The growth and expansion of international markets has created many
new opportunities for students to pursue work careers all over the
world. Many companies which have expanded globally are in need of
finding talented, interested and capable workers to accept job
assignments in their foreign offices. Identifying who the potential
candidates for foreign job assignments is an important human resource
task. For a long time, American and European companies have been
recruiting student graduates responsive to working in international
settings (Foster & Johnsen, 1996; Laabs, 1991; Scullion, 1992; Stroh
& Caligiuri, 1998; Solomon, 1994; Weeks, 1992) for some time. Newly
trained professionals are an important pool of management talent
available to meet the needs of global and multinational firms. These
students are the future of business because they not only provide the
intellectual capital for the present work plans but they also offer
human resources that will determine international business of the future
(Laabs, 1991; Scullion, 1992; Solomon, 1994; Weeks, 1992).
The direction that new recruits to international work settings
choose for adapting to their new work environments has been the topic of
management research for over two decades (e.g., Van Mannen and Schein,
1979; Nicholson, 1984; Fisher, 1986; Chao,et al., 1994). This research
is important in international business mainly because of the difficulty
connected with newcomers adjustment to new work roles, organizational
cultures, and national cultures (Black et al., 1991). The complexities
are well documented in the international literature especially with the
reports of high expatriate premature return rates (e.g., Tung, 1981;
Shay and Tracey, 1997) and the great costs related to premature staff
returns to home offices (e.g., Caudron, 1991; Kraimer et al., 2001).
To add to the insights of how potential candidates may think about
an international assignment for their professional work, we reviewed
prior literature regarding student receptivity to accepting an
international work assignment. We begin by presenting an overview of
international effectiveness literatures. We then present the theoretical
rationale for our model. Next, we use opinions of 229 students who
completed a survey regarding their knowledge of a particular part of the
world and their willingness to accept an assignment in that part of the
globe. Further, we analyzed this data by comparing relationships between
those who have visited a country and those who have not, along with
those who speak a foreign language and those who do not. Finally, we
present our findings and discuss their implications.
Receptivity to international employment is an important concept. It
has been studied by various scholars in cross-sectional environments
(Aryee,Chay, & Chew, 1996;Bois & Rothstein, 2002; Brett&
Stroh, 1995, Clegg & Gray, 2002). There is evidence that multiple
streams of research regarding success in international assignments have
been conducted. A number of recruiting strategies have been employed to
secure professionals for a global work force (Fedlman, 2001; Weeks,
1992). Many firms assess skills of prospective expatriates in an effort
to select individuals most likely to succeed in the assignment (Graf,
2004; Van Vianen, DeParter, Kistof-Brown & Johnson, 2004).
Successful expatriate assignments have been linked to a number of
variables, including one's predisposition for such an assignment
(Tharenou, 2003), training and preparation prior to the assignment (Shay
& Baack, 2004), intuition and creativity (Harvey & Novicevic,
2002) and cultural differences (Jassawalla, Truglia, & Garvey, 2004,
Sims & Shrader, 2004).
Solomon (1994) and Laabs (1991) showed how U.S. global companies
seek new business graduates from aboard for their graduates recruitment
programs. The labor needs of global and multinational firms for
graduates from abroad are consistent with young graduates
self-initiating work opportunities (Hugo, Rudd, & Harris, 2001).
Why is the study of students relevant? First, understanding the
receptivity to working abroad of young professionals can assist
companies in their recruitment and search for new talent (Laabs,
1991;Scullion, 1992; Solomon, 1994; Weeks, 1992). Second, scholars
advocate understanding students receptivity to international careers
because they are the next generation of managers (Adler, 1986, Hill
& Tillery, 1992). Third, by studying students who are contemplating
entering the work force or who are considering different employment once
they finish their education, strategies can be developed as to how to
better recruit and attract them to international occupations.
The globalization of the world has opened up unlimited
opportunities for students to work in many locations around the world
yet there is not a major rush to obtain these lucrative jobs. As such,
this study attempts to analyze and understand the factors that
contribute to a college student's interest and desire to seek a
professional position abroad. The research question posed in this paper
is: What factors affect or motivate a students desire to seek
professional employment abroad? To develop this question and more
thoroughly understand the substance of the factors associated with a
students interest in a foreign country career we developed five (5)
Generally, students who are thinking about professional
opportunities have various sources of information that allows them to
sort out and develop a point of view for making their decision(s). Many
times the age of a student will determine whether they can immediately
pursue a adventure in a foreign country. For a students who is
"unattached," traveling to another country is a lark. Younger
students have not settled down yet and for some career goals are not
solidly developed. As such, foreign travel provides an exciting growth
experience for them and it is very appealing. Older students generally
have a set goal and in many cases are looking for a steady, professional
career that will provide a comfortable living for them and their
families (Tharenou 2003). Because of this state of affairs we assert
H1 There is a significant difference between older and younger
students in their desire to work abroad.
