The aim of this research is to determine the retention effect of
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on students' academic
achievement for teaching the Physics topics. The research includes the
Force and Pressure units of 7th grade Science Lesson. In this research,
132 students were structured as both control and experiment groups.
Traditional instruction (TI) method is used for control group while
traditional instruction with teacher supervised CAI method is used for
experiment group. Scientific subject test was applied as pre-test and
post-test to both groups. 5 months latter, the Science Subject test was
applied to both groups again. Significant differences between the
Science Subject test scores of experiment and control group were found
in favor of experiment group.
Keywords: Computer assisted instruction, Science Teaching,
Instruction materials are among the assistant materials which
teachers use them to make instruction more effective, lasting and
enjoyable. Computers that are used as both a material and method and
instructional materials are effective for making students concentrate
on, understanding of, synthesizing and improving positive attitude
towards the subject of the course. An instructional material makes the
topic clearer and more lasting by making the topics that are abstract
for students more concrete (Cepni et a1., 2004; Demirel, 2004).
Therefore, the usage of visual instructional materials is so much
important in the instruction of abstract concepts as being included in
Science Lesson, understanding of the subject by students and improving
positive attitude towards the course.
Nowadays, it is obvious that visual materials have been used in
every field and technological devices, especially televisions and
computers, have affected students. As a result of instructional
materials that are supported by a variety of sound, image and animations
are observed as more lasting, enjoyable and effective ones. Learning is
resulted from seeing in %83, hearing in %11, smelling in %3,5, touching
in %1,5 and tasting in % 1 (Demirel, 2004). Learning is resulted from
seeing %75, hearing %13, smelling %6, touching %3 and tasting %3
There are experimental evidences that only oral explanation method
doesn't work well. If principles of how students learn are taken
into account, richness of the visual content makes instruction more
lasting and effective (Mayer, 2003).
According to Cilenti and Kinder, in a fixed time, learning is
gained by reading in %10, hearing in %20, seeing in %30, both seeing and
hearing %50, telling %70 and doing and telling %90 (Simsek, 2002;
Demirel, 2004; Yalin, 2006). This shows that visual materials supported
by audio and animations are more effective on students' learning,
perception and synthesizing
More sense organs deal with learning, faster and better instruction
occurs. Instruction is so lasting. The best learning is doing and living
oneself (Kucukahmet, 2001; Demirel, 2004).
For these reasons, we have to develop scientific lessons as the
ones that are supported by visual and audio instructional materials to
draw students' attention and so provide lasting learning, reflect
science nature and accelerate learning.
The main purpose of the educational research is to find how to form
a learning climate to provide lasting and upper level learning with a
less expense and try in a shorter time (Yigit & Akdeniz; 2003).
Using computers in classrooms is among the recent popular topics and
ratio of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and the use of computers in
classroom are common and becoming widespread.
Lifestyles of people affect their learning styles and even
determine how they learn and develop them. Therefore, provisions of
educational and instructional materials having more visual content is
necessary in order to teach to the person of this time who lives
visually and are in the bombardment of visual knowledge (Cepni et al.,
Today's students are maturing with visual devices like
television, video, computer and Internet. It is not possible to draw
these students' interest by using traditional methods that were
used in the past. As a result of technological developments that
appeared in the last quarter of the 20th century, a big difference
occurred between the ways of introduction of knowledge at schools and
the ways of getting knowledge in the society. Students get a lot of
information by visually enriched resources like computers and television
that are mostly used in our daily life. The way of gaining knowledge of
students and so it becomes difficult to teach them with traditional
methods (Cepni et al., 2004; London, 2005).
Nowadays it is clear that visual materials are used in every field
and students are in the effect of technological devices like television
and computer especially. As a result of supporting instructional
materials with sound, image and animations, more lasting, more enjoyable
and more effective instruction occurs (Demirel, 2004).
Little aged children are influenced more by visual stimulus than
auditory ones (Halis, 2002). This situation makes it difficult to draw
students' interest and to give them knowledge without using
auditory and visual content at schools. CAI is a way to make instruction
more interesting and to make knowledge more lasting.
