This study identified and analysed current corporate social
responsibility (CSR) practices and benefits gained from implementing
these activities in the United States (US)lodging industry. A survey of
the US-based hotel executives showed that the most important and highest
performing initiatives tended to be popular environmental practices
focused on energy, waste and water management. Hotel executives reported
that cost savings and branding-related outcomes were the greatest
benefits from CSR implementation. It is argued that increased consumer
and managerial learning of CSR activities from a holistic perspective is
critical to moving the CSR program forward in the lodging industry.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR), sustainability,
CSR activities, importance-performance analysis, hotels
Best Western encourages members of its rewards frequent-stay
program to donate points to World Vision for Japan tsunami and
earthquake relief efforts. Employees are paid by Kimpton Hotels to
volunteer at a local nonprofit organisation during Kimpton Cares Month.
Marriott breaks ground on LEED-certified 'green' hotels. These
good works, among many others, demonstrate the vitality of corporate
social responsibility (CSR) in the lodging industry. A CSR orientation
not only contributes to the common good of society (Garriga & Mele,
2004), but can engage employees, connect with consumers, boost profits,
and even stave off regulatory threats from government (e.g., Bohdanowicz
& Zientara, 2008; Eraqi, 2010; Weber, 2008).
Given the potential benefits that CSR can bring to hotel brands and
individual properties, however, the activities that comprise CSR in the
lodging industry are often ambiguous. In addition, the lack of
managerial awareness and learning in this arena has been argued to be a
major organisational barrier to implementation of socially responsible
practices (e.g., Goodall & Stabler, 1997; Kazim, 2009; Post &
Altman, 1994). As a multidimensional construct (Dahlsrud, 2006), CSR has
often been cited as 'the continuing commitment by business to
behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving
the quality of life, of the workforce, and their families, as well as of
the local community and society at large' (World Business Council
for Sustainable Development, 1999, p. 3) and considered 'a concept
whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their
business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on
a voluntary basis' (CEC, 2001). However, these broad
conceptualisations do little to help focus and clarify the activities
which compose CSR. While numerous attempts have been made to clarify
what constitutes CSR activities in the management literature (e.g.,
Carroll, 1999; Wood, 1991), little progress has been made within the
Another reason for our limited understanding of CSR is due to the
current popularity of the related concept of sustainability. Lodging
companies tend to communicate CSR efforts under the banner of
sustainability, or more lately, sustainable hospitality (Houdre, 2008).
Moreover, numerous hospitality certification programs (e.g., Energy
Star, Green Seal) and associated measurement systems (e.g., Global
Sustainable Tourism Criteria, International Tourism Partnership's
Sustainable Performance Operational Tool) provide sustainability
criteria for hotels to evaluate and benchmark performance while gaining
industry-wide recognition for their efforts. Although sustainability
encompasses the 'triple bottom line' (i.e., profit, people and
planet; Elkington, 1997), the ecological underpinning of the sustainable
development movement has resulted in a clearly environmental emphasis
(Montiel, 2008). This is evidenced in the hotel business by the type of
ubiquitous responsible practices communicated to guests such as towel
recycling efforts, the utilisation of environmentally-friendly products,
and the composting of food (Tzschentke et al., 2008a). Not surprisingly,
the common sentiment among practitioners is that CSR is largely about
the environment (Sheldon & Park, 2011). Similarly, hospitality
research examining CSR activities has focused predominantly on
environmental practices (e.g., Andereck, 2009; Bohdanowicz, 2006, 2007;
Heung et al., 2006; Mensah, 2007).
This study aims to explore the nature of CSR in the lodging
industry by: (a) identifying CSR activities which hotels are practicing;
(b) examining hotel executives' perceptions on the benefits of
implementing these activities; and (c) gaining insight into the
importance and performance of these CSR activities from hotel
executives' perspectives. The study findings can enhance managerial
learning, given the very limited current understanding of the elements
which compose CSR within the hospitality field.
