, having been institutionalized for sharing her nightmare visions of the future, none of which are believed by the police or her doctors. "Soft" Sarah lives in her counterpart's dreams and in her observations of other families that she sees playing together, such as the Hispanic family that she watches communing together just before she dreams of Los Angeles. This acknowledgment of a peaceful "other self" functions in a classic manner often seen in "double literature": "to keep a suppressed self alive, [...] perhaps [an] illusory, original, and fundamental self" (Guerard 2). Sarah's quest is to return to a version of her life, her "fundamental self," in which she has no knowledge of the future, to become blissfully ignorant once again, as is her double. This "double fate" remains visible to the audience through Reese's dream in the original film and Sarah's in the sequel.

This dream scene, as mentioned, is tied to Sarah's desire to elude fate. C.F. Keppler ties fate to the second self of any literary character:

The will of the stronger and sadder Sarah makes her the "fated" participant who must save the world for her "other self," whether the other Sarah senses the danger or not. In the dream scene, these selves are separated not only by the fence but by knowledge. In the film's final battle, two Sarah Connors will come to blows as the film fuses the divergent fates into a Hegelian synthesis: the "inevitable" subjugation by machines is embodied in the T-1000 and the unfated future in the T-800, their battle yielding a world in which neither ever exists--or needs to. Hence, Sarah Connor need never see her double again.

Freudian theory offers some insight at this point. "Dissociation does not separate the mind into pieces," Bernard Hart writes, "it only produces more or less independently acting functional units [...]" (237). Applied to Sarah Connor, this notion explains how she has developed a double self, one with nurturing, protective, passive maternal instincts and another with Amazonian, aggressive, combative instincts. Buff Sarah works out, loads weapons, shoots through elevator ceilings, and stalks Dyson. Soft Sarah smiles, dresses femininely, and sits in the playground. Sarah, as she claims, is not insane, merely dissociative.

Likewise, the world of nuclear destruction, one of the alternative "realities" of the film, is the world of Robert Patrick's T-1000 character: he, too, must impose his will on his double, Schwarzenegger's T-800, and become the fated "other self" of that tandem. The fight scenes between the T-800 and T-1000 are numerous just for this reason: in one world, machines are still the servants and protectors of humankind; in the other, machines manifest no regard for humans, having become "self-aware" as a new species that recognizes the threat posed by their creators. These fates conflict when the T-800 and T-1000 battle. Moreover, the T-1000's self-awareness of his mission and its consequences mark him as Sarah Connor's "occult" double, for their complete self-awareness of the stakes of their conflict is matched by no one else, yet the time-line of machine superiority is, in a very real sense, mythical: it exists only in a future that might not happen, making the appearance of Reese and the two Terminator models almost "supernatural" events. This is to be expected in those works which employ a double, for "the double stands at the start of that cultivation of uncertainty by which the literature of the modern world has come to be distinguished" (Miller viii). Sarah Connor's "uncertainty" finds her facing a wraith of time and self as she encounters these doubles: Can she trust the T-800? Should she kill Miles Dyson? Should she become a "terminator" herself?

Robert Rogers observes that doubling "represents conflict, but subject doubling represents conflicting drives, orientations, or attitudes without respect [...] to other people, whereas object doubling displays inner conflict expressed in antithetical or incompatible attitudes toward other people" (5). Applied to the Terminator movies, this observation explains why the Robert Patrick "terminator" character can so effectively conflict with Schwarzenegger's cybernetic being. Patrick's T-1000 character displays only incompatible behavior towards human beings. He assumes human form without understanding human emotions, unlike the original machine who can say, "I understand now why you cry."

This is the crucial aspect of the machine-versus-(not quite) machine doubling: Schwarzenegger's character has been "re-programed" to be a protector instead of a destroyer. When young John Connor instructs him that "you can't go around killing people," the protector-Terminator shoots policemen only in their knees and does not kill another human being for the rest of the picture. The T-1000, however, knows no restraint: he kills a policeman for his clothes, John's foster parents for information, and a security guard at Sarah's asylum in order to assume his appearance. All represent some type of surrogate protector or legal authority, significant when juxtaposed to the protecting figure that the T-800 is becoming. In this sense, the T-800 is as dissociative as is Sarah Connor: he used to be a killing machine, and the T-1000 is here to remind him--and the viewer--of that fact. Sarah, too, has evolved from a character who wishes only to survive (her conflicts remain internalized) into one that must take action, even perhaps kill, in order to change fate. In other words, she evolves from a subject to an object double in the course of her story, explaining again the significance of her dream visions of her "other self."

