The organizational behavior research has main objectives to
understand the role of aptitude, perception, and behavior of individual,
group, and organization (McShane and Glinow, 2005; Robbins, 2005).
Moreover, supervisor and supervisee take an important role to
cooperative work for organizational objective achievement (Yoon and Suh,
2003). So, trust is a key success relationships factors in workplace;
trust in organization has received considerable attention from both
academicians and practitioners. Following this further, the social
exchange theory describes the critical role of trust in the
relationships between manager and worker which exhibit the attitude and
behavior to effort and loyalty to their organization. Therefore, social
exchange theory has provided the ways with which to view the employment
relationship (Chen, Aryee and Lee, 2005). In addition, this exchange
relationship has been observed and found that it was characterized by
economic and social elements (Aryee and Chen, 2004). The most popular
study of Blau (1964) defines the economic exchange as contract of a
specific time frame, and entails transactions whose value is independent
exchange. Meanwhile, the social exchange is an informal and open-ended
or long-term exchange of favors premised on a diffuse obligation to
reciprocate (Aryee and Chen, 2004; Blau, 1964). Certainly, the study of
trust in organization based on psychological contract in short-term with
relationship employee can use in long-term relationship (Konovsky and
Pugh, 1994). Several studies in organizational behavior filed with
social exchange perspective have an attention in trust (Konovsky and
Pugh, 1994), commitment and job satisfaction (Kim et al., 2008; Pillai,
Schriesheim and Williams, 1999; Rodriguez, Perex and Guiterrez, 2008),
perceived organizational support (Eisenberger, Fasolo and Davis-
LaMastro, 1990; Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002), and procedural justice
(Amborse, Hess and Ganesan, 2007; Aryee and Chen, 2004; Aryee, Chen and
Budhwar, 2004; Lambert, Hogan and Griffin, 2007). Most studies argue the
restrictions of the social exchange context on the exchange norm, but
they neglect the attitude effect of employees' trust in
organization (Rempel, Holmes and Zanna, 1985). Therefore, this study
focuses on association between trust and exchange, the effects of trust
underpin social exchange perspective, and benefit of organization from
these exchange which support firm effectiveness.
In this study, trust, procedural justice, perceived organizational
support, commitment, and job satisfaction are empirically examined. To
clearly verify the aforementioned relationships, the Royal Thai Police
is chosen as the sample in this study. The Royal Thai Police is the
national police of Thailand which is appropriate to verify the social
exchange conceptualization because police officers have strongly line
command between supervisor and supervisee. Therefore, the employment
relationship is very important in police organization.
Accordingly, trust in organization has a significant role in this
study leading to research question as follows: (1) how trust has an
effect on commitment and job satisfaction, (2) how job satisfaction has
an influence on commitment, and (3) how procedural justice and perceived
organizational support have an impact on trust. Additionally, the
important objectives in this study are as follows: (1) to test the
relationship among trust, commitment, and job satisfaction, (2) to
investigate the relationship between commitment and job satisfaction and
(3) to examine the relationships among procedural justice, perceived
organizational support, and trust.
This study is outlined as follows. The first section reviews
existing significant literature in the areas and streams of trust,
procedural justice, perceived organizational support, commitment, and
job satisfaction, links between the concepts of the aforementioned
variables, and develops the key research hypotheses of those
relationships. The second section explicitly describes the details of
research methods, including data collection, measurements, and
statistics. The third section gives the analysis results of the current
study and corresponding discussion with some of the reasons and
explanations. The final section summarizes the study findings and points
both theoretical and managerial contributions, and presents suggestions
for further research and the study limitations.
2. RELATIONSHIP MODEL AND HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT
The social exchange theory has described the exchange relationships
between individual parties using psychological contact. Therefore, an
attitude of this study is originating from cognitive behavior exchanges
between employer and employee. Interestingly, this study aims at
investigating the associations among trust, procedural justice,
perceived organizational support, commitment, and job satisfaction in
the Royal Thai Police. Thus, the conceptual, linkage, and research model
presents the associations among trust, procedural justice, perceived
organizational support, commitment, and job satisfaction, as shown in
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
2.1 Trust in Organization
Several researches defined trust as a "psychological contract
comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive
expectations of the intention or behavior of another" (Chen, Aryee
and Lee, 2005).Yoon and Suh (2003) mention that trust is social exchange
relationship which exhibits confidence and beliefs about their exchange
partner. Likewise, social exchange in firms infers an informal contract
between an employee and an organization. In this study, the
employee's manager represents the organization to the employee
(Konovsky and Pugh, 1994). In addition, the study of Cropanzano and
Mitchell (2005) suggest that the excellent employment relationship is
based upon trust in organization. Certainly, trust in organization
increases job satisfaction in employee. Many studies suggest that the
increasing of trust toward those superiors is associated with higher job
satisfaction because of employees' favorable perceptions (Lau and
Sholihin, 2005). Likewise, trust in the supervisor and trust in the
organization are associated with job satisfaction (Aryee, Chen and
Budhwar, 2004; Cropanzano and Mitchell, 2005).