Benefits of Incorporating CSR in Hotels
Implementation of CSR practices in hotels are contended to be
driven by a number of factors including profit motives, brand
positioning, ethical considerations of managers and owners, societal and
regulatory pressure, and employee relations (e.g., Butler, 2008; Han et
al., 2009; Kasim, 2007; Mair & Jago, 2010; Tzschentke et al.,
Cost savings in hotel operations are often evidenced through CSR
implementation, particularly environmentally-responsible practices which
reduce energy expenses (e.g., Bader, 2005; Han et al., 2009; Mair &
Jago, 2010). This is considered to be a major motivating factor for
hotel properties to implement green practices (Bohdanowicz, 2006;
Tzschentke et al., 2008b). From the revenue standpoint, CSR and
sustainability efforts can lead to higher repeat business and room
revenue (Huimin & Ryan, 2011; McGehee et al., 2009). There are mixed
reports, however, regarding consumer willingness to pay more (e.g.,
Kasim, 2004; Kuminoff et al., 2010). Beyond operational performance, CSR
activities have been found to positively influence firm value (Bader,
2005; Kang et al., 2007; Lee & Heo, 2009) and return on assets (Lee
& Park, 2009). CSR also offers a key marketing advantage over
competitors (Atakan & Eker, 2007; Butler, 2008; Williams et al.,
2007) and can improve hotel image and reputation (Bader, 2005; Bird et
al., 2007; Bohdanowicz, 2005; Han et al., 2009; Kirk, 1995; Mair &
Furthermore, some executives consider engagement in CSR as part of
the corporate mission (Sheldon & Park, 2011) and simply the fight
thing to do (Huimin & Ryan, 2011; Mair & Jago, 2010). Strategic
implementation of CSR practices can also grant hotels a social license
to operate and reduce threats of greater governmental supervision
(Kasim, 2007; McGehee et al., 2009; Williams et al., 2007) by improving
community relations and contributing to the local quality of life (e.g.,
Kirk, 1998; Sheldon & Park, 2011; Bohdanowicz & Zientara, 2008).
Hotels that execute and communicate CSR efforts to current and potential
employees can lower staff turnover, strengthen employee engagement,
raise staff morale, and better recruit high-performing candidates (e.g.,
Bader, 2005; Bohdanowicz & Zientara, 2008; Huimin & Ryan, 2011;
Shaw & Thomas, 2006).
CSR Activities in the Hospitality Literature
As evidenced through analyses of corporate reports and web sites
(e.g., Holcomb et al., 2007) as well as books in the academic and
popular press (e.g., Clarke & Chen, 2007; Diener et al., 2008; Sloan
et al., 2009), hotel firms are actively promoting their CSR efforts,
although questions remain as to their efficacy (Bohdanowicz &
Zientara, 2009). While authors have utilised the case study approach to
explore CSR-related programs, strategies and reporting systems within
major hospitality firms such as Scandic, Hilton International, and
Intrawest (Bodhanowicz, 2007; Bodhanowicz & Zientara, 2008; Williams
et al., 2007), limited empirical work on examining CSR activities
exists. These studies focus on surveying visitor and managerial
perceptions of hospitality industry environmental practices (Andereck,
2009; Bohdanowicz, 2006, 2007; Firth & Hing, 1999; Heung et al.,
2006; Mensah, 2007) or hotelier views of CSR initiatives (Bodhanowicz
& Zientara, 2008; Eraqi, 2010; Tsai et al., 2010).
Many of the green practices that visitors value most highly are
guest experience related rather than those which focus on minimising
adverse ecological impacts. In a study of over 800 travellers in
Arizona, Andereck (2009) revealed that the most valuable environmental
effort that hospitality businesses can implement is landscaping with
native plants, which help enhance visitor 'sense of place' (p.
496). Supporting this guest-centered, rather than earth-centered theme,
the most important attributes of green hotels were found to be
sufficient sunlight, fresh air, clean drinking water, and green plants,
according to a survey of Chinese hotel guests (Heung et al., 2006).