Historically, it has been a general belief that men are the primary
career individual occupying professional positions in foreign companies.
The global economy, however, has offered varied opportunities for many
people to advance their careers from many dimensions. Women especially
have been able to pursue careers that have been very advantageous and
helpful in there development. Studies by Taylor et al, (1996) indicate
that the number of women moving into foreign career jobs has increased.
H2 There exists a significant difference between men and women in
their desire to work abroad.
Those students who have lived abroad appear to have more interest
in pursuing careers abroad. Familiarity with the culture and the
geography offers information and evidence that students can tangibly
sort out and make solid decisions based on this actual assimilation into
the culture (Selmer & Lam, 2004). Thus we posit that:
H3: There is be a significant difference in the interest to work
abroad between students who have lived abroad for 60 days and those who
Safety has always been a major factor for people from all cultures
traveling in unknown areas of the world. Over the last 5 years, the
intensity of ethnocentrism among countries has grown broader and more
intense. Such ideas and emotional feelings about the nationality of a
person, especially students can have a major effect on their desire to
not only travel but work abroad. Therefore we believe that:
H4: There is a major concern about safety among American students
seeking professional careers aboard
Clearly, language fluency has been demonstrated repeatedly that it
contributes significantly to the ability and motivation of a person to
work abroad. Students proficient in a foreign language will have an
increased desire and an ability to demonstrate success in their work
assignments and travel (Nicholson & Imaizumi, 1993, Victor, 1992).
With this idea in mind we propose that:
H5: There is be a significant difference between students who
possess language ability than those who do not.
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
Data for this paper was collected from students through a
self-administered survey. Work values were measured via Manhardt's
(1972) three-dimensional scale. In general, Manhardt's work has
been supported in subsequent tests, although the dimensions-comfort and
security, competence and growth, and stauts and independence have
changed slightly in several studies (Brenner & Tomkiewicz, 1982;
Meyer, Irving, & Allen, 1998). Students from three major
universities in Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Florida were surveyed
regarding there knowledge, interest and desire to work abroad. A total
of 228 students are included in the data set for this study.
Table 1 above shows the mean students' response on their
knowledge of and their job interest in different regions of the world
and the same in a few selected countries. The table segregates the
results by the countries where the data was collected. It makes it
possible to compare the students' responses to region and country
knowledge and desire in job assignments among the three groups of
REGION AND COUNTRY KNOWLEDGE
In general, as Table 1 shows, the students did not report a high
level of knowledge for any region. The only exceptions to this are the
Peruvian students reported knowledge of South America and the Chilean
students' knowledge of Eastern Europe had mean responses exceeding
3.50. The US students' mean response on knowledge of African
regions, though low (below 2.0), exceeded the mean responses for the
Peruvian and Chilean students. The mean response to level of knowledge
generally is higher for individual countries. The Peruvian students
reported high mean scores (above 3.0) for UK, Canada, France, and
Mexico. The Chilean students reported higher mean responses (above 3.0)
for Germany, France and Mexico. In general, the mean scores on country
knowledge are higher than that for the regions. This is because the
regions presented to the student, did not include the Western Europe or
the North America. Countries in these two regions received the higher
level of knowledge scores from the students. Peruvian students provided
a very high mean response values for North America region and the
highest mean response for the USA. This is not surprising due to the
salience of the USA in the Americas. The questionnaire used in Chile
inadvertently excludes the North America and the USA, so we do not have
the Peruvian students' knowledge scores for these two items.
The students from Peru and Chile, compared to the US students
indicated a higher level of knowledge for all but two countries included
in the survey. The exceptions were India and Korea where the Peruvian
students indicated a lower level (mean response below 2.0) of knowledge.