In this study, trust has indirectly affected working outcomes in
the form of work attitude. There are several explanations for these
arguments. One possibility is that trust has no relationship with job
performance but trust has a positive influence on organizational
communication and commitment (Rodriguez, Perex and Guiterrez, 2008).
Likewise, the study of Pillai, Schriesheim and Williams (1999) reveal
that trust has a positive effect on organizational commitment.
Therefore, commitment in organization is a key success factor for firm
which social exchange theory has described that trust in the shared
value is attracting people commit to their firm. Hence, the
aforementioned relationships are hypothesized as shown below.
Hypothesis 1: Trust is positively related to job satisfaction.
Hypothesis 2: Trust is positively related to commitment.
2.2 Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is the employees' level of feeling positive
in their organization. In this case, managers' actions or
activities represent their organizational behavior. Locke (1969) defines
satisfaction as an emotionally feeling joy to job assessment or goal
achievement. To clarify the differential construct of job satisfaction
and organizational commitment, if employees have job satisfaction in
long-term in their organization, the outcome of satisfaction is viewed
as consequence of successful exchange, for instance, commitment
(Cropanzano and Mitchell, 2005). Therefore, variables can describe the
relationship between work satisfaction and commitments. It is important
that demonstrations attitude of people create better organization. For
example, Yoon and Suh (2003) study that employment relationship with
social awareness and satisfaction in work and trust in organization have
an effect on commitment. Hence, the hypothesis is proposed as follows:
Hypothesis 3: Job satisfaction is positively related to commitment.
Commitment refers to a psychological state that characterizes the
employee's relationship with the organization and has implications
for the decision to continue or discontinue membership in the
organization (Meyer, Allen and Smith, 1993). Mostly, organizational
behavior researcher categorized three dimensions of commitment, namely,
affective, continuance, and normative commitment (Meyer and Allen,
1991). The prior study of Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993) has distinctive
definition of organizational commitment. Firstly, affective commitment
is an affective attachment to the organization. Secondly, continuance
commitment is defined as a perceived cost associated with leaving the
organization. Lastly, normative commitment refers to an obligation to
remain in the organization. In this study, affective commitment is an
important role for dependent construct which is the outcome from trust
and job satisfaction.
2.4 Procedural Justice
Fairness or justice in the organization is composed of three
dimensions: distributive justice, interactional justice, and procedural
justice (Schminke, Ambrose and Cropanzano, 2000). In the social exchange
context, the higher employment relationship, the higher increasing the
trust in organization between employer and employees is. Definitely,
procedural justice is one factor that improves these relationship
(Amborse, Hess and Ganesan, 2007; Moorman, 1991). Previous studies
suggest that procedural justice is an antecedent variable of trust in
organization. For example, Aryee and Chen (2004) studied in careerist
orientation and found that the outcomes of procedural justice had an
influence on employer's trust. Moreover, the study of Amborse, Hess
and Ganesan (2007) argued that procedural justice is an antecedent of
organizational trust. Therefore, the hypothesis is proposed as follows.
Hypothesis 4: Trust is positively related to procedural justice.
2.5 Perceived Organizational Support (POS)
Perceived organizational support is recognizing the quality of
atmosphere in workplace which is creating toward relationship between
employees and their organization. Moreover, perceived organizational
support enhances calculative involvement by creating trust (Eisenberger,
Fasolo and Davis-LaMastro, 1990). Likewise, perceived organizational
support, trust develops through a social exchange processes in which
employees interpret the actions of management and reciprocate in kind
(Whitener, 2001) From the social exchange perspective, perceived
organizational support is an antecedent construct which generates trust
in management (Blau, 1964). Most researchers agree with this argument.