Kasim (2004) also reported that responsible hotel attributes most valued
by domestic and foreign visitors to Penang, Malaysia were guest
experience-related such as friendliness of hotel staff and promotion of
local culture and cuisine. Employment of local people, promotion of
local conservation efforts, and the environmental image of the hotel
were substantially less valued by the respondents.
Along the same vein, these respondents preferred in-room facilities
which were non-environmentally friendly (e.g., individual soap bars
versus dispenser soap, fresh towels versus re-used towels). On the other
hand, popular environmental initiatives implemented by hotels tended to
be based upon cost savings, rather than enhancement of the guest
experience. According to hotel manager surveys, the most popular
measures included installing energy-efficient bulbs as well as towel and
linen-reuse programs (Bohdanowicz, 2006; Mensah, 2007), reflecting that
the major incentive for hoteliers to implement green practices is to
reduce operating costs (Bohdanowicz, 2006).
Among studies examining CSR initiatives in a more holistic manner,
a variety of activities came to the forefront. Bodhanowicz and Zientara
(2008) surveyed 13 major hotel brands, and found that the most popular
CSR initiatives were donations to charity, working with local
communities, and purchasing fair-trade goods. In other studies,
substantial attention was given to ensuring that the practices related
to the guest experience. For example, Eraqi (2010) surveyed Egyptian
tourism managers on 15 practices derived from the Global Sustainable
Tourism Criteria, a set of 37 criteria organised around the United
Nations-identified pillars of sustainable tourism. He found that several
of the most highly-rated sustainable practices included certifying that
promotional materials are accurate and complete and ensuring that
customer satisfaction is measured and addressed. In a choice modeling
study involving nine CSR programs in a Taiwanese hotel, Tsai et al.
(2010) reported that two of the top three programs to be implemented by
hotel executives when taking into account financial and labor resources
as well as program goals were guest satisfaction-related initiatives:
namely, providing satisfactory printed and internet-based tourism
information to prospective guests and creating plans to satisfy major
stakeholders including consumers.
While previous research helps illuminate key stakeholder
perceptions of responsible hotel practices, only Eraqi (2010) utilised a
comprehensive list of CSR activities in his survey. In addition, CSR
items were rated based upon popularity of implementation (Bohdanowicz,
2006; Firth & Hing, 1999; Mensah, 2007), managerial attitudes
towards CSR activities (Eraqi, 2010), and in relation to hotel resources
and program goals (Tsai et al., 2010). No previous studies have utilised
the importance-performance analysis (IPA) approach for CSR activities,
although it can help hotel managers determine strategic marketing
decisions, allocate resources and identify problems (Chu & Choi,
2000; Oh, 2001). IPA has been widely used in the hospitality context;
for example, to examine hotel selection factors by business and leisure
travellers (Chu & Choi, 2000), hotel attributes that influence
customer satisfaction (Choi & Chu, 2001), hotel room technologies
(Bilgihan et al., 2010), manager and employee perceptions of hotel
service quality (Martin, 1995), and guest ratings of Chinese hotel
attributes (Ryan & Huimin, 2007).
This study was conducted by first developing a comprehensive list
of CSR activities practiced by hotels. These activities were identified
through an analysis of CSR reports and web sites of the 10 largest hotel
companies worldwide ranked by Hotels Magazine based on total room
numbers as of December 31, 2009 (see Table 1), consistent with the hotel
selection criteria used by Holcomb, Upchurch, and Okumus (2007). In
addition, to identify additional hotel-related CSR items, an extensive
review of the relevant literature in the top 57 hospitality and tourism
journals was conducted, following the journal selection process by Law,
Leung, and Buhalis (2010).