Except for these two examples, and the US students' response to
level of knowledge about South Africa, mean responses for all other
countries were above 2.0 for all the three groups of students. The
Peruvian students' mean responses for the UK, Canada, France and
Mexico and the Chilean students' mean responses for Germany, France
and Mexico were especially high (above 3.0). The US students indicated
such high level of knowledge only for Canada. The Peruvian students, not
surprisingly, indicated an above 4.0 level of knowledge for USA. As
indicated above, we do not have date on USA for the Chilean students and
including USA for the US questionnaire would not have made sense.
DESIRE FOR FOREIGN JOB ASSIGNMENT
Students' in Peru indicated higher mean response to job
interest in Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, South and Central America. The
mean response is greater than 2.0 for these regions. The response of the
students from Chile is similar in this respect. The US students'
responses have a similar profile, but they indicated a lower job
interest for Central America than the students from Peru and Chile. All
the three student groups rated their job interest in North Africa,
South-Central Africa and East and West Africa as low (less than 2.0 mean
The students from Peru indicated higher job interest for South
America (mean response 3.43). Students from Chile indicated high level
of job interest (above 3.0) for Eastern Europe and Central America. The
response on job interest in the Scandinavia, the three groups have the
mean response below 2.5. For the Eastern Europe, South America and
Central America regions, the students from Peru and Chile indicated a
higher degree of job interest than their US counterparts. In general, it
can be concluded that the students from Chile and Peru reported higher
job interest about certain regions than their US counterparts.
In terms of students' interest in job assignment in different
selected countries, there were some clear differences among the
responses from students from the three countries. The students from Peru
and Chile, compared to the US students, consistently showed higher
interest in job assignments in all the listed countries. The US students
had the highest job interest for Australia (mean response 3.07).
Students from Peru and Chile also indicated high job interest in
Australia and, as mentioned before, their mean responses were higher
than that for the US students. Similar pattern can be seen in responses
for UK, Canada, Germany, France, Japan and Mexico.
The Peruvian students indicated highest job interest for Canada,
UK, France, and Australia with mean responses well above 3.0. The
highest mean response of 3.95 was for USA. It can safely be said that
the USA and the Western Europe will be destination of choice for the
Peruvian students. These students also indicated strong preference for
Germany, Japan, Mexico, China, Russia, and South Africa. Their mean
response on job interest item was above 2.0 for these countries. India
and Korea held only a weak attraction for the Peruvian students.
The Chilean students also reported very strong job interests (mean
response greater than 3.0) in Australia, Mexico, UK and in other Western
European countries, Surprisingly, these students showed strong interest
in accepting job assignments in all listed countries except South
Africa. The data indicates that the Chilean students are more open to
job assignments abroad than the students are from Peru or the USA. The
US students in comparison indicated the least interest in foreign job
As far as the knowledge of regions or country is concerned, the
students reported a higher levels of knowledge about the countries than
of the corresponding regions. The name of the country has the
specificity whereas the regions lack it. Globalization and international
trade brings people in contact with people and products from other
countries. That helps develop familiarity with the countries. The
regions lack that anchor points in the students' knowledge map.
However, it must be noted, the in spite of the vastness and the
potential of the African continent, the students do not seem to know
much about it.
The students' desire for job assignments abroad is biased
towards the North American and the Western European countries. These
countries have powerful economies and global business enterprises. The
students are familiar with these countries and their cultures and would
appear to be comfortable working there. The globalization, while it
affects all economies, has highlighted the life and culture of these
countries. Because of such factors, the students have shown a higher
level of willingness to accept employment there. It should also be
noted, that the US students perceive the USA to offer good job
opportunities and a high standard of living and, therefore, the US
students do not show a very high interest to accept job assignments
Student's knowledge of a region or a country is likely to
affect their desire for job assignment there. Table 2 below presents the
correlation coefficients in students' response about knowledge and
job interest of a region or a country for the three student groups. All
the correlation coefficients are positive and statistically significant.
It indicated that the knowledge of a region (RK) or a nation/country
(NK) makes a student more interested in accepting job assignment.
Conversely, lack of regional or country knowledge will make a student
less interested in working there. However, for students in both Peru and
Chile the corresponding correlations are positive and statistically
significant. For the Chilean students the correlation between National
Interest (NI) and National knowledge (NK) is particularly high (0.615).