For instance, the study of Whitener (2001) exhibits that perceived
organizational support would be significantly related to a variety of
employee attitudes and behaviors including organizational commitment and
trust. Additionally, Stinglhamber, Cremer and Mercken (2006) found that
perceived organizational support is a partial mediator of the
association between procedural justice and trust. Accordingly, the
relationship between perceived organizational support and trust show
high correlation (Piercy et al., 2006). From the above mentioned, the
hypothesis is proposed as follows:
Hypothesis 5: Trust is positively related to perceived
3. RESEARCH METHODS
3.1 Sample Selection and Data Collection Procedure
The population and sample of this research are drawn from the
database of the Royal Thai Police who are promoted to the position
Police Lieutenant Colonel in Thailand. In this study, 160 police
officers are chosen from the training courses directed at Institute of
Police Administration Development, Police Education Bureau, Royal Thai
Police. The data were collected from May--August, 2008. The simple
random sampling was collected from training class. At the end of
training, 123 questionnaires were returned and usable. The response rate
is approximately 76.87. According to Aaker, Kumar and Day (2001), the
response rate more than 20% is considered acceptable.
Moreover, to assess potential non-response bias, those compared
early and late respondents with respect to various firm characteristics,
consist of business owner type, industry type, investment type, number
of employees, authorized capital, and period of time exporting overseas
of firm because of key informant using self-reported all construct
(Armstrong and Overton, 1977). As for non-response bias by t-test
statistic, non-response bias found no significant problem in our data.
All constructs are collected by mail survey while most variables
are measured by 5-point Likert's scale. Trust (TRU) is using eight
items from Yoon and Suh (2003). Additionally, job satisfaction (JAS) is
measured by employees' positive thinking or feeling. Job
satisfaction is evaluated via eighteen-item scale from Brayfield and
Rothe (1951). Moreover, Commitment (COM) is evaluated as affective
commitment with six-item scale from Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993).
Meanwhile, the antecedents consist of procedural justice and perceived
organizational support. Firstly, procedural justice (PRJ) is measured by
outcome assessment which is developed from Moorman (1991) with four-item
scale. Lastly, perceived organizational support (POS) is measured from
Eisenberger et al.(2002) with seven items. In this study, the control
variable is tenure in work.
We first assess the measurement model using confirmatory factor
analysis (CFA) and test the hypotheses using multiple regression
analyses. The set of items of CFA to test validity of constructs, all
factor loadings are 0.50-0.91 as being greater than 0.40 cutoffs and are
statistically significant that the rule-of-thumb (Nunnally and
Bernstein, 1994); the results are as shown in Table 1 below. The
reliability of the measurement was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha
coefficients. The value of Cronbach's alpha coefficients for all
constructs is higher than the 0.7 cut-off value (Nunnally and Bernstein,
1994), ranging from 0.90 to 0.94, the results are as shown in Table 1.
To evaluate each, experts were asked to examine whether or not each item
measured what had intended to as for content validity.
We conclude that the measurement model possessed good overall fit
with the data, which the constructs exhibited construct validity and
that common method bias did not pose a serious threat to the
interpretation of the results from this study. The results in all
measures of scale appear to be internally consistent, these measures are
considered appropriate for further analysis and an accepted validity and
reliability in this study. Table 1 shows the results for factor
loadings, Cronbach's alpha, and composite reliability for
multiple-item scales used in this study.
The hypothesized relationships and factors affecting each
relationship are estimated by the ordinary least squares (OLS)
regression analysis, that all dependent, independent, and control
variables in this study were neither nominal data nor categorical data.
OLS is an appropriate regression model to run for each of the dependent
variables separately shown as below:
The hypothesized relationships and factors affecting each
relationship are estimated by the ordinary least squares (OLS)
regression analysis, that all dependent, independent, and control
variables in this study were neither nominal data nor categorical data.