Three researchers independently identified 129 potential items,
which were then cross-reviewed, synthesised to 35 practices, and
reworded for clarification purposes, if needed. These CSR items, along
with ten CSR benefits derived from the literature, were then integrated
into an Internet-based survey. The survey incorporated the following
sections: CSR activity importance to the hotel operator; hotel
performance of the CSR activities; benefits of CSR activities to the
hotel; hotel property characteristics; and, information about the
respondent. The survey items and format were pre-tested in April 2011
among 12 hotel executives familiar with the topic, and minor adjustments
were made according to their comments, such as shortening some
The final survey was e-mailed to 613 hotel general managers in the
Washington DC and San Francisco metropolitan areas on May 3, 2011, and
two e-mail survey reminders were sent before the survey closing date on
May 17, 2011. A total of 55 people responded to the survey but 41 were
complete and usable, resulting in a 7.5% response rate, which is in line
with an average rate of 6% to 15% for web-based surveys, according to a
recent meta-analysis (Lozar Manfreda et al., 2008). This study was
directed to hotel general managers, although recipients were encouraged
to forward the e-mail survey to hotel executives best suited to
answering CSR-related questions. Nevertheless, general managers
accounted for 32 of the 41 responses (78%). The average age of
respondents was 44.7 years old, with males accounting for the majority
(80.5%). Most of the hotel executives reported that they received a
bachelor's degree (70.6%). The average tenure in the hotel industry
was 19.4 years, although respondents worked, on average, only 5.3 years
in their current hotel, with nearly 70% reporting less than 5 years
experience in the current property.
The geographic location of the hotels in which respondents worked
were evenly split between the Washington DC metropolitan area (51.2%)
and the San Francisco metropolitan area (48.8%), with the hotel size
averaging 246 rooms. The majority of hotels were located in urban areas
(58.5%), with hotels in suburban (19.5%), small metropolitan/town (9.8
%), and resort areas (7.3%) also represented on multiple responses. The
upscale (26.8%) and midscale (26.8%) chain scale segments represented
more than half of responding hotels, with higher-end hotels (e.g.,
luxury, upper upscale) accounting for nearly 25% of hotels, and economy
hotels representing nearly 15% of hotels surveyed. Management companies
(53.7%) and independent operators (26.8%) accounted for the majority of
hotel operators in this study, although brand operators (17.1%) were
As seen in Table 2, executives reported that all ten potential
benefits accruing to hotels from implementing CSR activities were
important to varying degrees. The most highly rated benefit was found to
be hotel cost savings (x = 4.35), while branding-related outcomes
including hotel reputation (x = 4.26), hotel image (x = 4.24), and
competitive advantage of hotel (x = 4.09) closely followed in
importance. Respondents agreed that guest loyalty (x = 4.04) was an
important benefit of hotel CSR efforts, followed by employee-related
benefits such as employee motivation (x = 3.98), employee retention (x =
3.67), and employee recruitment (x = 3.59). The reduction of hotel risk
by public scrutiny (x = 3.67) and government regulations (x = 3.50),
however, were found to be relatively less beneficial as compared to
other potential outcomes surveyed.
The 35 CSR items utilised in this research (see Table 3) represent
all five CSR dimensions as classified by the KID database (Inoue &
Lee, 2011), particularly dominated by environmental issues (22
practices) and community relations (8 practices). Rated on a 10-point
scale, the average score for item importance was 7.62 and item
importance was 6.86. As shown in the IPA grid (see Figure 1), the
majority of CSR activities were rated to be high-importance,
high-performance items (48.6%) in the 'Keep up the good work'
quadrant, or low-importance, low-performance items (37.1%) within the
'Low priority' quadrant. Two of the practices were rated as
low-importance, high-performance attributes in the 'Possible
overkill' quadrant, and even more surprisingly, only three
practices were considered high-importance, low-performance attributes in
which hoteliers are suggested to 'Concentrate here.'