More "parental" evolution occurs, narratively speaking, in the same scene wherein Sarah Connor dreams of her double in Los Angeles. After she has awakened from her dream, she sees Schwarzenegger's character teaching her son about motors while her son is trying to explain why humans cry. Her thoughts are as follows:

Guerard's quotation (above) mentioned a "descent into psychosis" or a "sense of resurrection" accompanying the meeting of one's double. Sarah has started the transition into her own resurrection when she carves "no fate" into the table. This follows a scene during which John watches children pretending to shoot each other--echoing the adults around them--provoking John to complain, "We're not going to make it, are we?" The T-800 remarks that humans tend "to destroy each other," an ironic statement that completes the resurrection of all three characters as they reverse philosophies.

As all this happens, the Hispanic family that has protected Sarah's arsenal is playing around her, children laughing, parents scolding, yet another reminder of her other self. In an odd movement of reconciliation of the doubles, Sarah, the T-800, and John now bond: "the threesome [...] create an unlikely but effective family unit" (Ebert review), (2) very much like the Dyson family that Sarah must either destroy (as a T-1000 would do) or revise (as has happened to the T-800 under her son's mentoring).

Other types of doubling occur as the story unfolds. When escaping from the asylum, a confused Sarah looks at the T-800 and asks, "So what's your story?"--allowing "fate" as she once knew it to be changed in the telling--while the T-800 simply looks at her in the rear-view mirror. This key "mirroring" scene echoes the Lacanian theory of the "mirror stage" of child development. Karl Miller employs Lacan to study "doubles" in his 1985 book of that name, saying of a mirror that "the image glimpsed there is thought to be perceived as the same but different: and these are glimpses which reiterate the alter idem, the second self [...]" (ix).

To Sarah, who has already destroyed this very Terminator once, this can initially only be "the primitive soul-double [...] a usually malignant threatening figure" (Rogers 9)--the "zombie double" or haunting spirit. But it speaks Reese's words (the T-800's first utterance to Sarah is "Come with me if you want to live") and has earned her son's trust, and so can eventually be seen as a double which personifies "a theory of the soul and [an assurance] of future existence" (9), a double more like an angel than a devil. Fate, as Sarah understands it, must be mutable if Reese from her past and the T-800 of her present speak the same language. In this sense, then, the T-800 not only doubles as a father for Sarah's son but as a protector-lover for her.

The Sarah of the sequel as well as the T-800 Terminator cinematically "play out" doubles theory in other ways. For example, at the asylum from which Sarah escapes, the audience sees the psychiatric staff watching videos of the original attack in the first Terminator film. This serves to remind the audience but also Sarah of the "reality" of the state of her life. Then, in the escape car, the audience watches as both Sarah and the T-800 look at each other, as mentioned earlier, in the rear-view mirror. Both in fact (to use a description from C.F. Keppler) see "the self that has been left behind [...] or otherwise excluded from the [new] self's self-conception. [This] is the self that must come to terms with" (11). In fact, the revision of their respective selves has begun: she is no longer a target while he is no longer an assassin. The videotape (the past) gives way to the mirror (the present, reversed).

The initial confusion on Sarah's face when she sees the T-800 at the asylum is the confusion that occurs when meeting a double (traditionally, of course, "birth and death are associated with doubles"--Rogers 9). Sarah cannot be certain whether this is the old or new T-800 "self." Crucial to this scene, then, is the appearance of the T-1000, whose ability to change forms and to walk through metal marks him clearly as the "other" half of the Terminator tandem in Sarah's eyes. She now "comes to terms" with Schwarzenegger's T-800 offer of aid, for he is again the "sanest choice in an insane world." Sarah also fully comes to terms with the T-800 when, in the final scene, she offers her hand in thanks and sheds a tear at his demise, the death of his "new self."

The eventual trust, respect, and affection that develops between Sarah, John, and the T-800 occurs because their doubles (second selves, mirror images) have excluded their needs for domesticity and violence respectively. This explains the mirror scene, Sarah's dream sequence, the videotape of the original Terminator from the first picture, and the ending, in which both Terminator models are melted into the same fluid metal: all indicate the presence of a prior sell an antithetical double, which, according to all "double theorists," is "always there" (Keppler 10). All of the major characters are willing to accommodate their doubling because their previous selves existed in a world fated to destruction. When Sarah differentiates between a sane and an insane choice of father for her son, she acknowledges once again that two worlds, two destinies exist, doubling each other while reversing the poles of sanity. Thus, Sarah's carving of "no fate" is not only a wish but an uncanny prediction for all the doubles in the film, for, as is the tradition, their presence means death for one version of the self.