OLS is an appropriate the regression model to run for each of the
dependent variables separately shown as below:
Equation 1: JAS = [[beta].sub.01] + [[beta].sub.1]TRU +
[[beta].sub.2]TEN + [[epsilon].sub.1]
Equation 2: COM = [[beta].sub.02] + [[beta].sub.3]TRU +
[[beta].sub.4]JAS + [[beta].sub.3]TEN + [[epsilon].sub.2]
Equation 3: TRU = [[beta].sub.03] + [[beta].sub.5]PRJ +
[[beta].sub.6]POS + [[beta].sub.7]TEN + [[epsilon].sub.3]
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Before expounding the results of the regression analysis, the study
examines possible multicolinearity problems by studying correlations
between the variables included in the regression analyses. In this way,
by means of Pearson's correlation coefficient, we can measure the
degree of linear association between every pair of variables as shown in
Table 2. For the value of tolerance and its inverse, the inflation
factor in the variance (VIF) is also calculated. The descriptive
statistics for the constructs along with their correlation appear in
Table 2. We verify muliticollinearity problems by intercorrelations
among independent variables which are not higher than the 0.8 cut-off
value (Stevens, 1992) and variance inflation factors (VIF) rank from
1.00 to 1.27, below the cut-off value of 10 recommended by Neter,
Wasserman and Kutner (1985) suggesting that multicollinerity is not a
problem in this study. Moreover, Durbin-Watson value rank from 1.90-2.28
which is not higher than the 4 cut-off value, meaning there is no
autocorrelation problem encountered in this study (Gujarati 2003).
Empirically, Table 3 exhibits the results of OLS regression
analysis of overall hypotheses. Firstly, the relationship between trust
and job satisfaction has significantly positive effect as
[[beta].sub.1]=0.46, p < 0.01 consistent with Yoon and Suh (2003).
Thus, Hypothesis 1 is supported. Meanwhile, trust has no relationship
with commitment ([[beta].sub.3]=0.01, n.s.) which is similar to that of
Pillai, Schriesheim and Williams (1999). Hence, Hypothesis 2 is not
supported. This introduces relationship of job satisfaction that has
positive significance with commitment as [[beta].sub.4]=0.65, p <
0.01. This can be explained by the integration between social exchange
and agency theory. Employees perceive image of employer or organization
through their manager. So, the manager's practices are directly
toward to their attitude. If employees are satisfied with their job,
they have commitment to organization, too. Therefore, Hypothesis 3 is
supported. Moreover, Hypothesis 4 is supported because procedural
justice has a positively significant association with trust
([[beta].sub.5]=0.61, p < 0.01). Similar to Aryee and Chen (2004) who
use social exchange perspective to describe trust employers are as a key
variable in strengthening employee-organization linkage and in defining
the employment relationship needed to encourage the organizational
strategies. Lastly, the associations between perceived organizational
support and trust have positive significance as [[beta].sub.6]=0.15, p
< 0.05. Thus, Hypothesis 5 is supported.
5.1 Theoretical Contributions and Future Directions for Research
The purpose of this study is to provide the understanding of the
relationship among trust, procedural justice, perceived organizational
support, commitment, and job satisfaction. The study intends to expand
the theoretical contributions on previous knowledge and literature of
organizational behavior, in this case, trust in organization. This study
provides the extension social exchange theory in new context in
professional occupation, for example, police officer in Thailand.
Obviously, trust in organization comes from employee perceived fairness
and organizational support. Meanwhile, the outcomes of trust produced to
increase job satisfaction have no effect on commitment. For the long-
term employment relationship, employees who have job satisfaction can
create effective commitment in organization. Moreover, the scope of this
research has added to explain the phenomenon that is useful in managing
5.2 Managerial Contributions
Managers can apply social exchange theory to describe the
relationships among trust, job satisfaction, commitment, procedural
justice, and perceived organizational support. Nowadays, trust in
organization provides job satisfaction in short-term relationship of
employment. If an employee has job satisfaction in long-term, they would
dedicate to their workplace through affective commitment. Following this
further, organizational justice process and perceived organizational
support encourage a positive attitude to create trust in organization.
Positive attitude of staff are passed to be emotionally committed. This
results in positive values towards the organization which creates
benefits for the organization voluntarily.
Especially, the organization structure of royal police in Thailand
is bureaucracy systems. So, the police officers have a professional
occupation which name is official agent. This police career has limited
study in global context of organization behavior. Therefore, this study
reveals that the important of trust in police organization have
influence on job satisfaction. Surprisingly, they are not feeling
commitment in their own work place. Moreover, affective commitment has
lesser necessary role than professional commitment because they has long
live guarantee police career. This study exhibits the one possibility
finding that we could find the causes which it might improve their
motivation in this job. Likewise, trust in their colleague and
supervisor is a key success factor in the future research.