Within the 'Keep up the good work' quadrant, the most
highly-rated CSR activities were found to be highly popular green
practices such as guest re-use of linens and towels (i = 9.22, p =
8.98), installation of low water flow fixtures (i = 9.23, p = 8.76), and
implementation of recycle/reuse waste management programs (i = 9.41, p =
8.71). The provision of safe and equitable work conditions for employees
(i = 9.54, p = 8.9) also rated among the highest CSR practices. A second
cluster of four CSR practices also were perceived to be performing well
and of high importance to hotel companies, including the implementation
of programs to accommodate disabled guests and employees (i = 8.98, p =
8.28) and reducing resource consumption by installing energy-efficient
appliances (i = 8.86, p = 8.38), training housekeeping employees (i =
8.96, p = 8.23), and reducing paper usage in property-based operations
(i = 8.93, p = 8.24). Eight other attributes representing four CSR
dimensions were also located in this quadrant.
In the 'Low priority' quadrant, nine of the 14 items were
environment-related, with particularly low importance-performance
ratings for offsetting carbon emissions through guest donations,
enabling guests to redeem loyalty points to offset carbon footprints
from trips (i = 4.98, p = 3.97), obtaining LEED certification for the
hotel (i = 6.64, p = 4.94), and utilising alternative energies (e.g.,
water, wind) in hotel operations (i = 6.05, p = 5.12). From a community
relations perspective, allowing guests to donate to or volunteer with
local community organisations also ranked low in importance and
performance (i = 5.74, p = 5.00).
According to the analysis, conducting diversity programs for
stakeholders (i = 7.41, p = 6.97) and organising/sponsoring local
community events for the purposes of fundraising (i = 7.48, p = 7.05)
were rated below-average in importance and above-average in performance,
relegating these items to the 'Possible overkill' quadrant.
The 'Concentrate here' quadrant consisted of three CSR
practices, namely having a formal governance system to measure, monitor
and report on sustainability practices (i = 7.82, p = 6.79), using hotel
wastewater in landscaping or gardening (i = 7.77, p = 6.22), and
providing opportunities for hotel employees to volunteer in or donate to
the local community (i = 7.86, p = 6.42).
Discussion and Conclusion
This study explored current CSR practices in the lodging industry
as well as the corresponding benefits which accrue to responsible
hotels. As CSR practices are popularly discussed in hospitality trade
magazines (King et al., 2010), this study contributes to the ongoing
dialogue by identifying, screening, then classifying 35 CSR activities
utilising importance-performance analysis. Given that most empirical
research in this area has focused exclusively on environmental
practices, this study provides an account of the current state of CSR in
the lodging industry from a holistic perspective, aligned with current
conceptualisations of CSR.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Hotel managers clearly recognise the numerous advantages of hotel
participation in CSR initiatives, with cost savings reported as the most
important benefit, supporting previous empirical research surveying
Swedish and Polish hoteliers (Bohdanowicz, 2006). Corroborating this
finding, several of the most highly-rated items in this study were
resource-efficient practices such as employing linen and towel re-use
programs and installing energy-efficient appliances and low water-flow
fixtures. While hotels are certainly encouraged to 'keep up the
good work' in these aspects, mainstream green practices have been
widely implemented and are now commonly found throughout the industry.
Accordingly, firms might encounter reputational risk by being accused of
'green-washing' if their practices remain outdated (El-Dief
& Font, 2010; Laufer, 2003) and are not supplemented by other more
broad-based activities. Hotel operators may have begun to recognise this
risk and are now engaging in CSR initiatives beyond traditional
environmental practices. These include, but are not limited to, linkages
with community organisations (e.g., Hilton Hotels and Resorts in Mexico
with K.I.D.S. Charities), guest volunteerism in the local communities
(e.g., Ritz-Carlton Give Back Getaways), serving healthy food to
children (e.g., Novotel Hotels in France participation in the Edenred
'Nutritional Balance' program), and sponsorship of charity
events (e.g., The Four Seasons Hotel DC Sprint Four the Cure 5k
Although consumers are increasingly taking interest in the positive
contributions of hospitality companies to society, hotel companies need
to better publicise their CSR initiatives to guests (Han et al., 2009;
Holcomb et al., 2007; Muirhead, 1999). Increased consumer awareness of
CSR efforts may lead to more hotel guest demand, which has been found to
be a key driver of hotel adoption of CSR initiatives (Bohdanowicz,
2006). Online travel agencies may have a particularly important role to
play, given that approximately one-third of hotel rooms are booked via
electronic channels (Ricca, 2011). For example, Travelocity's Green
Hotel Directory allows travellers to screen lodging options by hotels
which have successfully been audited by certification programs (e.g.,
Green Globe, Green Seal) whose standards are similar to the GSTC.