The US respondents showed a high correlation among regional knowledge
(RK) and regional interest (RI) with national knowledge (NK) and
national interest (NI) , a pattern similar to that of the other two
The high and positive correlations indicate either that knowledge
of a country creates a kind of "familiarity" that makes the
student more interested in accepting a job assignment there, or that the
students seek out information about the countries where they are
interested in accepting a job assignment. However, the patterns among
these correlations appear to indicate that the knowledge and interest
have a complex relationship.
THE EFFECT OF AGE
To see if the age of the students has any effect upon their
knowledge of a country or upon their desire for accepting a job
assignment there, students up to 24 years of age were coded as (YOUNGER)
and those above 25 years of age were coded as OLDER. The mean responses
to the Country Knowledge and Desire to Work Abroad were then calculated
for the two age groups. Table 3 below presents the difference between
the mean response on their knowledge of a country and also their
interest for job assignments in these countries. The ANOVA tests were
carried out to see if there were any statistically significant
As Table 3 shows, the differences in mean responses, with the
exception of Chilean students' desire for working in India, are
statistically not significant. The older students in Chile showed more
interest than their younger counterparts, in working in India. We can
conclude that age is not a major factor in determining the knowledge
about or the desire for accepting a job assignment in a country. The
results seem to hold true for the US, Peru and Chile.
THE EFFECT OF GENDER
To test if the gender of the respondents has any effect on
responses, the data was split between the Male and FEMALE respondents
and the mean scores for the responses were calculated for the two
groups. The difference in mean responses for male and female groups is
given in Table 4 below. ANOVA analysis was conducted to test if the
differences in mean response were statistically significant.
Regarding the knowledge of country, the male respondents reported
more knowledge about Australia, Japan and Korea. The male respondents in
Chile reported more knowledge than the females about UK, but the female
respondents reported more knowledge about Canada than the male
In the USA, gender difference in the desire for job abroad was
significant only for Japan, where male respondents showed significantly
higher desire than the female respondents. In Chile, significant
difference was found only South Africa. For the Peruvian students,
significant differences were found for Mexico and Korea. In all these
cases male students indicated a higher level of desire to work in these
countries than the female students. In case of Peru, there was no
statistically significant difference in the male/female response on
knowledge of country.
THE EFFECT OF LANGUAGE ABILITY
To test if the language ability as reflected multilingualism of the
respondents has any effect on responses, the data was split between the
monolingual and bi/multi-lingual respondents and the mean scores for the
responses were calculated for the two groups. The difference in mean
responses for two groups is given in Table 5 below. ANOVA analysis was
conducted to test if the differences in mean response were statistically
Most students in the USA are monolingual. The result of the
analysis shows that those with skills in another language reported a
higher degree of knowledge of other countries than those with
proficiency only in English. For the US respondents all the mean
differences in knowledge were positive. However, only the differences
for Germany, France, Mexico, and Korea were statistically significant.
Similarly, the multilingual US students also reported a higher level of
desire for foreign job assignments.
In comparison to the US students, those from Peru and Chile
reported very little difference by their language ability both in the
level of knowledge and the desire to work abroad. Language ability does
not seem to play an important role in Peru and Chile in this respect. On
the knowledge of the country the exceptions are Russia for Chile where
the knowledge of the language led to a higher mean response. Similarly,
on the desire to work variable, the respondents with language skills
showed higher mean response in Chile for Korea.
Learning a foreign language also involves a certain degree of
familiarization with the culture, literature, history, and the
traditions of the other country. It can be assumed that multilingualism
may make an individual not only more knowledgeable about other world
regions and countries where the other language is spoken, it may also
give confidence to the individual that if a foreign job assignment
warrants leaning a new language, the individual will be able to do so
successfully. Business organizations may also consider an
individual's foreign language skills in the selection process for
foreign job assignments. The individual perceptions of other cultures
and the desirability of language and cultural skills in successful
expatriates, in turn, may make the individual more interested in and
desirous of seeking a foreign assignment.
The global economy requires that the business organizations have
access to managerial workforce that is capable and willing to work in
foreign countries. The results clearly indicate that the desire to work
abroad is highly correlated to an individual's knowledge about a
country. The country knowledge appears to make the student feel familiar
with the region and thus more willing to accept foreign assignment
there. However, students' interest in jobs abroad is higher among
those in Peru and Chile than those in the US. The Latin America is
characterized by similarity in culture and language. Students in Peru
and Chile could be more willing to work in the region, in countries like
Brazil or Argentina. This study did not include South American countries
in its list, and therefore, we do not have specific information about
students interest in jobs in South America. However, the Peruvian and
Chilean students consistently reported higher knowledge and job
interests in foreign regions and countries.
