Management styles, productivity & adaptability of human resources: an empirical study.
Abstract:
The participative, altruistic, professional and organic management styles are the most desirable amongst the various management styles. The present study aims to assess the extent to which such management styles are practiced in Indian organizations across public sector and private sector enterprises and across manufacturing and service providing organizations and to measure their impacts on 'HR Productivity ' and 'HR Adaptability'. It has been found that in Indian organizations across the sectors, such management styles are practiced to a 'moderate extent' and have high positive correlation with one another. 'HR Productivity' and 'HR Adaptability' are also found at moderate levels. The selected four management styles may be considered as the safest and development oriented to practice in a wide variety of organizations.

Subject:
Public sector (Management)
Management techniques (Methods)
Management techniques (Usage)
Management (Methods)
Management (Usage)
Organizational effectiveness (Analysis)
Authors:
Jain, Ravindra
Premkumar, R.
Pub Date:
10/01/2010
Publication:
Name: Indian Journal of Industrial Relations Publisher: Shri Ram Centre for Industrial Relations and Human Resources Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Economics Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2010 Shri Ram Centre for Industrial Relations and Human Resources ISSN: 0019-5286
Issue:
Date: Oct, 2010 Source Volume: 46 Source Issue: 2
Topic:
Event Code: 200 Management dynamics Computer Subject: Company business management
Geographic:
Geographic Scope: India Geographic Code: 9INDI India
Accession Number:
252555268
Full Text:
Management Styles

Management styles are collectively learnt behaviours, subject to all the infirmities of human learning. They incorporate both the contents of decision making and the process of decision making and are aligned to goal setting, strategy formulations and strategy implementation. They are profoundly influenced by the distinctive social culture and climate in which an organization operates. The distinctive way in which managers perform the various functions in an organization decides their management styles. There is a core management style that reflects the values and norms of a culture and this is practiced in the given organizational climate and culture. Such a core management style may have variations and mainly include conservative style, entrepreneurial style, professional style, bureaucratic style, organic style, authoritarian style, participative style, intuitive style, familiar style, altruistic style, innovative style etc. Given the choices, unlimited number of management styles can be visualized.

There is evidence that the use of a nurtured, paternalistic, benevolent style of management, especially when combined with a demanding style that expects subordinates to perform, is correlated with aspects of organizational effectiveness (Khandwalla 1995). The most predominant leadership style among all categories of scientist and administrative professionals was found to be "direction oriented style" followed by "participation oriented style" (Muthayya & Vijay Kumar 1985). Ansari (1986) found that "Nurturant Task Leadership Style" positively influence organizational commitment, job satisfaction and HR effectiveness. The majority of managers adopt "high task--high relationship" as their primary leadership style (Kool & Saksena 1989). The study of Sharma (1997) concluded that the human and fair management style has been the most critical determinant of organizational commitment.

Unblemished participative, organic and management styles are likely to be effective in curbing a number of problems, viz., delay in problem solving, problem of poor team work and administrative problem; such styles are also positively correlated with the mechanism of organizational learning; in the situation of greater rate of change in industry, faster pace of globalization, multicultural society, and greater need for sustainable development, the practice of participative, organic, professional and altruistic styles would be more effective and therefore the four management styles, viz., participative, altruistic, professional, and organic, are the most desirable amongst the various management styles (Khandwalla 1995).

The results of earlier researches, thus, indicate that management styles vary from culture to culture and within the specific culture from industry to industry. Management styles also vary from one setting or situation to the other or within an industry; and from time to time in the same culture, industry and in an organizational setting or situation. Styles vary widely because organizations differ in terms of their type, purpose, size, operating context & environment, genesis etc. The organization's operating context influences management styles only to some extent; internal factors of an organization (including role and style of top & senior executives) shape management style to a greater extent; thus, the management style, though partially constrained by the organization's operating context, and is also, at least partially, a strategic choice of management. Keeping all the above mentioned observations in mind, in the current context of faster pace of globalization, multi-cultural organizations, faster pace of internal and external changes in organizational environment and fast growing need for sustainable development, management styles practiced in variety of organizations need to be studied afresh in order to look for broad generalization. Such an endeavour may reveal ways by which organizations enable themselves to perform better in future.