Expedia has launched a similar initiative, partnering with Sustainable
Travel International. More work needs to be done to increase exposure,
however, as these initiatives cannot readily be found on the homepages
of the aforementioned web site homepages.
CSR activities identified in both the industry and academic
hospitality literature are heavily weighted towards environmental
practices, incorporating 22 of the 35 items (62.80) in this survey. This
has reflected a longstanding subordination of broad-based CSR to
ecological sustainability efforts. However, several major hotel
companies have recently restructured their website communications to
reflect a more balanced view. For example, Four Seasons has introduced
'Living Values,' which equitably features the areas of
supporting sustainability, building communities and advancing cancer
research. Hyatt Thrive, the hotel brand's new CSR platform, focuses
on environmental sustainability, economic development and investment,
education and personal advancement, and health and wellness.
Over 85% of the CSR activities were within the 'Keep up the
good work' or 'Low priority' quadrants, while only three
practices were found in the 'Concentrate here' quadrant. This
suggests that hotels are by and large complacent with their
implementation of CSR efforts, as initiatives considered important were
perceived to perform well, while less important practices generally did
not. Some of the more innovative practices were considered low priority,
including utilising alternative energies (e.g., solar, wind) for
operations, and enabling guests to neutralise their carbon footprint by
donating money or frequent stay points. This might suggest hotel
executives' lack of knowledge on those options and/or unwillingness
to move beyond traditional CSR practices, which brings into question
long-term corporate commitment to CSR. However, hotels admit that they
have room to improve in sustainability monitoring and reporting, helping
employees engage with the local community, and better utilising
wastewater in hotel property landscaping.
Study limitations include the small sample size of the respondents,
which did not allow for more advanced statistical analyses. The hotels
surveyed were located in two highly-developed US metropolitan areas, and
may not reflect the importance of community, environmental and employee
issues confronting other regions of the country and world. While IPA
serves as a managerial tool by providing insight on corporate
activities, it should not be used as the sole instrument to determine
resource allocation and identify problem areas. In particular, it is
suggested that more in-depth, qualitative research on high-importance,
low-performance CSR activities identified in this study be conducted to
provide additional credence that hotel companies should enhance their
efforts within these areas. Given that implementation of CSR practices
was found to improve relationships with guests and employees, future
research could utilise IPA to measure perceptions among these two
important groups to determine stakeholder alignment on CSR practices.
Further cross-cultural work in this area is also needed, as cultural
differences have been found among managerial (e.g., Quazi &
O'Brien, 2000) and consumer perceptions (e.g., Maignan, 2001) of
CSR. As hoteliers continue to learn about and appreciate the ways in
which hotels contribute to society, as well as the ways in which these
actions return to benefit hotels, it is believed that the CSR movement
in the lodging industry will continue to strengthen and gain prominence.
