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Examining the effect of trust, procedural justice, perceived organizational support, commitment, and job satisfaction in Royal Thai police: the empirical investigation in social exchange perspective.
Abstract:
The objective of this study is to examine the relationships among trust, procedural justice, perceived organizational support, commitment, and job satisfaction. The data are collected from 123 police officers of the Royal Thai Police in Thailand. Statistical methods are test through descriptive statistic, correlation and multiple regression analyses. Consistent with our findings, the results reveal that trust in organization is positively related to job satisfaction. Moreover, job satisfaction has relationships with organizational commitment. Likewise, procedural justice and perceived organizational support have positive impact on trust. Trust has non-sufficient impacts on commitment. Additionally, the potential discussion with the results is implemented in the study. Theoretical and managerial contributions are presented together with conclusion, suggestions, and directions for future study.

Keywords: Trust; Procedural Justice; Perceived Organizational Support; Commitment; Job Satisfaction; Royal Thai Police

Article Type:
Report
Subject:
Job satisfaction (Analysis)
Author:
Saekoo, Areerat
Pub Date:
05/01/2011
Publication:
Name: Journal of Academy of Business and Economics Publisher: International Academy of Business and Economics Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Business; Business, general; Economics; Government Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2011 International Academy of Business and Economics ISSN: 1542-8710
Issue:
Date: May, 2011 Source Volume: 11 Source Issue: 3
Accession Number:
272484651
Full Text:
1. INTRODUCTION

The organizational behavior research has main objectives to understand the role of aptitude, perception, and behavior of individual, group, and organization (McShane and Glinow, 2005; Robbins, 2005). Moreover, supervisor and supervisee take an important role to cooperative work for organizational objective achievement (Yoon and Suh, 2003). So, trust is a key success relationships factors in workplace; trust in organization has received considerable attention from both academicians and practitioners. Following this further, the social exchange theory describes the critical role of trust in the relationships between manager and worker which exhibit the attitude and behavior to effort and loyalty to their organization. Therefore, social exchange theory has provided the ways with which to view the employment relationship (Chen, Aryee and Lee, 2005). In addition, this exchange relationship has been observed and found that it was characterized by economic and social elements (Aryee and Chen, 2004). The most popular study of Blau (1964) defines the economic exchange as contract of a specific time frame, and entails transactions whose value is independent exchange. Meanwhile, the social exchange is an informal and open-ended or long-term exchange of favors premised on a diffuse obligation to reciprocate (Aryee and Chen, 2004; Blau, 1964). Certainly, the study of trust in organization based on psychological contract in short-term with relationship employee can use in long-term relationship (Konovsky and Pugh, 1994). Several studies in organizational behavior filed with social exchange perspective have an attention in trust (Konovsky and Pugh, 1994), commitment and job satisfaction (Kim et al., 2008; Pillai, Schriesheim and Williams, 1999; Rodriguez, Perex and Guiterrez, 2008), perceived organizational support (Eisenberger, Fasolo and Davis- LaMastro, 1990; Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002), and procedural justice (Amborse, Hess and Ganesan, 2007; Aryee and Chen, 2004; Aryee, Chen and Budhwar, 2004; Lambert, Hogan and Griffin, 2007). Most studies argue the restrictions of the social exchange context on the exchange norm, but they neglect the attitude effect of employees' trust in organization (Rempel, Holmes and Zanna, 1985). Therefore, this study focuses on association between trust and exchange, the effects of trust underpin social exchange perspective, and benefit of organization from these exchange which support firm effectiveness.

In this study, trust, procedural justice, perceived organizational support, commitment, and job satisfaction are empirically examined. To clearly verify the aforementioned relationships, the Royal Thai Police is chosen as the sample in this study. The Royal Thai Police is the national police of Thailand which is appropriate to verify the social exchange conceptualization because police officers have strongly line command between supervisor and supervisee. Therefore, the employment relationship is very important in police organization.

Accordingly, trust in organization has a significant role in this study leading to research question as follows: (1) how trust has an effect on commitment and job satisfaction, (2) how job satisfaction has an influence on commitment, and (3) how procedural justice and perceived organizational support have an impact on trust. Additionally, the important objectives in this study are as follows: (1) to test the relationship among trust, commitment, and job satisfaction, (2) to investigate the relationship between commitment and job satisfaction and (3) to examine the relationships among procedural justice, perceived organizational support, and trust.