The Study

The present study was exploratory in nature. The objectives of the study were (i) to assess the extent to which the selected four management styles, viz., participative style, altruistic style, professional style and organic style are practiced in Indian organizations; (ii) to make a comparative study as regards to ongoing practices of the four management styles in private sector and public sector organizations from manufacturing and service providing sectors; (iii) to study the effectiveness of human resources in terms of their 'productivity' and 'adaptability' in Indian organizations and also to make a comparative study of the same regarding the private sector and public sector organizations from the manufacturing and service providing sectors ; and (iv) to measure the impact of the ongoing practices of the selected four management styles on the 'productivity' and 'adaptability' of human resources with reference to Indian private sector and public sector organizations from the manufacturing and service providing sectors.

Research Methodology

Primary data were collected through administering the relevant questionnaires to three hundred executives belonging to both public sector and private sector organizations from manufacturing and service providing sectors, the details of which are given in Table 1. Three hundred respondent executives belong to various strata of sex, age-group, qualification levels, and group of varying length of work experience, details of which are given in Tables 2, 3 and 4.

Management styles Questionnaire (MSQ) (Four Point Likert Type Scale) developed by Khandwalla (1995) and Human Resource Effectiveness (Productivity & Adaptability) Scale (HRES) (Five Point Likert Type Scale) developed by Premkumar (2007) were used to collect the relevant data for the study. The MSQ contains forty two items which are listed in Appendix I. The HRES contains eight items which are listed in Appendix II.

A pilot study was conducted with a sample of sixty managers of various public sector and private sector organizations from both manufacturing and service providing sectors. The MSQ yielded an overall high reliability coefficient [Cronbach Alpha ([alpha]) = 0.97 approx.] which indicates high reliability of the instrument. All the forty-two items of MSQ were subjected to items sum correlation analysis which resulted into strong correlation with each other. HRES Scale has yielded approx. 0.65 as reliability coefficient [Cronbach Alpha ([alpha])] which indicates towards the reasonable reliability of the construct.

Data analysis was carried out using statistical software SPSS. The various statistical tools used for the analysis of data include arithmetic means, standard deviation, t-test, multiple regression analysis and correlation analysis.

Key Variables

Participative Management Style: The most common form of participative management style is group decision-making in which the group head does not act as a boss but coordinates and facilitates decision making by the group as a whole. This sort of decision making is based on free and frank discussion, sharing of information and views, generation of many alternatives and the gradual emergence of a consensus view to which everyone feels at least some commitment to the decision made because it has emerged through participation of all concerned (Khandwalla 1995). Particip-ative management style is positively correlated with the group's performance / organizational performance (Singh et al. 1979, Sinha, 1980, Khandwalla 1990, Maheshwari 1992). However, participative management style is very difficult to practice as sharing power / authority with subordinates / peers is not easy for the managers who are more often delighted by exercising their authority or they are often driven by the need for power.

Altruistic Management Style: Altruistic is unselfish concern for other people's happiness and welfare as well as a feeling of compassion for others. Almost all the good management styles have the altruistic base but they are often affected by the organization centered considerations. 'Altruistic Management Style' goes beyond organization centered considerations to larger social concerns and the pursuit of larger ideals / social goals (Khandwalla 1995). Such social concerns / social goals may include affirmative actions for charity for weaker sections of society, employment of socially disadvantaged groups of people, removal of discrimination against women, maintenance of ecological balance, regionally balanced economic development, workers' education & training, ensuring representation of various stakeholders in the decision making process etc. However, excessive altruism in business organizations may negatively affect organizational effectiveness.

Organic Management Style: The managers who practice organic style believe: (a) in providing multi-channel & multi-directional information network ; (b) in creating widespread awareness of organization's goals, business strategies and action plans among employees at all levels ; (c) in using cross-hierarchical and cross-functional teams; (d) in having flat organizational structure and low formalization; (e) in adopting decentralized decision making; in giving prime importance to those having expertise relevant to a problem / situation in the process of decision making; (f) in creating a work environment for nurturing flexibility, transparency, openness, mutual understanding, experimentation, learning, development, creativity & innovation ; (g) exercising control not through positional power but rather by peer pressure and mutual interaction; and (h) in emphasizing greater commitment to the organization's progress, expansion & well being rather than to loyalty to the position holders. Wherever rapid changes in technology, system, process and people's behavior is required, organic management style provides desirable results.