A lot of researches were done on CAI in different countries
including Turkey. These researches concluded in very different ways.
Some researches found that CAI is beneficial for students'
development (Cotton, 1991; Child, 1995; Brophy, 1999; Cekbas et al.,
2003; Yenice, 2003; Carter, 2004; Moodly, 2004; Preciado, 2004; Brooks,
2005; Bryan, 2006; Cepni, 2006; Wilder, 2006; Liao, 2007). Some others
could not find any significant difference between CAI and TI (Bayraktar,
2001; Alacapinar, 2003; Cetin, 2007).
Research findings have showed that the use of computers in science
and math lessons as a tool towards application makes lessons more
interesting and more encouraging. And so more complicated science
concepts can be learnt in a more lasting and more effective way.
Computers are used in a very different areas ranging from handwriting
lesson to language development, from social sciences to science courses,
from mathematics to preparing the students for life in education (Halis,
Especially, if it is taken in to account that primary school
students have difficulties in learning of abstract concepts, educational
technologies among which especially computers plays an important role in
concretizing these concepts and presenting lively and being understood
of them by observations (Akpinar et al., 2005).
Developments in technology bring new educational and instructional
opportunities together. At the present time, people are not
investigating the question of whether computers are effective in
educational and instructional activities but they are investigating how
to use them more effectively (Kara & Yakar, 2008). Some researches
results showed that imaginary classes are %20 or %30 more effective than
traditional classes (Schutte, 1996; Kahraman, 2007).
She & Lee (2008) investigated the effects of a scientific
concept construction and reconstruction (SCCR), related to a
"combustion" topic for sixth grade students' conceptual
change and scientific reasoning. They found that the experimental group
students significantly outperformed the conventional group students on
both post- and retention-of Combustion Achievement Test (CAT), and
Combustion Dependent Reasoning Test (CDRT) scores. They concluded that
students' conceptual change their scientific reasoning ability
could be promoted through an SCCR digital learning program.
Dinov, et. al., (2008) presented the results of the effectiveness
of using Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR) tools at two
different course intensity levels on three outcome measures: exam
scores, student satisfaction and choice of technology to complete
assignments. Learning styles assessment was completed at baseline. They
used three very different designs for three different undergraduate
classes. Each course included a treatment group, using the SOCR
resources, and a control group, using classical instruction techniques.
Their findings include marginal effects of the SOCR treatment per
individual classes; however, pooling the results across all courses and
sections, SOCR effects on the treatment groups were exceptionally robust
Delialioglu & Yildirim (2008) investigated the effectiveness of
the hybrid instruction in regard to students' achievement,
knowledge retention, attitudes towards the subject, and course
satisfaction in comparison to traditional classroom instruction with
model for learning and teaching activities (MOLTA). They concluded that
there is no significant difference between the hybrid course and the
traditional course in students' achievement, knowledge retention,
satisfaction, and attitude.
Segers & Verhoeven (2005) examined the long-term effects of a
computer intervention for the development of phonological awareness in
Dutch kindergartners. Native Dutch and immigrant children worked with
the software 15 min/week during one school year. Following a
pretest--interim tests--post-test--retention test design, the effects on
rhyming, phonemic segmentation, auditory blending, and grapheme
knowledge were assessed. The result showed significant immediate effects
on rhyming and grapheme knowledge. The time spent on the computer games
also correlated with the learning gains for the experimental group. In
the first grade, retention effects were demonstrated after 4 months of
formal reading education.
CAI is the use of computers in educational and instructional
activities (Brophy, 1999). The mostly known function of science
instruction is to provide them with learning of these concepts well and
so to make them be aware of how to use these concepts in their daily
life (Cepni et. al., 2006).
The best example of integrity of science and technology is CAI. In
CAI, computers, which are described as the most effective communication
and individual instruction means of time, are used in order to keep up
with technology and standards of time (Yenice, 2003).
From these perspectives, the purpose of this research is to point
out whether students' academic achievement will continue when a
teacher studies force and pressure topics that are among physics topics
of 7th grade science lesson controlled CAI.