This study is outlined as follows. The first section reviews existing significant literature in the areas and streams of trust, procedural justice, perceived organizational support, commitment, and job satisfaction, links between the concepts of the aforementioned variables, and develops the key research hypotheses of those relationships. The second section explicitly describes the details of research methods, including data collection, measurements, and statistics. The third section gives the analysis results of the current study and corresponding discussion with some of the reasons and explanations. The final section summarizes the study findings and points both theoretical and managerial contributions, and presents suggestions for further research and the study limitations.

2. RELATIONSHIP MODEL AND HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT

The social exchange theory has described the exchange relationships between individual parties using psychological contact. Therefore, an attitude of this study is originating from cognitive behavior exchanges between employer and employee. Interestingly, this study aims at investigating the associations among trust, procedural justice, perceived organizational support, commitment, and job satisfaction in the Royal Thai Police. Thus, the conceptual, linkage, and research model presents the associations among trust, procedural justice, perceived organizational support, commitment, and job satisfaction, as shown in Figure 1.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

2.1 Trust in Organization

Several researches defined trust as a "psychological contract comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intention or behavior of another" (Chen, Aryee and Lee, 2005).Yoon and Suh (2003) mention that trust is social exchange relationship which exhibits confidence and beliefs about their exchange partner. Likewise, social exchange in firms infers an informal contract between an employee and an organization. In this study, the employee's manager represents the organization to the employee (Konovsky and Pugh, 1994). In addition, the study of Cropanzano and Mitchell (2005) suggest that the excellent employment relationship is based upon trust in organization. Certainly, trust in organization increases job satisfaction in employee. Many studies suggest that the increasing of trust toward those superiors is associated with higher job satisfaction because of employees' favorable perceptions (Lau and Sholihin, 2005). Likewise, trust in the supervisor and trust in the organization are associated with job satisfaction (Aryee, Chen and Budhwar, 2004; Cropanzano and Mitchell, 2005).

In this study, trust has indirectly affected working outcomes in the form of work attitude. There are several explanations for these arguments. One possibility is that trust has no relationship with job performance but trust has a positive influence on organizational communication and commitment (Rodriguez, Perex and Guiterrez, 2008). Likewise, the study of Pillai, Schriesheim and Williams (1999) reveal that trust has a positive effect on organizational commitment. Therefore, commitment in organization is a key success factor for firm which social exchange theory has described that trust in the shared value is attracting people commit to their firm. Hence, the aforementioned relationships are hypothesized as shown below.

Hypothesis 1: Trust is positively related to job satisfaction.

Hypothesis 2: Trust is positively related to commitment.

2.2 Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is the employees' level of feeling positive in their organization. In this case, managers' actions or activities represent their organizational behavior. Locke (1969) defines satisfaction as an emotionally feeling joy to job assessment or goal achievement. To clarify the differential construct of job satisfaction and organizational commitment, if employees have job satisfaction in long-term in their organization, the outcome of satisfaction is viewed as consequence of successful exchange, for instance, commitment (Cropanzano and Mitchell, 2005). Therefore, variables can describe the relationship between work satisfaction and commitments. It is important that demonstrations attitude of people create better organization. For example, Yoon and Suh (2003) study that employment relationship with social awareness and satisfaction in work and trust in organization have an effect on commitment. Hence, the hypothesis is proposed as follows:

Hypothesis 3: Job satisfaction is positively related to commitment.

2.3 Commitment

Commitment refers to a psychological state that characterizes the employee's relationship with the organization and has implications for the decision to continue or discontinue membership in the organization (Meyer, Allen and Smith, 1993). Mostly, organizational behavior researcher categorized three dimensions of commitment, namely, affective, continuance, and normative commitment (Meyer and Allen, 1991). The prior study of Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993) has distinctive definition of organizational commitment. Firstly, affective commitment is an affective attachment to the organization. Secondly, continuance commitment is defined as a perceived cost associated with leaving the organization. Lastly, normative commitment refers to an obligation to remain in the organization. In this study, affective commitment is an important role for dependent construct which is the outcome from trust and job satisfaction.

