This study is examined how Servant Leadership behaviors influence
Customer Relationship Management implementation. Servant Leadership
(Greenleaf, 1977) has received substantial attention in the contemporary
leadership field. Researchers have focused on identifying the
characteristics and value of Servant Leadership behaviors, and the
operational definitions and scales developed by Barbuto and Wheeler
(2006) were applied in this study. Customer Relationship Management has
also received wide attention in business and academe, and researchers
Sin, Tse and Yim (2005) developed a multidimensional construct for CRM
that were adopted for this study. With the development of tourism a goal
of the Taiwanese government, questionnaires were administered in a
five-star hotel in Taichung City and results of the hypothesis test
showed that the Servant Leadership behaviors were found to be
significant predictors of implementation of Customer Relationship
Management within the case hotel.
Keywords: Servant leadership, Stewardship, Customer relationship
management, knowledge management
According to the administration blueprint of Taiwan's
government, "Challenge 2008: The important plan for country
development," Taiwan will be developed as an "Island of
Tourism". One of the country's development plans is to
increase the number of tourists visiting Taiwan; the goal is to have
five million tourists visit Taiwan in 2008. This plan will have a major
growth impact on the hotel industry. According to data from the Tourism
Bureau (Tourism Bureau Website http://admin.taiwan.net.tw/indexc.asp,
Dec. 2007), this plan means the hotel industry will experience an
increase of more than 13,000 hotel rooms and total investment in this
industry will exceed $3 billion within next three years. Workers will be
needed to meet the demands of this growing industry. Therefore, the
importance of managing human resource and customer relationships will be
key. To face this challenge, it will be necessary to consider
managers' leadership styles and customer relationships.
Peter Drucker (1954) proposed that "the customer is the
foundation of a business and keeps it in existence" (p. 37). In
2004, the American Marketing Association defined marketing as "an
organizational function and a set of processes for creating,
communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing
customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its
Customer Relationship Management (CRM), therefore, has been widely
regarded as a company activity related to developing and retaining
customers through increased satisfaction and loyalty. Parvatiyar and
Sheth (2001) defined CRM as "a comprehensive strategy and process
of acquiring, retaining, and partnering with selective customers to
create superior value for the company and the customer" (p. 5).
They explained that "it involves the integration of marketing,
sales, customer service, and supply-chain functions of the organization
to achieve greater efficiencies and effectiveness in delivering customer
value" (p. 5). According to these definitions, a customer focused
culture for successfully implementing Customer Relationship Management
needs to be developed by the leadership and through the design of formal
systems of the company, as well as the myths and stories that are
created within the firm (Francis, 2004).
A service-orientated philosophy of and approach to leadership is a
manifestation of and an antecedent to enabling a wise organization.
Servant leaders have been described as capable of managing the various
paradoxes of decisions, which may foster the development of
organizational wisdom (Srivastva & Cooperrider, 1998). The concept
of Servant Leadership, which was formulated by Robert Greenleaf (1977),
has received substantial attention in the contemporary leadership field.
In Greenleaf's (1969, 1977) opinion, leadership must primarily meet
the needs of others. The focus of servant leadership is on others,
rather than upon one's self, and on understanding the role of the
leader as a servant (Greenleaf, 1977). Additionally, Wilkes (1996)
indicated that "servant leaders give up personal rights to find
greatness in service to others" (p. 15). In fact, servant
leadership has been advocated and practiced in some of America's
most successful companies (Levering & Moskowitz, 2000). For
instance, Southwest Airlines, Synovus Financial Corporation, and
TDIndustries, which where all listed in Fortune's January 2000
"Top 100 Best Companies to Work for in America," have reported
they emphasize Servant Leadership practices. These same three companies
subsequently were ranked also among Fortune's 2001 "Top Ten
Employers". Researchers (Stone, Russell & Patterson, 2004;
Bennis, 2002; Russell & Stone, 2002), therefore, have suggested that
servant leadership practices should be considered by the leaders of
According to Ngai's (2005) study on customer relationship
management, 205 articles were reviewed and classified into five broad
categories, which were: CRM, Marketing, Sales, Service and Support, and
IT and IS. Only one article (Galbreath & Rogers, 1999) referred to
the importance of leaders implementing customer relationship management.