Robert Patrick's T-1000 character is introduced in the film in ways that support this doubling theme. Like the T-800, he appropriates a motorcycle for transportation; he accesses a database to find his target; and he mimics voices perfectly. In one minor scene, the T-1000 finds himself in the storeroom of a mall, looking at a metallic mannequin somewhat quizzically, a scene created to remind the viewer of his featureless metallic nature. This is his "mirror" scene, a reminder that he has no form, save for what he appropriates. His nature is his mission, to destroy what the T-800 is determined to save. In appropriating the form of John Connor's foster mother, the T-1000 again reminds the viewer of the T-800's role as surrogate father. And the brief scene in which the T-1000 takes on the image of an asylum security guard and then stands face to face with the astounded man speaks to traditional "doubling" or doppelganger theory, for upon meeting his double, the security guard meets his fate: "It was commonly believed that any man who saw his double, or 'wraith,' was about to die" (Rogers 9). This scene serves to remind the viewer of the experience felt by Sarah Connor when she first realizes that she is fighting a machine--a foil scene used to establish the T-1000 as universal double. This scene also foreshadows the ending, when two wounded Sarah Connors call out for John's help: one of them must die.

An argument could be made about the "faceless" nature of this T-1000 antagonist and cultural fear. After all, the film juxtaposes two fates familiar to all baby boomers and older viewers, the world that overcomes its animosities and lives in a paradisiacal playground OR the world destroyed by machines of mass destruction. Because our fears of annihilation are no longer tied to a specific race or color of enemies but rather come from a variety of sources (military, environmental, astrological, viral, etc.), the T-1000 represents an ever-changing form of dualistic terror:

Duality was to take part in both the Freudian and the Russian revolutions: to the second of these it brought the dialectic of Hegel, with its progressive leaps and interplay of opposites, and it also brought the quasi-religious duo of exploiters and exploited, "them" and "us" (Miller viii).

The line between "them" and "us" is blurred in Terminator 2. Robert Patrick's character kills in the guise of a policeman, foster-mother, and guard. He is never recognized by agents of the state as an enemy but moves freely among them, while the revised T-800 is hunted wherever he goes. The T-800 manifests its wounds and loses body parts; the T-1000 is forever human in its appearance. In this sense, Terminator 2 is the most progressive of science-fiction films using the doubling theory, the "interplay of opposites": the antagonist of our everyday lives might live among us, look like us, even act like us, but its nature is sinister, perhaps violent.

In the progress of Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Sarah Connor must confront all of her doubles in order to reconcile herself with her domestic dream of "no fate." She has found now a father for her son, a "double" for the deceased lover who came through time to save--and impregnate--her. She must now confront the family that could have been hers by bringing her own "surrogate family" to meet--and perhaps destroy--the family of Miles Dyson.

The scene with the Dyson family functions as a bookend to the dream of the playground. Young Danny Dyson (mirroring John Connor) is shown playing with a mechanical, radar-controlled truck--a reminder of the nightmare world of Kyle Reese. His father is working at a computer when Sarah attempts to shoot him. As the terrified family comes together, Danny climbs upon his wounded father and begs Sarah not to kill him. Mrs. Dyson cries for her husband and son. Her attack aside, this would be, could be, should be Sarah Connor's life: mother and father and child living in a world unjudged by fate, uncertain of the future, until this moment. Sarah's siege on the Dysons is as terrible as the destruction of the playground in her dream, as random as the killing of her roommate in the original movie, and as "mechanical" and plotted as the attacks on her own existence. She will now mimic the T-800's historical narrative and decide Dyson's fate just as hers was decided for her in The Terminator. Dyson, however, has no comprehension of the situation: "You're judging me for things I haven't done yet," he complains. Similarly, in the first film, Sarah told Reese, "You are speaking of things I haven't done yet in the past tense." Ironically, as she nearly kills the frightened scientist at her feet, Sarah Connor has turned into a Terminator.

The siege of the Dysons yields many other insights into the function of doubles. Dyson is attacked by a mirror family consisting of a mother, father, and male child. They have his knowledge; they know his work. In revising Dyson, the invading family personifies "the vision of horror" (to borrow Kepler's phrase) that accompanies a meeting with the "second self." Sarah's attack initially seems evil but turns didactic, significant because "being evil, [the double] affects his counterpart with this evil only incidentally [...] and primarily by personality; by the revelation, willed or unwilled, of what he is and of what therefore the first self must also be" (79). Sarah Connor accepts her son's plea not to kill Dyson but rather to "force upon [him] the sickened reason that there [...] bereft of the grace of God go I" (79). Her "evil" does become "incidental" and her motive shifts from killing to education. Dyson is still confused until Schwarzenegger's T-800 model peels back the flesh from his arm and reveals the metallic skeleton beneath. Now the doubling significance really hits the scientist: he has seen this skeletal limb before, detached, lifeless, yet here it is alive, displayed before him as a harbinger of the nightmare future that he will help to create. He, too, has seen a wraith of sorts, for if this dead limb indeed comes to life six years later, existence as Dyson knows it must end. Sarah's comment on the situation is the sardonic, "It's not every day that you find out that you are responsible for the death of six billion people." Indeed, this visitor to the Dyson family is "a diabolical double" because Dyson dies in un-doing his research.