2.4 Procedural Justice

Fairness or justice in the organization is composed of three dimensions: distributive justice, interactional justice, and procedural justice (Schminke, Ambrose and Cropanzano, 2000). In the social exchange context, the higher employment relationship, the higher increasing the trust in organization between employer and employees is. Definitely, procedural justice is one factor that improves these relationship (Amborse, Hess and Ganesan, 2007; Moorman, 1991). Previous studies suggest that procedural justice is an antecedent variable of trust in organization. For example, Aryee and Chen (2004) studied in careerist orientation and found that the outcomes of procedural justice had an influence on employer's trust. Moreover, the study of Amborse, Hess and Ganesan (2007) argued that procedural justice is an antecedent of organizational trust. Therefore, the hypothesis is proposed as follows.

Hypothesis 4: Trust is positively related to procedural justice.

2.5 Perceived Organizational Support (POS)

Perceived organizational support is recognizing the quality of atmosphere in workplace which is creating toward relationship between employees and their organization. Moreover, perceived organizational support enhances calculative involvement by creating trust (Eisenberger, Fasolo and Davis-LaMastro, 1990). Likewise, perceived organizational support, trust develops through a social exchange processes in which employees interpret the actions of management and reciprocate in kind (Whitener, 2001) From the social exchange perspective, perceived organizational support is an antecedent construct which generates trust in management (Blau, 1964). Most researchers agree with this argument. For instance, the study of Whitener (2001) exhibits that perceived organizational support would be significantly related to a variety of employee attitudes and behaviors including organizational commitment and trust. Additionally, Stinglhamber, Cremer and Mercken (2006) found that perceived organizational support is a partial mediator of the association between procedural justice and trust. Accordingly, the relationship between perceived organizational support and trust show high correlation (Piercy et al., 2006). From the above mentioned, the hypothesis is proposed as follows:

Hypothesis 5: Trust is positively related to perceived organizational support.

3. RESEARCH METHODS

3.1 Sample Selection and Data Collection Procedure

The population and sample of this research are drawn from the database of the Royal Thai Police who are promoted to the position Police Lieutenant Colonel in Thailand. In this study, 160 police officers are chosen from the training courses directed at Institute of Police Administration Development, Police Education Bureau, Royal Thai Police. The data were collected from May--August, 2008. The simple random sampling was collected from training class. At the end of training, 123 questionnaires were returned and usable. The response rate is approximately 76.87. According to Aaker, Kumar and Day (2001), the response rate more than 20% is considered acceptable.

Moreover, to assess potential non-response bias, those compared early and late respondents with respect to various firm characteristics, consist of business owner type, industry type, investment type, number of employees, authorized capital, and period of time exporting overseas of firm because of key informant using self-reported all construct (Armstrong and Overton, 1977). As for non-response bias by t-test statistic, non-response bias found no significant problem in our data.

3.2 Variables

All constructs are collected by mail survey while most variables are measured by 5-point Likert's scale. Trust (TRU) is using eight items from Yoon and Suh (2003). Additionally, job satisfaction (JAS) is measured by employees' positive thinking or feeling. Job satisfaction is evaluated via eighteen-item scale from Brayfield and Rothe (1951). Moreover, Commitment (COM) is evaluated as affective commitment with six-item scale from Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993). Meanwhile, the antecedents consist of procedural justice and perceived organizational support. Firstly, procedural justice (PRJ) is measured by outcome assessment which is developed from Moorman (1991) with four-item scale. Lastly, perceived organizational support (POS) is measured from Eisenberger et al.(2002) with seven items. In this study, the control variable is tenure in work.

3.3 Methods

We first assess the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and test the hypotheses using multiple regression analyses. The set of items of CFA to test validity of constructs, all factor loadings are 0.50-0.91 as being greater than 0.40 cutoffs and are statistically significant that the rule-of-thumb (Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994); the results are as shown in Table 1 below. The reliability of the measurement was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The value of Cronbach's alpha coefficients for all constructs is higher than the 0.7 cut-off value (Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994), ranging from 0.90 to 0.94, the results are as shown in Table 1. To evaluate each, experts were asked to examine whether or not each item measured what had intended to as for content validity.