Studies on servant leadership, on the other hand, have focused mostly on
the measurement instrument (Page & Wong, 2000; Sendjaya &
Sarros, 2002; Barbuto & Wheeler, 2006), the leadership
characteristic itself (Stone, Russell & Patterson, 2004; Humphreys,
2005), and the outcome of employee behaviors such as job satisfaction,
organizational commitment, and trust (Dingman, 2006; Drury, 2004; Errol
& Bruce, 2005). No studies, to date, have addressed the relationship
between servant leadership and customer relationship management
implementation. This study attempts to provide some viewpoints for
understanding this relationship and to provide some preliminary answers
to this unanswered question.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Servant Leadership
The term "Servant Leadership" was first coined by Robert
Greenleaf (1904-1990) in a 1970 essay titled "The Servant as
Leader". Greenleaf posited that the servant leader is a servant
first. He explained that Servant Leadership begins with the natural
feeling that one wants to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one
to aspire to lead. The difference manifests itself in care taken by the
servant--first to make sure that other people's priority needs are
being served. The best test is: Do those served grow as persons; do
they, while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more
autonomous, more likely themselves to become servants? (1970, p. 12).
Larry Spears (2004), CEO of the Greenleaf Center, extended
Greenleaf's work by articulating 10 characteristics of a servant
leader as follows:
1. Listening: The servant leader seeks to identify the will of a
group and helps clarify that will.
2. Empathy: The servant leader strives to understand and empathize
with others. People need to be accepted and recognized for their special
and unique spirits.
3. Healing: The servant leader has the potential for healing self
4. Awareness: The servant leader is strengthened by general
awareness and especially self-awareness.
5. Persuasion: The servant leader relies on persuasion rather than
positional authority in decision making within an organization.
6. Conceptualization: The servant leader seeks to nurture their
abilities to delicately balance between conceptual thinking and a
day-today focused approach.
7. Foresight: The servant leader has the ability to understand the
lessons of the past and the realities of the present and also foresee
the likely outcome of a situation in the future.
8. Stewardship: The first and foremost commitment for a servant
leader is to serve the needs of others.
9. Commitment to the growth of people: The servant leader is deeply
committed to the growth of each and every individual within the
10. Building community: The servant leader seeks to identify some
means for building community among those who work within a given
institution (p. 8).
Furthermore, Russell and Stone (2002) developed a preliminary
theoretical framework for categorizing and appraising the functional and
accompanying attributes of servant leaders. While functional attributes
are the operative qualities, characteristics, and distinctive features
belonging to leaders and observed through specific leader behaviors in
the workplace, the accompanying attributes appear to supplement and
augment the functional attributes (See Table 1).
Recently, a framework proposed by Barbuto and Wheeler (2002)
combined the 10 characteristics outlined by Spears (1995, 1998) with the
dimension of servant leadership as starting with a willingness or
calling to serve others as discussed in the early writings of Greenleaf.
To measure their 11 characteristics of servant leadership, Barbuto and
Wheeler (2006) developed operational definitions and scales. Results
produced five servant leadership factors. These five dimensions of
servant leadership have been adopted as the theoretical base for this
study. They are as follows:
* Altruistic calling: A leader's deep-rooted desire to make a
positive difference in others' lives.
* Emotional healing: A leader's commitment to and skill in
fostering spiritual recovery from hardship and trauma.
* Persuasive mapping: Leaders use sound reasoning and mental
frameworks. They encourage followers to visualize the
organization's future and are persuasive; they offer compelling
reasons to get followers to do things.
* Wisdom: Wisdom is a combination of awareness of surroundings and
anticipation of consequences. Leaders that have capacity in wisdom are
characteristically observant and anticipatory across most functions and
* Organizational stewardship: Leaders prepare an organization to
make a positive contribution to society through community development,
programs, and outreach (p 318).
2.2 Customer Relationship Management
Although CRM has become widely recognized as an important business
approach, there is no universally accepted definition of CRM (Ngai,
2005). However, in the marketing literature, the terms "CRM"
and "Relationship marketing" are used almost interchangeably
(Parvatiyar & Sheth, 2000). Berry (1983) defined relationship
marketing as "attracting, maintaining and enhancing customer
relationships". Christopher, Panyne, and Ballantyne (1991) proposed
that "the relationship marketing concept is emerging as a new focal
point, integrating customer service and quality with a market
orientation" (p. 32). CRM, on the other hand, has evolved from
business concepts and processes, such as relationship marketing and the
increased emphasis on improving customer retention through effective
management of customer relationships. Essentially CRM is based on the
belief that developing a relationship with customers is the best way to
get them to become loyal, and loyal customers are more profitable than
non-loyal customers (Dowling, 2002, p. 88). Kincaid (2003) viewed CRM as
"the strategic use of information, processes, technology, and
people to manage the customer's relationship with your company
(Marketing, Sales, Service, and Support) across the whole customer life
cycle" (p. 41).