Professional Management Style : The managers who practice professional management style believe: (a) in decision-making by formally educated & trained people having high technical / professional qualifications; (b) in using experts extensively for relevant action researches before decision-making; (c) in giving prime importance to long-term planning and strategy formulation; (d) in formulation, internalization and following of code of professional ethics; (e) in using research and experience based high standardized work-methods and procedures; (f) in exercising control by systematic and sophisticated way; (g) in following an all-pervasive scientific approach for designing and implementation of business strategies ; and (h) in using 'management information system (MIS)' for putting all the above mentioned things into action. Professional management style is also one of the four styles which had the positive correlation with a number of indicators of organiz-ational effectiveness. Despite the vast difference in the matter of socio-economic and cultural conditions among cross-cultural countries, professional management style may yield good results across the countries / cultures. However, in many cases / on many occasions, it may be noticed that professional managers have a tendency to get stuck in endless systematization and causal analysis without getting down to decision-making and action. This kind of potential flaws may be foreseen in the practice of professional management style.

'Productivity' of Human Resource

One of the major goals of HRD is to ensure high 'productivity of human resources' in an organization. Productivity implies a concern for both 'effectiveness' and 'efficiency' (Robbins 2004). If human resources contribute to transferring inputs into outputs at the lowest cost and thus contribute to the achievement of organiz-ational goals, the human resources will be termed as productive. Productivity also depends on achieving organizational goals efficiently. 'Efficiency' is the ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve it (Robbins 2004). In case of manufacturing industries, there is a potential to improve efficiency and effectiveness by looking at the hardware of machines as well as the software of human resources. On the other hand, in services sector, quality of services (efficiency or effectiveness of the services) exclusively depends on quality of human resources and their quality of interactions.

'Adaptability' of Human Resources

'Adaptability' means one's ability to change one's ideas or behaviour in order to deal with new or changed situation and in this sense adaptability of human resources is the employees' ability and self-efficacy by which they can execute courses of action required to deal with prospective situation and to contribute to introduce necessary changes in internal organizational climate in fine tune with the changes in external environment. 'Adaptability' of human resources also refers to the employees' confidence in their competence and potential effectiveness for mobilizing their cognitive resources and courses of actions in the matter of performing their jobs and roles. Performance attainments, past experiences, behaviour of role models, social persuasion, and psychological & physiological arousal of the individuals influence the degree of adaptability of the human resources.

Data Analysis & Findings

By analyzing the data given in Tables 5-14, the following findings have been arrived at :

1. The selected four management styles (viz., participative, altruistic, organic and professional) were found to be practiced to a moderate extent in both private sector and public sector organizations as well as both manufacturing and service providing sectors.

2. The professional management style and organic management styles were found to be practiced to a moderate extent but with significant variation (at 0.05 level of significance) between public and private sector organizations as well as between manufacturing and service providing organizations.

3. Altruistic management style was found to be practiced to a moderate extent but without signifi-cant variation (at 0.05 level of significance) between public sector and private sector organizations as well as between manufacturing and service providing organizations.

4. Participative management style was found to be practiced to moderate extent without significant variation between public sector and private sector organizations but with significant variations between manufacturing and service providing organizations.

5. The selected four management styles were found to be positively correlated with one another.

6. Both 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' of human resources in Indian organizations were perceived to exist at moderate level and that too without any significant variation between private sector and public sector organizations, but with significant variation between manufacturing and service providing organizations at 0.05 level of significance.

7. 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' of human resources were found to be positively correlated with each other.

8. There exist a strong positive relationship between the management styles and the effectiveness of human resources in terms of their 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability'. Multiple regression analysis (Tables 10 & 14) shows that the selected four management styles (viz., participative, altruistic, organic and professional) have significant impact on the effectiveness of human resources in terms of their 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' in Indian organizations.

Discussion & Implications

India has wide diversity in culture and democratic nature of politics. In such a background, the diverse management styles are practiced in Indian organizations. Apart from the selected four management styles (viz., participative, altruistic, organic and professional), all other varieties of management styles (e.g. autocratic) are also operative though to a lesser extent in Indian organizations. Due to the practice of deep rooted political and industrial democracy, participative management style is always stressed to practice. The transitional nature of Indian society (as it is changing rapidly from a traditional, rural, less democratic to a modern, dynamic, more democratic and urban one), and the transitional nature of Indian economy (as it is changing from regional / national character to trans-national / multinational one) reinforces the need for the practice of organic and professional management styles. The globe is poised on the brink of an ecological disaster; eco-friendliness and sustainable development are likely solution; and therefore, there is need to stress on fast movement from self-centeredness towards altruism and hence more significant would be the practice of altruistic management style along with the participative, organic and professional management styles. Growing awareness of the social responsibility has also led to the practice of altruistic management style. Growing competition in domestic as well as globalized economies also led to the practice of team work oriented organic management style.