We conclude that the measurement model possessed good overall fit with the data, which the constructs exhibited construct validity and that common method bias did not pose a serious threat to the interpretation of the results from this study. The results in all measures of scale appear to be internally consistent, these measures are considered appropriate for further analysis and an accepted validity and reliability in this study. Table 1 shows the results for factor loadings, Cronbach's alpha, and composite reliability for multiple-item scales used in this study.

The hypothesized relationships and factors affecting each relationship are estimated by the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis, that all dependent, independent, and control variables in this study were neither nominal data nor categorical data. OLS is an appropriate regression model to run for each of the dependent variables separately shown as below:

The hypothesized relationships and factors affecting each relationship are estimated by the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis, that all dependent, independent, and control variables in this study were neither nominal data nor categorical data. OLS is an appropriate the regression model to run for each of the dependent variables separately shown as below:

Equation 1: JAS = [[beta].sub.01] + [[beta].sub.1]TRU + [[beta].sub.2]TEN + [[epsilon].sub.1]

Equation 2: COM = [[beta].sub.02] + [[beta].sub.3]TRU + [[beta].sub.4]JAS + [[beta].sub.3]TEN + [[epsilon].sub.2]

Equation 3: TRU = [[beta].sub.03] + [[beta].sub.5]PRJ + [[beta].sub.6]POS + [[beta].sub.7]TEN + [[epsilon].sub.3]

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Before expounding the results of the regression analysis, the study examines possible multicolinearity problems by studying correlations between the variables included in the regression analyses. In this way, by means of Pearson's correlation coefficient, we can measure the degree of linear association between every pair of variables as shown in Table 2. For the value of tolerance and its inverse, the inflation factor in the variance (VIF) is also calculated. The descriptive statistics for the constructs along with their correlation appear in Table 2. We verify muliticollinearity problems by intercorrelations among independent variables which are not higher than the 0.8 cut-off value (Stevens, 1992) and variance inflation factors (VIF) rank from 1.00 to 1.27, below the cut-off value of 10 recommended by Neter, Wasserman and Kutner (1985) suggesting that multicollinerity is not a problem in this study. Moreover, Durbin-Watson value rank from 1.90-2.28 which is not higher than the 4 cut-off value, meaning there is no autocorrelation problem encountered in this study (Gujarati 2003).

Empirically, Table 3 exhibits the results of OLS regression analysis of overall hypotheses. Firstly, the relationship between trust and job satisfaction has significantly positive effect as [[beta].sub.1]=0.46, p < 0.01 consistent with Yoon and Suh (2003). Thus, Hypothesis 1 is supported. Meanwhile, trust has no relationship with commitment ([[beta].sub.3]=0.01, n.s.) which is similar to that of Pillai, Schriesheim and Williams (1999). Hence, Hypothesis 2 is not supported. This introduces relationship of job satisfaction that has positive significance with commitment as [[beta].sub.4]=0.65, p < 0.01. This can be explained by the integration between social exchange and agency theory. Employees perceive image of employer or organization through their manager. So, the manager's practices are directly toward to their attitude. If employees are satisfied with their job, they have commitment to organization, too. Therefore, Hypothesis 3 is supported. Moreover, Hypothesis 4 is supported because procedural justice has a positively significant association with trust ([[beta].sub.5]=0.61, p < 0.01). Similar to Aryee and Chen (2004) who use social exchange perspective to describe trust employers are as a key variable in strengthening employee-organization linkage and in defining the employment relationship needed to encourage the organizational strategies. Lastly, the associations between perceived organizational support and trust have positive significance as [[beta].sub.6]=0.15, p < 0.05. Thus, Hypothesis 5 is supported.