Based on prior related literature and in-depth interviews with CRM
managers, researchers Sin, Tse and Yim (2005) developed a
multidimensional construct for CRM that consists of four broad
behavioral components: (1) key customer focus, (2) CRM organization, (3)
knowledge management, and (4) technology-based CRM. These four
dimensions of CRM have been adopted as part of the theoretical base for
this study and are as follows:
1. Key customer focus: This involves an overwhelming
customer-centric focus (Vandermerwe, 2004), and continuously delivering
superior and added value to key customers through customized marketing.
This dimension includes customer-centric marketing, key customer
lifetime value identification, personalization, and interactive
2. CRM organization: The key considerations for successfully
organizing the whole firm around CRM should involve organizational
structure, organization-wide commitment of resources, and human
3. Knowledge management: Davenport, Harris, and Kohli (2001)
indicated that, to build good relationships with customers, it is
necessary to serve each customer in her/his preferred way. Therefore,
the management of customer knowledge should be emphasized. Key facets of
"knowledge management" include knowledge learning and
generation, knowledge dissemination and sharing, and knowledge
4. Technology-based CRM: This involves utilizing computer
technologies in building relationships, leveraging existing technology
and rigorously linking technology deployment to targeted business
initiatives (Harding, Cheifetz, DeAngelo, & Ziegler, 2004).
2.3 Servant Leadership & Customer Relationship Management
Is there a relationship between Servant Leadership and Customer
Relationship Management? Do servant leaders facilitate implementation of
Customer Relationship Management successfully? At present, there is a
lack of academic research on this relationship, and this paper will
provide some new viewpoints for understanding this relationship which is
summarized in Table 2. Based upon these viewpoints, this study proposes
that servant leadership behaviors do have the significant relationships
on the implementation of customer relationship management with these
H1a: Leaders' Servant Leadership behavior is positively
correlated with the dimension of key customer focus of the Customer
Relationship Management implementation.
H1b: Leaders' Servant Leadership behavior is positively
correlated with the dimension of CRM organization of the Customer
Relationship Management implementation.
H1c: Leaders' Servant Leadership behavior is positively
correlated with the dimension of knowledge management of the Customer
Relationship Management implementation.
H1d: Leaders' Servant Leadership behavior is positively
correlated with the dimension of technology-based CRM of the Customer
Relationship Management implementation.
2.4 Framework for the Study & Background of the Problem
The setting of this study is an international tourist hotel located
in Taichung City in Taiwan. The hotel is a 306-room five-star hotel
offering exceptional and personalized service in an atmosphere of
elegant refinement. The hotel's food and beverage facilities
include three restaurants, two bars, one garden coffee shop, business
center, and banqueting area.
Taichung City is expected to become a highly competitive markets
for the hotel industry due to the following three developments: (1) The
merger of with Taichung County with Taichung City will result in
Taichung City becoming the third largest City in Taiwan, (2) The
addition of Central Taiwan Science Park, which was constructed in 2003,
to Taichung City and Taichung County, and (3) The city's airport
now offers direct flights to/from China.
There are plans now for six international tourist hotels to be
constructed in the Taichung City. In fact, according to data from the
Tourism Bureau (Tourism Bureau Website
http://admin.taiwan.net.tw/indexc.asp, Dec. 2007), three new
international tourist hotels will be constructed in the city over the
next three years. Taichung City, however, is a difficult competitive
business environment for the hotel industry. The implementation of
customer relationship management for acquiring, retaining, and
partnering with customers will become more important for the hotel
industry as it faces this competitive environment. Studying the
importance of the relationship between Servant Leadership and
implementation of Customer Relationship Management is the objective of
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Sample and Data Collection
Employees who work in the room department and food and beverage
department of the case hotel were the sample population for this study.
As the front office and restaurant staffs would those to face customers
most directly, these employees were chosen for this survey. The total
number of employees for these two groups was 94, and data collection
involved a series of communications consisting of emails, phone calls,
and face-to-face meetings conducted over a one-month period.