Materials and Method
In this research, a science subject test of force and pressure
topics was applied to 7th grade students as a pre-test, a post-test and
a retention test after 5 months. This research is an experimental and
quantitative study of real test model of controlled pre-test and
post-test model. In this research, there are two groups as experiment
having the lessons with CAI and control group having the lessons with
The population of this study was all 7th grade elementary school
students in City of Denizli in 2007 academic year. The Cluster Sampling
method was used as a sampling procedure because the unit chosen was not
an individual but a group of individuals who were naturally together
(Ary, Jacobs & Razavieh, 1996). Therefore, Ataturk Elementary School
was randomly selected as a sample and 132 students and 6 teachers were
included in this study. Since teachers' experiences and knowledge
about computer literacy are equal, 6 CAI classes were chosen randomly.
In order to prevent the researcher's prejudice, the science
teachers themselves study science lessons. Another assumption here is
the effect on students' achievement because of teachers'
characteristics isn't big enough to affect our study. A 25-question
subject test about force and pressure units with reliability of ct =
0.85 was developed in order to measure academic achievement. This
developed science subject test was applied as a pre-test, a post-test
and a retention test to both groups.
In this study, 3 programs that were prepared for CAI were used.
These are "Mobides CAI systems", "Vitamin Educational
Program" and "Educational Program" developed with
Information about students' personality and family is
investigated in order to balance the students' groups. After this
balancing, paired and unpaired t-tests were measured in order to see
whether there is a difference between students' groups who had been
defined as experiment and control groups before. For all statistical
analysis, 0.05 significance level was used.
Result and Discussions
Participants in this study consisted of 58 (%49) female and 57
(%51) male students. Control group was composed of 34 (%49) female
students and 34 (%51) male students whereas experiment group was
composed of 23 (%49) female students and 24 (%51) male students.
Independent sample t-test results demonstrated that there is no
statistically significant difference between experiment and control
groups' students' pre-test results (t = 1.76; p > 0.05).
Mean and standard deviation scores of the groups and t-test results are
given in Table 1 in details.
According to these results, it can be said that the knowledge
levels of experiment and control groups' students were at the same
level at the beginning of the course.
According to post-test results that were gained after the
application of the course, a statistically meaningful difference was
found between experiment and control groups' posttest scores (t =
6.36; p < 0.05). As shown in Table 2, when we look at the
groups' mean scores in order to understand that whose side this
difference is in favor of, post-test scores of experiment group students
are determined as higher than post-test scores of control group
students. That means, there is determined a significantly meaningful
difference for the achievement levels at the end of the course in favor
of experiment group students.
Retention test was applied 5 months later than post-test
application in order to see the retention effect of carried out
education on experiment and control groups on students'
achievement. As a result of retention test application,
independent-samples t-test was used in order to see whether there was a
statistically meaningful difference between both groups' scores.
Results were summarized in Table 3.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
According to information given in Table 3, a statistically
meaningful difference was found between the retention results of
experiment and control groups (t = 6.86; p < 0.05). Both groups'
mean scores in order to understand that whose side this difference is in
favor of, retention test scores of experiment group students are
determined as higher than retention test scores of control group
students. That means, retention level of the achievement test of the
course for experiment group students is determined as higher than
retention level of the achievement test of the course for control group
students. This result shows that CAI not only provides better learning
but also helps longer retention of gained properties.
Figure 1 shows that experiment group's gain level is higher
than control group's one. This situation is seen as continuing at
retention test after 5 months.
If we look retention test into account, experiment group students
have lost less knowledge than control group student according to
post-test results. That means, CAI show retention effect. Although
change is little for both groups, retention scores of CAI are closer
than the ones of IT. It results in that CAI is more effective in lasting
achievement. There is a positive effect of educational technology on
learning, without any doubt (Mihalca and Miclea, 2003).