5. CONTRIBUTIONS

5.1 Theoretical Contributions and Future Directions for Research

The purpose of this study is to provide the understanding of the relationship among trust, procedural justice, perceived organizational support, commitment, and job satisfaction. The study intends to expand the theoretical contributions on previous knowledge and literature of organizational behavior, in this case, trust in organization. This study provides the extension social exchange theory in new context in professional occupation, for example, police officer in Thailand. Obviously, trust in organization comes from employee perceived fairness and organizational support. Meanwhile, the outcomes of trust produced to increase job satisfaction have no effect on commitment. For the long- term employment relationship, employees who have job satisfaction can create effective commitment in organization. Moreover, the scope of this research has added to explain the phenomenon that is useful in managing organizational behavior.

5.2 Managerial Contributions

Managers can apply social exchange theory to describe the relationships among trust, job satisfaction, commitment, procedural justice, and perceived organizational support. Nowadays, trust in organization provides job satisfaction in short-term relationship of employment. If an employee has job satisfaction in long-term, they would dedicate to their workplace through affective commitment. Following this further, organizational justice process and perceived organizational support encourage a positive attitude to create trust in organization. Positive attitude of staff are passed to be emotionally committed. This results in positive values towards the organization which creates benefits for the organization voluntarily.

Especially, the organization structure of royal police in Thailand is bureaucracy systems. So, the police officers have a professional occupation which name is official agent. This police career has limited study in global context of organization behavior. Therefore, this study reveals that the important of trust in police organization have influence on job satisfaction. Surprisingly, they are not feeling commitment in their own work place. Moreover, affective commitment has lesser necessary role than professional commitment because they has long live guarantee police career. This study exhibits the one possibility finding that we could find the causes which it might improve their motivation in this job. Likewise, trust in their colleague and supervisor is a key success factor in the future research.

6. CONCLUSION, LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

This study aims at examine the relationships among trust, job satisfaction, commitment, procedural justice, and perceived organizational support. Overall hypotheses are supported except the relationship between trust and commitment. The future research direction is to test the other variables or factors that affect trust in different context or population to ensure reliability. Moreover, trust in their supervisor could play in the important role in police context. The interesting issue for trust in organizational behavior would be alternatively explained by different theories, for example, leader- member exchange (LMX), organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and social exchange theory (SET). These theoretical foundations exhibit the possibilities to improve or support the individual motivation and increasing their performance.

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Areerat Saekoo, Mahasarakham Business School, Mahasarakham University, Thailand

Dr. Areerat Saekoo earned her Ph.D. at Mahasarakham University, Thailand in 2010. Currently she is a lecturer of marketing at Mahasarakham Business School, Mahasarakham University, Thailand.
TABLE 1
RESULTS OF VALIDATION MEASURE

Items                                      Factor    Cronbach
                                          Loadings    Alpha

Trust (TRU)                               .80-.87      0.94
Job Satisfaction (JAS)                    .50-.80      0.93
Commitment (COM)                          .61-.88      0.90
Procedural Justice (PRJ)                  .84-.91      0.90
Perceived Organizational Support (POS)    .70-.91      0.91


Table 2
Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Matrix

Variables     TRU        JAS        COM       PRJ    POS     TEN

Mean          2.83       3.25       3.65     2.46    3.92   23.99
SD            0.83       0.66       0.75     0.90    0.69   6.06

TRU
JAS         0 42 ***
COM         0.30 ***   0.66 **
PRJ         0.60 ***   0.29 ***   0.22 **
POS          0.17 *    0.44 ***   0.70 ***   0.01
TEN          -0.02       0.08      0.17 *    -0.03   0.11

* p<.05, ** p<.01; TEN = Tenure

Table 3
OLS Regression Results of Job Satisfaction, Commitment, and Trust

                                          Dependent Variables

Independent Variables              Model 1     Model 2    Model 3
                                     JAS        COM        TRU

Trust (TRU)                        0.46 ***     0.01
                                    (0.09)     (0.08)
Job Satisfaction (JAS)                        0.65 ***
                                               (0.08)
Procedural Justice (PRJ)                                  0.61 ***
                                                          (0.07)
Perceived Organizational Support                           0.15 **
(POS)                                                     (0.07)

Tenure (TEN)                         0.01 *     0.02 **    0.00
                                    (0.01)     (0.01)     (0.01)
Adjusted [R.sup.2]                   0.20       0.45       0.39

* p<.10, ** p<.05, *** p<.01

(a) Beta coefficients with standard errors in parenthesis.
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