It seems significant that in The Literature of the Second Self, C.F. Keppler speaks of "two worlds: the world of light--the familiar safe, clean, orderly world of home and 'family'; and all around this world the 'other world'--the dark, passionate, monstrous, enigmatical world of 'outside'" (109). This passage juxtaposes "family" to "monstrous" and "enigmatical," perfect words for the Dyson family situation. Sarah comes from outside, the dark, bringing as unbelievable a tale and as undeniable evidence of the monstrous future world as Dyson (or anyone) could ever imagine. But this scene evolves into depicting the double as "savior" through a role reversal: "when the second self becomes good the first self necessarily becomes evil" (101). Sarah embodies the family ideal now, Dyson the would-be destroyer. When a savior double meets its evil counterpart, it makes "the demand that the latter not do something or that he [...] become something he is not but has within him the capacity to be" (Keppler 119). Sarah criticizes Dyson's sense of creativity, aligning him with "the men who made the bomb." In so doing, she reconciles her near killing of Dyson with her maternal instinct to protect life. Dyson likewise responds to this double's demand. He saw his research as beneficial initially, but now sees it--and himself--as malicious. His death ultimately restores the family protector instinct to Sarah: she moves closer to a world without fate only because Dyson dies to assure his occult double of that possibility.

Both Terminator films employ another type of double, that which Keppler calls "the Second Self in time." Such a double occurs only when the events of time become disordered, for the commonplace notion of time would see "the events of time stream backward along a latitudinally trisected track, emerging out of an invisible future into the visible present and disappearing again into an invisible but recalled past" (161). Any character emerging from the future (or as Reese puts it, "one possible future") to change the future risks never existing at all. Furthermore, the confusion for the fictional characters and the logistics of plotting the action so that it makes sense must be acknowledged. In both Terminator films, this is usually handled comically with such lines as "you could go crazy thinking about this" or "Who sent you to protect me? I did?" For example, when Schwarzenegger's T-800 first saves John Connor from the T-1000, John surmises that his savior is indeed a Terminator from the future, one obviously not assigned to kill him. Until this moment, his only notion of such a machine comes from his mother's counsel. John's present, Sarah's past, and the T-800's altered future exist in this single epiphany. This can be accommodated by "an expansion of the Time that is [...] to include a strange lower layer, contemporaneous with the upper and in all respects the reverse correspondent of it: the Time that might be" (Keppler 165). Since John is now the key figure, this idea is worth noting, for film critic Jason Norris summarizes John's character as "trying to forget his past, he only serves to ignore his future" (Norris). John is going nowhere "in time," an aimless juvenile when the viewer first sees him. He, like the other characters, must now live in conflicting time and fate lines. Hence, everything that occurs in the film from this initial meeting is "as-if" time (Keppler 162) because--and this is crucial--the principal characters exist as doubles in multiple times. John Connor is shown as an adult once, surveying a battlefield in the future, but is also listed in the credits as dream Sarah's infant; Schwarzenegger's T800 is depicted in the video clip as a hunter-killer but elsewhere as a savior. Sarah Connor appears in the dream sequence in her soft, fluffy form but otherwise as her buff, muscular fighter. Again, each tries to ensure a time-line that will eliminate his or her "other self."

The viewer should not be surprised at the events of the climactic battle, given the theme of doubling and the theories behind it. Robert Patrick's T-1000 model takes on Sarah's image after having temporarily immobilized the T-800. John, having been separated from his two protectors, hears his mother calling for help, but when he moves to find her he encounters Sarah and her double. One Sarah represents destruction for John and humankind, a world fated to obliteration, while the other promises a world wherein "there is no fate but what we make for ourselves." Sarah will either save her son and fate itself or will see her son die and with him the world as she knows it.