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Top Ten Hotel Companies by Total Number of Rooms (as of 12/31/09)
Name Headquarters Rooms Hotels
InterContinental Hotels Windsor, England 646,679 4,438
Wyndham Hotel Group New Jersey, US 597,674 7,114
Marriott International Maryland, US 595,461 3,420
Hilton Worldwide Virginia, US 585,060 3,530
Accor Hospitality Paris, France 499,456 4,120
Choice Hotels International Maryland, US 487,410 6,021
Best Western International Arizona, US 308,477 4,048
Starwood Hotels & Resorts Minnesota, US 298,522 992
Carlson Hotels Worldwide Minnesota, US 159,756 1,058
Hyatt Hotels Corporation Illinois, US 122,317 424
Hotel Benefits of Implementing CSR Activities
Benefit Mean SD
Hotel cost savings 4.35 0.85
Hotel reputation among guests 4.26 0.98
Hotel image among guests 4.24 0.97
Competitive advantage of hotel in marketplace 4.09 1.03
Guest loyalty 4.04 0.92
Employee motivation 3.98 0.98
Employee retention 3.67 1.21
Reduces hotel exposure to public scrutiny 3.67 1.23
Employee recruitment 3.59 1.22
Reduces threat to hotel of government regulations 3.50 1.19
Table 3 CSR Activities and Importance-Performance Ratings
No. CSR Dimensions and Activities Importance Performance
1 Assess social impacts in the 8.4 6.92
community before hotel
construction and find ways to
2 Become a member of international 6.55 5.97
organisations which promote
3 Implement supplier codes of 7.06 6.29
conduct/guidelines for ethical or
human rights standards
4 Make donations (money or products) 7.91 7.92
to the local community
5 Minimise hotel use of local 6.69 6.22
community resources to prevent
6 Organise and/or sponsor local 7.48 7.05
community events for fundraising
7 Provide opportunities for
employees to volunteer in the 6.66 6.5
community by matching employee
contributions to charities and/or
developing networks with local
8 Provide opportunities for guests 5.6 5.08
to donate to or volunteer with
9 Conduct diversity programs for 7.41 6.97
suppliers, top-level executives,
employees, guests, owners and/or
10 Implement programs to accommodate 8.98 8.28
guests and/or employees with
11 Conduct workforce development 8.22 7.5
programs to foster employee
wellbeing and growth
12 Implement employee-friendly 9.54 8.9
policies for safe, healthy, and/or
fair work conditions
13 Collaborate with or participate in 7.77 7.25
local community activities to
improve the environment (e.g.,
clean up programs)
14 Conserve water by treating and/or 7.77 6.22
reusing waste water in
15 Educate employees on environmental 6.88 8.04
issues via newsletters and/or
16 Educate guests on environmental
issues by providing environmental 5.66 5.5
kits, offering carbon neutral
seminars, and/or promoting
17 Enable guests to redeem loyalty 5.74 5
points to neutralise carbon
footprints from their trips
18 Have a formal corporate governance 7.82 6.79
system to measure, monitor, and
report on sustainability practices
19 Implement a trip-reduction program 6.11 5.36
for employees to reduce
single-occupant vehicle trips
20 Implement linen and towel re-use 9.22 8.98
21 Implement procurement criteria to
reduce negative environmental 7.87 7
impacts (e.g., fair-trade
products, non-toxic cleaning
products, recycled supplies)
22 Implement waste management 9.41 8.71
programs to recycle materials,
reduce waste, and/or use recycled
23 Obtain LEED certification for the 6.64 4.94
24 Offset carbon emissions through 4.98 3.97
25 Partner with local experts to 7.43 6
provide guidance on how the hotel
can conserve local biodiversity
26 Provide opportunities for
employees to volunteer in the 7.86 6.42
community by developing networks
to local organisations and/or
matching employee contributions to
27 Reduce construction waste when 8.41 7.23
building or renovating hotels
28 Reduce energy consumption in guest 8.86 8.38
rooms by installing
29 Reduce paper usage by using
electronic documents for internal 8.93 8.24
and external communications (e.g.,
sales tools, statements,
30 Reduce water consumption in guest 9.23 8.76
rooms by installing low-flow
31 Train employees to reduce resource 8.96 8.23
consumption (e.g., water, energy)
for housekeeping operations
32 Use alternative energies for 6.05 5.12
operations (e.g., solar, wind,
33 Use environmentally friendly 7.52 6.29
energy suppliers (e.g., hydro
plants, wind farms)
34 Use locally sourced ingredients 7.73 7.21
35 Provide customers with more 8.17 8.13
healthy food selections to combat
Average (Mean) 7.62 6.86