3.2 Assessment Instrument
To the extent possible, existing scales were used. The instrument
for assessing servant leadership was adopted from the 23-item scale of
Barbuto and Wheeler (2006). The reliability of servant leadership was
found to be 0.90. The instrument for measuring implementation of
customer relationship management was adopted from the 18-item scale of
Sin, Tse and Yim (2005). These 18 items were associated with four broad
behavioral components: 1) key customer focus, 2) CRM organization, 3)
knowledge management, and 4) technology-based CRM. The reliabilities of
customer relationship management implementation were found to be 0.81,
0.76, 0.76, and 0.83 respectively. Table 3 gives the reliabilities and
correlations of the dimensions.
4.1 Correlation analysis
Five dimensions were used to test the hypotheses and answer the
research questions. The correlation analysis was performed to identify
aspects of the relationships among these dimensions. Table 3 indicates
that all correlations among study variables are significant. Specially,
servant leadership is significantly and positively correlated with key
customer focus, CRM organization, technology-based CRM.
4.2 The Descriptive Statistics Analysis
Twenty-three items are included in the measurement of servant
leadership (Barbuto & Wheeler, 2006). Respondents were asked to
describe the servant leadership behaviors of managers who are directly
leading them. Due to the EFA results, 19 items were extracted (See Table
4). The five-point Likert scale, ranging from "not at all"
valued as a "1" to "frequently if not always" valued
as a "5," was used. Table 4 displays the means and standard
deviations of nineteen items in the servant leadership. Table 4 shows
that respondents view their managers as good at anticipating the
consequences of decisions. The managers encourage employees to dream
"big dreams" about the organization. Additionally, the
respondents perceive their managers are persuasive. Furthermore,
generally the respondents perceive their managers presented as the
Eighteen items are included in the measurement of customer
relationship management implementation (Sin, Tse & Yim, 2005).
Respondents were asked to assess how well their hotel implemented the
CRM activities. The results of EFA have met with Sin, Tse and Yim's
research; 12 items associated with each of four specific dimensions were
extracted (See table 5). The five-point Likert scale, ranging from
"strongly disagree" valued as a "1" to
"strongly agree" valued as a "5," was used. Table 5
displays the means and standard deviations of twelve items in the four
dimensions of customer relationship management implementation. Table 5
shows how respondents of the study perceive their hotel's focus on
customer relationship management implementation. Results show that when
customers want to modify a product or service, the departments in the
hotel will become involved to make coordinated efforts. Hotel employees
are willing to help customers in a responsive manner, and customers in
the hotel can expect prompt service from employees.
4.3 Hypotheses Testing
To examine how servant leadership affects each dimension of the
customer relationship management construct, regression analysis was
performed. Table 6 summarizes the regression results of the hypotheses
test. The result showed that servant leadership behaviors have the
positive impact on key customer focus, CRM organization, knowledge
management, and technology-based CRM. The dimensions of key customer
focus and CRM organization were found to be most affected by servant
leadership behaviors, in which the coefficient of determination,
[R.sup.2] were found to be 0.418 and 0.316 respectively.
5. DISCUSSION & LIMITATIONS
This study examined the influence of Servant Leadership on Customer
Relationship Management implementation in a case hotel located in
Taichung City, Taiwan. Employees who work in the front office and
restaurant were surveyed. The total number of employees for these two
groups was 94. The result of the hypothesis testing showed that Servant
Leadership behaviors are a significant predictor of Customer
Relationship Management implementation. This result has supported the
viewpoints as authors mentioned earlier.
The results of this study have several implications for leaders and
decision makers in today's increasingly competitive hotel industry.
First, leadership behavior has an impact on how effectively implement
customer relationship management within a hotel. This means that leaders
and decision makers would be well advised to recognize the positive
effect of servant leadership. As discussed earlier, Southwest Airlines,
Synovus Financial Corporation, and TDIndustries, which where all listed
in Fortune's January 2000 "Top 100 Best Companies to Work for
in America," have reported they emphasize Servant Leadership
A second finding shows that the items originally consisted in the
dimension of organizational stewardship behavior was found to be the
most significant predictor of implementation of customer relationship
management. Thus, a leaders' ability to build a sense of community
where people are committed to each other, learn to communicate, and
address their issues can be achieved, and this allows organizations to
develop sound mechanisms for sharing customer knowledge which
facilitates concerted actions both intra-organizationally and
inter-organizationally. A leader's ability to identify ways to
build a sense of community among workers within a given institution
enhances the organization's ability to collaborate, cooperate, and
communicate with key customers. Additionally, a leader's ability to
articulate and communicate his or her vision and to build a sense of
community within the organization enables the leader to design an
organizational structure with strong inter-functional coordination and
In broader terms, servant leadership behaviors are focused on the
growth and development of the followers which is likely to enhance the
ability of any organization to attract, retain and motivate new
employees such as those needed in high growth situations like the
tourism industry in Taiwan. Further, Servant Leadership behaviors are
linked to successful implementation of Customer Relationship Management
systems which are also critical for any organization in the competitive,
Finally, servant leadership behaviors and successful implementation
of customer relationship management systems can be beneficial to leaders
in the US and Europe who are faced with large numbers of Generation Y
individuals born after 1980 entering the workforce and becoming
customers. Generation Y needs and values focus on making a difference in
their work and in their influence on society, both of which can be
supported by servant leadership behaviors and successful CRM.