6. CONCLUSION, LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
This study aims at examine the relationships among trust, job
satisfaction, commitment, procedural justice, and perceived
organizational support. Overall hypotheses are supported except the
relationship between trust and commitment. The future research direction
is to test the other variables or factors that affect trust in different
context or population to ensure reliability. Moreover, trust in their
supervisor could play in the important role in police context. The
interesting issue for trust in organizational behavior would be
alternatively explained by different theories, for example, leader-
member exchange (LMX), organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and
social exchange theory (SET). These theoretical foundations exhibit the
possibilities to improve or support the individual motivation and
increasing their performance.
Aaker, David A., Kumar, V. and Day, George S., Marketing Research,
John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2001.
Amborse, Maureen, Hess, Ronald L. and Ganesan, Shankar. "The
relationship between justice and attitudes: An examination of justice
effects on event and system-related attitudes". Organizational
Behavior and Human Decision Process, Volume 103, Number 1, Pages 21-36,
Aryee, Samuel and Chen, Zhen Xiong. "Countering the trend
towards careerist orientation in the age of downsizing test of a social
exhange model". Journal of Business Research, Volume 57, Number 1,
Pages 321-328, 2004.
Aryee, Samuel, Chen, Zhen Xiong and Budhwar, Pawan S.,
"Exchange fairness and employee performance: An examination of the
relationship between organizational politics and procedural
justice". Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,
Volume 94, Number 1, Pages 1-14, 2004.
Blau, Peter M., Exchange and power in social life, Wiley, New York,
Brayfield, Arthur H. and Rothe, Harold F. "An index of job
satisfaction". Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume 35, Number 5,
Pages 307-311, 1951.
Chen, Zhen Xiong, Aryee, Samuel and Lee, Cynthia. "Test of a
mediation model of perceived organizational support". Journal of
Vocational Behavior, Volume 66, Number 3, Pages 457-470, 2005.
Cropanzano, Russell and Mitchell, Marie S., "Social Exchange
Theory: An Interdisciplinary Review". Journal of Management Volume
31, Number 6, Pages 874-900, 2005.
Eisenberger, Robert, Fasolo, Peter and Davis-LaMastro, Valerie.
"Perceived organizational support and employee diligence,
commitment, and innovation". Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume
75, Number 1, Pages 51-59, 1990.
Eisenberger, Robert, Stinglhamber, Florence, Vandenberghe,
Christian, Sucharski, Ivan L. and Rhoades, Linda. "Perceived
superviosr support: contributions to perceived organizational support
and employee retention". Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume 87,
Number 3, Pages 565-573, 2002.
Gujarati, Damodar N., Basic econometrics (4th ed.), McGraw-Hill,
Kim, Kyung Hoom, Kim, Kang Sik, Kim, Dong Yul, Kim, Jong Ho and
Kang, Suk Hou. "Brand equity in hospital marketing". Journal
of Business Research, Volume 61, Number 1, Pages 75-82, 2008.
Konovsky, Mary A. and Pugh, S. Douglas. "Citizenship behavior
and social exchange". Academy of Management Journal, Volume 37,
Number 5, Pages 656-669, 1994.
Lambert, Eric G., Hogan, Nancy L. and Griffin, Marie L., "The
impact of distributive and procedural justice on correctional staff job
stress, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment". Journal
of Criminal Justice, Volume 35, Number 1, Pages 644-656, 2007.
Lau, Chong M. and Sholihin, Mahfud. "Financial and
nonfinancial performance measures: How do they affect job
satisfaction?". The British Accounting Review, Volume 37, Number 4,
Pages 389-413, 2005.
Locke, E. A., "What is job satisfaction?". Organizational
Behavior and Human Performance, Volume 4, Number 1, Pages 309-336, 1969.
McShane, Steven L. and Glinow, Mary Ann Von. Organizational
Beavior: Essentials, McGraw- Hill/Irwin, 2005.
Meyer, John P. and Allen, Natalie J., "A three-component
conceptualization of organizational commitment". Human Resource
Management Review, Volume 1, Number 1, Pages 61-89, 1991.
Meyer, John P., Allen, Natalie J. and Smith, Catherine A.,
"Commitment to Organizations and Occupations: Extension and Test of
a Three-Component Conceptualization". Journal of Applied
Psychology, Volume 78, Number 4, Pages 538-551, 1993.
Moorman, Robert H., "Relationship Between Organizational
Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: Do Fairness
Perceptions Influence Employee Citizenship?". Journal of Applied
Psychology, Volume 76, Number 6, Pages 845-855, 1991.