Results of this research determined that there is a significantly
meaningful difference between pre-test and post-test scores at Science
Achievement test of both experiment and control groups. This shows that
not only TI but also CAI are effective on students' academic
achievement. A main effect of CAI on retention: participants learning
with animated pictures remembered more elements than participants
learning with static graphics. A positive effect of dynamic presentation
Another result of this research is that while there was not any
significantly meaningful difference on both groups' pre-test
scores, there found a difference at post-test scores in favor of
experiment group. According to this result, CAI is more effective than
TI on students' academic achievement. If we compare the
groups' mean scores, the difference between gain levels increased
almost nearly two times highly in favor of experiment group.
CAI will be effective in getting rid of misconceptions completely
with the help of technological course materials that are prepared well
in terms of pedagogical and science content aspects. According to Ivowi
(1984), the main causes of the misconceptions in students can be traced
to teachers and some available textbooks.
Instructional program is the most effective factor of CAI in
increase of retention level. Preparation of instructional program must
be a fact of teamwork. Only a single researcher can develop a program
oneself but this program will be lack of some properties. If we think
about human's mental properties, it should be thought that
researcher prepares a program according to his or her own mental power.
One of he most effective and the most interesting CAI programs is
simulations. With the use of not only laboratories but also course-aimed
simulations, more economic and more effective application can be
achieved. It should be taken care of appropriateness to students,
curriculum, visual properties and motivation characteristic of the CAI
The work was supported by 2007, FBE018, BAP, Pamukkale University.
Akpinar, E., Aktamis, H. and Ergin, O. (2005). The Students'
view on the use of Educational Technology in Science Course. The Turkish
Online Journal of Educational Technology, 4(1), Article 12.
Alacapinar, F.G. (2003). The Effect of Traditional Education and
Education via Computer on the Students' gain. Eurasian Journal of
Educational Research, Winter 2003: (10): 40-45.
Ary, D., Jacobs, L.C. & Razavieh, A. (1996). Introduction to
Research in Education. (5th Ed.). Harcourt Brace & Company. Orlando,
Bayraktar, S. (2001). A Meta Analysis of the Effectiveness of
Computer Assisted Instruction in Science Education. The Journal of
Research on Technology in Education, 34(2), 173-188.
Brooks, D.N. (2005). Are we there yet?: Mapping skills Computer
Aided Instruction, M.S. Thesis, California University, Dominguez Hills
Brophy, A.K. (1999). Is computer assisted instruction effective in
the science classroom?, M.S. Thesis, California State University,
Bryan, J. (2006). Technology for physics instruction. Contemporary
Issues in Technology and Teacher Education [Online serial], 6(2),
Carter, M.B. (2004). An analysis and comparison of the effects of
computer assisted instruction versus traditional lecture instruction
students attitudes and achievement in a college remedial mathematics
course, Doctoral Thesis, Temple University. Philadelphia
Cekbas, Y., Yakar, H., Yildirim, B. and Savran, A. (2003). The
Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction on Students. The Turkish Online
Journal of Educational Technology, 2(4), Article 11.
Cepni, S., Ozsevgec, T., Saydkan, F. and Emre, F.B. (2004). The
Comparison of achievement levels of science teaching program students at
two universities. V. International Science and Mathematics Education
Congress Report, Volume II, Ankara, 1241-1246.
Cepni, S., Tas E. and Kose S. (2006). The effects of Computer
Assisted Materials on Students' cognitive levels, misconceptions
and attitude toward science. Computers and Education, 2006 (46),
Cetin U. (2007). A comparison of traditional teaching and the
computer assisted education software based on ARCS motivation model in
accordance with students' achievement and permanance of learning.
Gazi University, Master's Degree, Department of Computer Education
and Instructional, Technology. Ankara
Child, J. (1995). Assessing the impact of Computer Assisted
Instruction (CAI) in undergraduate Latin American Studies Courses, XIX.
International Congress of Latin American Studies Association,
Cotton, K. (1991). Computer Assisted Instruction, School
Improvement Research Series, http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/5/cu10.html
Delialioglu, O. & Yildirim, Z. (2008). Design and development
of a technology enhanced hybrid instruction based on MOLTA model: Its
effectiveness in comparison to traditional instruction, Computers &
Education, doi: 10.1016/ j.compedu.2007.06.006
Demirel, O. (2004). Planning and Evaluation in Instruction: Art of
Teaching, Pegem Publication.