The study assumed that the younger students will be more willing to
accept jobs abroad, since they do not have to consider family relocation
issues. However, this study did not find much support for any age based
difference. This was true for students in all the three countries
included in this study. Gender appeared to be a slightly more
significant factor in determining differences both in knowledge and job
interest variable. However, the gender difference was significant only
for a very few regions or country in each of the three student groups.
Both men and women are equally interested or disinterested in foreign
job assignments. The equality of education opportunity for women, their
movement into the professional careers and convergence of roles could
account this result.
Knowledge of a foreign language is an important factor among US
students in determining their response. The US students with the
knowledge of a foreign language indicated higher levels of knowledge
about other regions and countries and their willingness to work abroad.
This would be expected because the learning of another language also
exposes students to the culture, history and the literature of other
parts of the world. They would also be more interested in accepting job
assignments there. However, this study did not find such
"language" effect among Chilean and Peruvian students. The
results indicate that the Chilean and the Peruvian students have higher
knowledge of, and high interest in working abroad, there was no
difference among them in terms of their language ability. Both
monolingual and bi/multilingual Peruvian and Chilean students have
similar values for the knowledge and job interest variables.
LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY AND IMPLICATIONS
This study explores the students, knowledge of other geographical
regions and countries and their interest in accepting jobs abroad. It
presents the finding for three student groups from the US, Peru and
Chile. The study used only a small list of countries to measure
students' knowledge and job interest. It did not include any
country from South America. Future studied should provide a larger menu
option to the respondents. At the same time, an open ended question
asking the students to list countries that they would like to work in,
may provide a richer response.
The study focuses upon the willingness of the students to work
abroad but id does not concern itself with their ability to succeed in
international assignments. Willingness is an important consideration.
But future study should also include variables on family factors,
foreign residency and ability to adjust to other country business and
The study focuses upon a group of students at one educational
institution in each country. Each group is likely to be quite
homogeneous within itself. A study that includes students from several
institutions in each country may provide more variations in responses.
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Table 1: Desire for Job Assignments and Knowledge
Job Region Level of Knowledge
Peru Mean Chile Mean USA Mean
Scandinavia 1.79 2.05 2.12
Eastern Europe 2.03 3.57 2.02
South America 3.74 2.11 2.33
Central America 2.35 2.45 2.17
North Africa 1.73 1.98 1.93
South-Central Africa 1.46 1.49 1.70
East Africa 1.43 1.51 1.74
West Africa 1.47 1.38 1.72
North America 3.62
Australia 2.86 2.87 2.62
UK 3.22 2.98 2.87
Canada 3.12 2.93 3.19
Germany 2.97 3.07 2.69
France 3.24 3.26 2.69
Japan 2.71 2.28 2.40
Mexico 3.33 3.26 2.88
China 2.45 2.78 2.45
Russia 2.22 2.33 2.16