Although the relationship between servant leadership and customer
relationship management implementation was examined and supported, the
sample was limited to only one 5-star hotel in Taiwan with a sample
population of only 94. This offers future research many opportunities to
examine this important relationship in other industries, other cultures,
and with larger sample populations.
Li-Yueh Chen, Ming Dao University, Taiwan
F. Barry Barnes, Nova Southeastern University, USA
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Li-Yueh Chen, Ming Dao University, Taiwan
F. Barry Barnes, Nova Southeastern University, USA
Dr. Li-Yueh Chen is an Assistant Professor at the Department of
Hospitality Management at Ming Dao University in Taiwan. He earned DBA
degree from Nova Southeastern University and teaches undergraduate-level
course in marketing management, consumer behavior, customer relationship
management, and marketing research. His research interests are
leadership behaviors, customer relationship management, marketing
performance, and knowledge management.
TABLE 1: SERVANT LEADERSHIP ATTRIBUTES--FUNCTIONAL
Functional attributes Accompanying attributes
1. Vision 1. Communication
2. Honesty 2. Credibility
3. Integrity 3. Competence
4. Trust 4. Stewardship
5. Service 5. Visibility
6. Modeling 6. Influence
7. Pioneering 7. Persuasion
8. Appreciation of others 8. Listening
9. Empowerment 9. Encouragement
TABLE 2: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVANT LEADERSHIP AND CUSTOMER
CRM Servant Leadership
Key customer Leaders use foresight to plan for the future of
focus the organization and its employees. A leader's
awareness is dependent upon the leader's ability
to search for cues in the environment. Thus,
leaders also select key customers who are of
strategic significance. A CRM-oriented company
should make every effort to understand their
customers' needs and wants, which is crucial to
developing strong customer relationships. In
CRM implementation, leaders assess the lifetime
value of each customer individually to decide
whether to build a relationship with her or him
and practice customized marketing. These styles
of leadership allow organizations to rapidly
adjust their supplies to meet the demands of
customers through relationship-based marketing.
A leader's ability to identify ways to build a
sense of community among workers within a given
institution enhance the organization's ability
to collaborate, cooperate, and communicate with
key customers. "Credible leaders have the
personal habits, values, traits, and competencies
to engender trust and commitment from those who
take their direction" (Ulrich, 1996, p. 125).
Establishing trust is one of the most essential
elements of good leadership, especially Servant
Leadership, and is important for strengthening
interpersonal communications (Bennis & Nanus,
1997). Therefore, the characteristic of
credibility and trust enable leaders to
effectively implement interactive co-creation
CRM organization A leader's ability to articulate and communicate
his or her vision and to build a sense of
community within the organization enables the
leader to design an organizational structure
with strong interfunctional coordination and
Stewardship involves preparing the organization
and its members for great contributions to
society (Barbuto & Wheeler, 2002). Stewardship
allows the leader to best focus the
organization's commitment of time and resources
on identifying and satisfying key customer needs.
According to Krauss (2002), "the hardest part
of becoming CRM-oriented isn't the technology,
it's the people" (p. 5). Leaders who are skilled
at communication, displaying appreciation of
others, listening, encouragement, empowerment,
teaching, and delegation are able to enhance
the internal marketing process through market
training and education, internal communication,
reward systems, and employee involvement.
Knowledge Leaders can enhance the capability of
management organizational learning by conveying their
vision and providing learning opportunities for
their subordinates (Edmondson, 2002; Gilley &
Maycunich, 2000; Popper & Lipshitz, 2000).