Dinov, I.D., Sanchez, J., Christou, N. (2008). Pedagogical
utilization and assessment of the statistic online computational
resource in introductory probability and statistics courses, Computers
& Education, 50(1), 284-300.
Halis, I. (2002). Instructional Technologies and Material
Development, Nobel Publication and Distribution.
Ivowi, U. M.O., 1984, Misconceptions in physics amongst Nigerian
secondary school students, Phys. Educ., 19, 279-285.
Kahraman, O. (2007). Effect of the computer assisted instruction on
student's attitude and achievement on the physics topic of the 7th
grade science lesson. Pamukkale University, M.Sc. Thesis, Pamukkale
University, Science Institute, Denizli.
Kara, I. & Yakar, H. (2008). Effects of Computer Supported
Education on the Success of Students on Teaching of Newton's Laws
of Motion, Worm Applied Sciences Journal, 3(1), 51-56.
Kucukahmet, L. (2001). Instructional Principles and Methods, Nobel
Publication and Distribution.
Liao, Y.C., (2007). Effects computer assisted instruction on
students' achievement in Taiwan: A meta analysis. Computer and
education, 48, 216-233.
London, N. (2005). A field test of CAI software: A journey through
the solar system, M.Sc. Thesis, California State University, Dominguez
Mayer, R.E. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the
same instructional design methods across different media. Learning and
Instruction, 13(2), 125-139.
Mihalca L. & Miclea M. (2003). Current Trends in Educational
Technology Research, Romanian Association for Cognitive Science, 11(1),
Moodly, S. (2004). The effects of Computer Based Dynamic
Visualization Simulation on Student Learning in High School Science,
Doctoral Thesis, Boston University, Boston
Preciado, C. (2004). Computer Assisted Instruction Field Test:
Systems of Equations, M.S. Thesis, California State University Dominguez
Schutte, J. G. (1996). Virtual teaching in higher education: The
new intellectual superhighway or just another traffic jam? Retrieved 16
September 2003, Available from http://www.csun.edu/sociology/virexp.htm
Segers, E. & Verhoeven, L. (2005). Long-term effects of
computer training of phonological awareness in kindergarten, Journal of
Computer Assisted Learning, 21, 17-27.
She, H-C. & Lee, C-Q. (2008). SCCR digital learning system for
scientific conceptual change and scientific reasoning, Computers &
Education, doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2007.07.009
Simsek, N. (2002). The Use of Educational Technology in Lesson for
Teachers and Nominee Teachers, Nobel Publication and Distribution
Wilder, D.M. (2006). A field test of CAI software: Introduction to
Electricity, M. S. Thesis, California University, Dominguez Hills
Yalin, H.I. (2006). Instructional Technologies and Material
Development, Nobel Publication and Distribution
Yenice, N. (2003). The Effect of Computer Assisted Science Teaching
on Students' Science and Computer Attitudes. The Turkish Online
Journal of Educational Technology, 2(4), Article 12.
Yigit, N. & Akdeniz, A. R. (2003). The Effect of Computer
Assisted Activities on students' gain at Physics Instruction:
Electrical Circuits Example. Journal of Gazi Educational Faculty, 23(3),
Izzet Kara, Faculty of Education, Pamukkale University, 20070
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Izzet
Kara at ikara@pau. edu.tr
Pre-test scores of Science Achievement Test
Groups N Mean Standard Deviation t p
Experiment 47 5.55 3.05 1.76 0.08
Control 85 4.63 2.54 1.76 0.08
Post-test scores of Science Achievement Test
Groups N Mean Standard Deviation t p
Experiment 47 15.38 3.77 6.36 0
Control 85 10.93 3.64 6.36 0
Retention Scores of Science Achievement Test
Groups N Mean Standard Deviation t p
Experiment 47 14.13 3.81 6.86 0
Control 85 8.9 4.15 6.86 0