Fittingly, Schwarzenegger's T-800 revives and the two Terminator doubles fight to their deaths, the ending most suitable in doubles theory where to encounter one's double is to face death. The T-1000 reverts to its original appearance, yielding the Sarah image, and dies in the liquid metal. As he melts, he manifests all of the double forms he has employed in his pursuit except one: that of Sarah Connor, who is still alive while all the others are dead. The only "double" that the T-1000 couldn't kill assures that he must die. Likewise, because the T-800 carries a computer chip that could start the conflict again, he must die along with his evil double: their technology has connected them and so both must cease to exist for "no fate" to begin. That the T-800 melts into the same pool of liquid metal as did his antagonist becomes significant. Both were Terminators, after all, both from a "doubled" future that might not come to be, one good and one evil. This merging of the doubles into one form echoes the scene from the first Terminator film when the skeletal T-800 is exploded into two halves. A piece of his frame pierces Sarah's thigh, merging human and machine, a scene which Constance Henley argues "accepts the impossibility of clearly distinguishing between them. It focusses on the partial and ambiguous meaning of the two, a more complex response [...] than the Romantic triumph of the organic over the mechanical [...]" (66). This sense of "ambiguity" serves the doubling theme perfectly when Sarah becomes a killer, the T-800 a savior, and Dyson--truly the most sympathetic and complicated double of the film--a martyr for a cause that he didn't know existed. Thematically, then, the sequel reminds the viewer that the line between good and evil, right and wrong, nurturer and destroyer has grown so uncertain and is so subject to perspective that each of us may be viewed as living a double life of sorts: villains to the eastern world, good citizens to the west; maintainers of the order in one sense, perpetuators of chaos in another, and so on.

The film closes with the simple image of a highway being driven, the dividing line speeding by, as Sarah's voice says, "the unknown future rolls toward us. I face it for the first time with a sense of hope [...]." By eliminating all of the doubles from an ill-fated future--doubles that tried to alter time--Sarah Connor can finally enjoy an "unknown future" in which her fate is her own to create. As noted earlier, doubles are always tied to fate; their elimination guarantees one, not peace or wealth, but only self-determination. That, after all, is what any double threatens, and what Terminator 2: Judgment Day is really about.

Notes

(1) Of interest to the viewer is Linda Hamilton's Olympic-level training as the buff Sarah, including a regimen of weights and miles run. In contrast is her sister's physique and appearance; she looks much like Sarah of the first film. It would have been difficult for Hamilton to have played both roles, given the loose fit of her sister's playground clothes and Linda Hamilton's more soldierly hair. The credits list Leslie Hamilton Gearren as "double for Linda Hamilton," an interesting cinematic term that also functions as the narrative's thematic story line. Ironically, Leslie Hamilton Gearren represents the Sarah Connor that would have existed had the first Terminator never entered her life and left her with "no fate." Linda Hamilton's Sarah, it seems, is fated to fitness in order to contrast so fully with her "double"--her own twin sister.

(2) All of the film reviews cited herein were accessible at the time of writing this essay at The Movie Review Query Engine (www.mrqe.com) website.

Works Cited

Ebert, Roger. "Review of Terminator 2: Judgment Day. 1991. .

Guerard, Albert. Stories of the Double. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1967.

Hart, Bernard. "A Case of Double Personality." Journal of Mental Science 38.2 36-43.

Keppler, C.F. The Literature of the Second Self. Tuscon: U of Arizona P, 1972.

Miller, Karl. Doubles: Studies in Literary History. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1985.

Norris, Jason. "Review of Terminator 2: Judgment Day. .

Penley, Constance. "Time Travel, Primal cene, and the Critical Dystopia." Close Encounters: Film, Feminism, and Science Fiction. Eds. Constance Penley and Elizabeth Lyon. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1991. 63-82.

Rogers, Robert. A Psychoanalytic Study of the Double in Literature. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1970.

Terminator, The. Dir. James Cameron. Perf. Arnold Schwarzenegger and Linda Hamilton. Artisan Pictures, 1984.

Terminator 2: Judgment Day. Dir. James Cameron. Perf. Arnold Schwarzenegger and Linda Hamilton. Artisan Pictures, 1991.
the sense of fate always includes the
   sense of a certain participation, consciously
   unwilled or even unwilling
   though it be, by the fated. This is
   achieved, in the encounter between
   the selves, by the paradox of their
   being simultaneously one and not-one.
   [...] All that follows [...] is pervaded
   by the same sense of inscrutable
   inevitability. (197)


Watching John with the machine, it
   was suddenly so clear. The Terminator
   would never stop. It would never
   leave him, and it would never hurt
   him, never shout at him or get drunk
   and hit him, or say it was too busy to
   spend time with him. It would always
   be there, and it would die to protect
   him. Of all the would-be fathers who
   came and went over the years, this
   thing, this machine, was the only one
   who measured up. In an insane
   world, it was the sanest choice.
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