A leaders' ability to build a sense of community
where people are committed to each other, learn
to communicate, and address their issues can be
achieved and allows organizations to develop
sound mechanisms for sharing customer knowledge
to facilitate concerted actions by intra-
organization and inter-organizations.
Delegation involves offering choices and
encouraging followers to take ownership of
responsibilities. This leadership behavior
involves knowledge responsiveness. Knowledge
responsiveness takes the form of acting on
knowledge generated and disseminated (Kohli
& Jaworski, 1990).
Technology-based The leadership attribute of vision is "an ideal
CRM and unique image of the future" (Kouzes & Posner,
1995, p. 95). Greenleaf (1977) used the terms
"foresight" and "conceptualization" to describe
vision. Therefore, servant leaders have a sense
of the unknown and an ability to foresee the
unforeseeable. This leadership attribute allows
organizations to establish a strategic vision
that, according to CRM calls for "information-
intensive strategies" for the organization
TABLE 3: RELIABILITIES AND CORRELATIONS OF THE DIMENSIONS
Reliabilities 1 2
1 Servant leadership 0.90 1
2 Key customer focus 0.81 .646 ** 1
3 CRM organization 0.76 .562 ** .281
4 Knowledge management 0.76 .396 ** .396 **
5 Technology-based CRM 0.83 .500 ** .502 **
3 4 5
1 Servant leadership
2 Key customer focus
3 CRM organization 1
4 Knowledge management .356 ** 1
5 Technology-based CRM .326 ** .483 ** 1
** Correlation is significant at 0.01 level (2-tailed).
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
TABLE 4: MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION AND RELIABILITY OF SERVANT
Items Mean SD
Servant leadership 3.66 0.51
This person does everything he/she can to serve me. 3.27 0.85
This person sacrifices his/her own interests to meet 3.32 0.96
This person goes above and beyond the call of duty 3.45 0.82
to meet my needs.
This person is good at helping me with my emotional 3.41 0.90
This person is talented at helping me to heal 3.34 0.86
This person is one that could help me mend my hard 3.48 0.82
This person seems alert to what's happening. 3.66 0.81
This person is good at anticipating the consequences 3.89 0.84
This person has great awareness of what is going on. 3.72 0.82
This person seems in touch with what's happening. 3.70 0.79
This person encourages me to dream "big dreams" 3.89 0.81
about the organization.
This person is very persuasive. 3.89 0.81
This person is good at convincing me to do things. 3.70 0.82
This person is gifted when it comes to persuading me. 3.77 0.86
This person believes that the organization needs to 3.75 0.89
play a moral role in society.
This person believes that our organization needs to 3.86 0.82
function as a community.
This person sees the organization for its potential 3.82 0.79
to contribute to society.
This person encourages me to have a community spirit 3.84 1.03
in the workplace.
This person is preparing the organization to make a 3.84 0.94
positive difference in the future.
TABLE 5: MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP
Dimension and Items Mean SD
Key customer focus 3.70 0.59
Through ongoing dialogue, we work with individual key 3.57 0.79
customers to customize our offerings.
My organization provides customized services and 3.73 0.73
products to our key customers.
My organization makes an effort to find out what our 3.70 0.76
key customer needs.
When my organization finds that customers would like 3.82 0.66
to modify a product/service, the departments
involved make coordinated efforts to do so.
CRM organization 3.58 0.64
My organization has the sales and marketing expertise 3.61 0.69
and resources to succeed in CRM.
My organization has established clear business goals 3.55 0.73
related to customer acquisition, development,
retention, and reactivation.
Knowledge management 3.73 0.64
My organization provides channels to enable ongoing, 3.75 0.81
two-way communication with our key customers and us.
Customers can expect prompt service from employees of 3.84 0.78
My organization has the right technical personnel to 3.59 0.76
provide technical support for the utilization of
computer technology in building customer
Technology-based CRM 3.55 0.66
My organization has the right software to serve our 3.55 0.76
My organization has the right hardware to serve our 3.50 0.79
Individual customer information is available at every 3.59 0.76
point of contact.
TABLE 6: RESULT OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF SERVANT LEADERSHIP
ON CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT
Predicted variables R [R.sup.2] F Sig.
Key customer focus .646 .418 30.150 .000
CRM organization .562 .316 19.367 .000
Knowledge .396 .157 7.812 .008
CRM .500 .250 14.031 .001
Predicted variables Beta t Sig.
Key customer focus .646 5.491 .000
CRM organization .562 4.401 .000
Knowledge .396 2.795 .008
CRM .500 3.746 .001