Neter, John, Wasserman, William and Kutner, Michael H., Applied
Linear Statistical Model, Regression, Analysis of Variance, and
Experimental Designs (2n ed.), Home Wood, Illions, USA 1985.
Nunnally, Jum and Bernstein, Ira. Psychometric Theory (2nd ed.),
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994.
Piercy, Nigel F., Cravens, David W., Lane, Nikala and Vorhies,
Douglas W., "Driving Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and
Salesperson In-Role Behavior Performance: The Role of Management Control
and Perceived Organizational Support". Journal of the Academy of
Marketing Science, Volume 34, Number 2, Pages 244-262, 2006.
Pillai, Rajnandini, Schriesheim, Chester A. and Williams, Eric S.,
"Fairness perceptions and trust as mediators for transformational
and transactional leadership: A two-sample Study". Journal of
Management, Volume 25, Number 6, Pages 897-933, 1999.
Rempel, JK, Holmes, JG and Zanna, MP. "Trust in close
relationships". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Volume 49, Number 1, Pages 95-112, 1985.
Rhoades, Linda and Eisenberger, Robert. "Perceived
organizational support: A review of the literature". Journal of
Applied Psychology, Volume 87, Number 4, Pages 698-714, 2002.
Robbins, Stephen P., Organizational Behavior, Pearson Education
Indochinal LTD., 2005.
Rodriguez, Nuria Garcia, Perex, M. Jose Sanzo and Guiterrez, Juan
A. Trespalacios. "Can a good organizational climate compensate for
lack of top management commitment to new product development".
Journal of Business Research, Volume 61, Number 2, Pages 118-131, 2008.
Schminke, Marshall, Ambrose, Maureen L. and Cropanzano, Russell S.,
"The Effect of Organizational Structure on Perceptions of
Procedural Fairness". Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume 85,
Number 2, Pages 294-304, 2000.
Stevens, James P., Applied multivariate statistics for the social
sciences (2nd ed.), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ 1992.
Stinglhamber, Florence, Cremer, David De and Mercken, Liesbeth.
"Perceived Support as a Mediator of the Relationship Between
Justice and Trust: A Multiple Foci Approach". Group Organization
Management, Volume 31, Number 4, Pages 442-468, 2006.
Whitener, Ellen M., "Do "high commitment" human
resource practices affect employee commitment?" A cross-level
analysis using hierarchical linear modeling". Journal of
Management, Volume 27, Number 1, Pages 515-535, 2001.
Yoon, Mahn Hee and Suh, Jaebeom. "Organizational citizenship
behaviors and service quality as ecternal effectiveness of contact
employees". Journal of Business Research, Volume 56, Number 1,
Pages 597-611, 2003.
Areerat Saekoo, Mahasarakham Business School, Mahasarakham
Dr. Areerat Saekoo earned her Ph.D. at Mahasarakham University,
Thailand in 2010. Currently she is a lecturer of marketing at
Mahasarakham Business School, Mahasarakham University, Thailand.
RESULTS OF VALIDATION MEASURE
Items Factor Cronbach
Trust (TRU) .80-.87 0.94
Job Satisfaction (JAS) .50-.80 0.93
Commitment (COM) .61-.88 0.90
Procedural Justice (PRJ) .84-.91 0.90
Perceived Organizational Support (POS) .70-.91 0.91
Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Matrix
Variables TRU JAS COM PRJ POS TEN
Mean 2.83 3.25 3.65 2.46 3.92 23.99
SD 0.83 0.66 0.75 0.90 0.69 6.06
JAS 0 42 ***
COM 0.30 *** 0.66 **
PRJ 0.60 *** 0.29 *** 0.22 **
POS 0.17 * 0.44 *** 0.70 *** 0.01
TEN -0.02 0.08 0.17 * -0.03 0.11
* p<.05, ** p<.01; TEN = Tenure
OLS Regression Results of Job Satisfaction, Commitment, and Trust
Independent Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
JAS COM TRU
Trust (TRU) 0.46 *** 0.01
Job Satisfaction (JAS) 0.65 ***
Procedural Justice (PRJ) 0.61 ***
Perceived Organizational Support 0.15 **
Tenure (TEN) 0.01 * 0.02 ** 0.00
(0.01) (0.01) (0.01)
Adjusted [R.sup.2] 0.20 0.45 0.39
* p<.10, ** p<.05, *** p<.01
(a) Beta coefficients with standard errors in parenthesis.