South Africa 2.03 2.00 1.96
India 1.87 2.05 2.02
Korea 1.81 2.58 2.02
Job Region Desire for Job Assignment
Peru Mean Chile Mean USA Mean
Scandinavia 2.27 2.11 2.20
Eastern Europe 2.44 3.18 2.18
South America 3.43 2.57 2.11
Central America 2.28 3.26 1.97
North Africa 1.29 1.94 1.64
South-Central Africa 1.45 1.54 1.48
East Africa 1.40 1.51 1.45
West Africa 1.50 1.33 1.42
North America 3.86
Australia 3.43 3.89 3.07
UK 3.49 3.51 2.79
Canada 3.56 3.87 2.76
Germany 2.97 3.57 2.40
France 3.50 3.83 2.25
Japan 2.60 2.44 2.19
Mexico 2.82 3.20 2.06
China 2.37 2.81 1.97
Russia 2.17 2.45 1.75
South Africa 2.14 1.98 1.75
India 1.79 2.15 1.64
Korea 1.78 2.99 1.62
Table 2: Correlation Coefficient Between Knowledge and Desire for Job
Coefficients RK RI NI NK
Regional Knowledge (RK) 1.00 .440 * 0.548 * 0.217 *
Regional Interest (RI) 0.440 1.00 0.241 * 0.499 *
Nation Interest (NI) 0.548 .241 1.00 0.433 *
Nation Knowledge (NK) 0.217 .499 0.433 1.00
Coefficients RK RI NI NK
Regional Knowledge (RK) 1.00 0.457 * 0.615 * 0.388 *
Regional Interest (RI) 0.457 1.00 0.348 * 0.542 *
Nation Interest (NI) 0.615 0.348 1.00 0.614 *
Nation Knowledge (NK) 0.388 0.542 0.614 1.00
Coefficients RK RI NI NK
Regional Knowledge (RK) 1.00 .432 * .416 * .730 *
Regional Interest (RI) .432 * 1.00 .771 * .439 *
Nation Interest (NI) .416 * .771 * 1.00 .605 *
Nation Knowledge (NK) .730 * .439 * .605 * 1.00
*: Significant at alpha=0.05
Table 3: Difference in Mean Response by Age
Knowledge of Country Desire for Assignment
Difference by Age Difference by Age
Peru Chile USA Peru Chile USA
Australia -0.08 -0.10 -0.06 -0.24 -0.25 0.04
UK 0.00 -0.02 -0.19 -0.02 -0.05 0.23
Canada 0.36 -0.04 0.07 0.01 -0.10 -0.16
Germany 0.41 0.01 -0.18 -0.21 0.08 -0.05
France 0.16 -0.12 -0.34 -0.06 -0.15 0.03
Japan 0.04 -0.16 -0.16 -0.19 -0.09 0.06
Mexico 0.16 -0.30 -0.02 -0.26 -0.20 0.07
China 0.05 0.04 0.21 -0.04 0.10 0.02
Russia 0.14 -0.07 -0.02 -0.04 0.15 0.22
South Africa 0.00 -0.05 -0.02 -0.02 -0.11 -0.17
India 0.00 -0.06 -0.18 -0.35 -0.28 * -0.24
Korea 0.04 -0.16 0.02 0.06 -0.47 0.14
USA 0.17 -0.12
*: Significant at alpha=0.05
Table 4: Difference in Mean Response by Gender
Knowledge of Country Desire for Assignment
Difference by Gender Difference by Gender
Peru Chile USA Peru Chile USA
Australia 0.30 0.02 0.32 * 0.19 -0.01 0.03
UK 0.30 0.34 * 0.30 0.32 0.24 0.28
Canada -0.15 -0.25 * 0.25 -0.30 -0.06 0.12
Germany 0.03 -0.09 0.17 0.31 -0.04 -0.03
France -0.15 -0.10 0.08 0.02 -0.14 -0.14
Japan 0.03 0.03 0.54 ** 0.04 0.20 0.47 **
Mexico -0.09 0.07 0.23 0.43 ** 0.10 0.29
China -0.20 0.01 0.17 0.15 0.14 0.11
Russia 0.14 0.06 0.32 * -0.19 -0.10 0.23
South Africa 0.18 0.07 0.20 0.16 0.42 ** 0.04
India 0.11 -0.10 0.12 -0.09 -0.10 -0.01
Korea 0.27 0.25 0.33 * 0.50 ** 0.71 -0.02
USA 0.14 -0.05
*: Significant at alpha = 0.05
**: Significant at alpha = 0.01
Table 5: Difference in Mean Response by Language Ability
Knowledge of Country Desire for Assignment
Difference by Language Difference by Language
Peru Chile USA Peru Chile USA
Australia -0.30 0.04 0.01 -0.11 0.24 0.80 **
UK -0.01 0.36 0.51 0.27 0.25 0.65 *
Canada 0.04 -0.03 0.20 -0.11 -0.16 0.58 *
Germany 0.35 0.06 0.49 * 0.15 0.30 0.40
France 0.26 0.26 0.52 ** 0.28 0.11 0.83 **
Japan 0.16 0.00 0.48 * 0.18 -0.03 0.72 **
Mexico 0.07 -0.04 0.58 ** 0.24 -0.30 0.60 **
China 0.16 -0.06 0.33 0.41 * 0.02 0.83 **
Russia 0.01 0.36 * 0.13 0.24 0.01 0.23
South Africa 0.03 0.09 0.27 0.21 0.15 0.59 **
India 0.35 0.08 0.42 * 0.19 0.18 0.42
Korea -0.11 0.08 0.47 ** 0.15 1.50 * 0.56 **
USA -0.49 * -0.03
*: Significant at alpha=0.05
**: Significant at alpha=0.01