In a study of 103 Canadian companies, the participative management style was significantly associated with an index of organizational effectiveness (Khandwalla 1977). Some Indian research also indicated that participative management style is associated with employees' productivity and job satisfaction. (Singh et al. 1979, Moitra 1977, Sinha 1980). The results of the present study further validated the same relationship. In a study of private sector companies operating across the countries, a positive association was found between the degree to which the manage-ment was professionalized and the perceived effectiveness of the organization (Negandhi & Prasad 1971). The results of the present study supported such a finding.

In the present study, organic and professional management styles were also found positively associated with HR productivity and HR adaptability. In Khandwalla's (1995) study of Indian organizations, participative, organic, professional and altruistic management styles were found to have positive correlation with 'performance stability' and 'employees morale' (which are indicators of organizational effectiveness) whereas only participative management style (not the other three) was found to have positive association with the employees' adaptability. However, in the present study, both 'productivity' and 'adaptability' of the human resources were found to have positive correlation with the selected four management styles and thus the results of the present study support the findings of the Khandwalla's study to a great extent but not fully.

Keeping the above mentioned research findings in view, it is concluded that the effectiveness of human resources in terms of their 'Productivity' or job performance and 'Adaptability' are affected substantially by the practice of the selected four management styles across the manufacturing and service providing organizations belonging to both public sector and private sector. Khandwalla (1995) assessed various management styles in terms of the following criteria, viz., Organizational Learning Capacity, Administrative Smoothness, Managerial Development Potential, and Versatile Excellence. Based on such an assessment the four management styles, viz., Participative, Altruistic, Professional, and Organic have been found as the four best management styles. The results of the present study revealed that such management styles are good enough so far as the effectiveness in terms of 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' is concerned and therefore it is concluded that such management styles may be considered as the safest and development oriented styles to practice in a wide variety of organizations. Managers must become more concerned with developing their people. Such concern would improve workers, attitude and behaviour having implications for change in the culture of the organization and improvement in productivity (Joshi 2001). Organizational leaders are truly effective only when they are motivated by a concern for others, when their actions are invariably guided primarily by the criteria of "the benefit of others even if the results in some cost to self" (Kanungo & Medonca 2001). Managers' concern for the development of others enables them to practice participative and altruistic management styles more effectively. Participative culture encourages the use of personalized relationship, exchange of benefits and assertiveness, and discourages the use of asserting expertise and negative sanctions to facilitate the success of organization; culture works as a moderator, if managers use appropriate influence strategies contingent upon the respective culture, it would be more successful (Tripathi & Tripathi 2009).

References

Ansari, M.A. (1986), "Need for Nurturant--Task Leaders in India: Some Empirical Evidence", Management and Labour Studies, 11 (1): 26-36

Joshi, J.R, (2001), "High Performance Culture", Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 37(1): 18-30

Kanungo, R. N. & Mendonca, M, (2001), Ethical Dimensions of Leadership, Thousand Oaks, Sage, California

Khandwalla, P. (1977), The Design of Organizations, New York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich

Khandwalla, P.N., (1995), Management Styles, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., New Delhi

Khandwalla, Pradeep N. (1990), Excellent Management in Public Sector, New Delhi, Vision

Khandwalla, Pradeep N. (1992), Organizational Designs for Excellence,

New Delhi, Tata McGraw Hill--Hill Publishing Company Ltd

Kool, R. & Saksena, N.K. (1989), "Leadership Styles and Its Effectiveness among Indian Executives", Indian Journal of Applied Psychology, 26 (1):9-15

Maheshwari, B.L. (1980), Decision Styles and Organizational Effectiveness, New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House

Moitra, A. (1977), "Practice of Participative Management", Lok Udyog, 11 (2): 35-39

Muthayya, B.C. & Vijaykumar, S. (1985), "Leadership Styles, Perceived Need Satisfaction and Subjective Job Characteristics Among Scientific Personnel", Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 21 (2): 173-97

Negandhi, A. & Prasad, B. (1971), Comparative Management, New York, Appleton--Century--Crofts

Premkumar R. (2007), Strategic HRD Practices, Facilitators and Managerial Styles in Indian Organizations, (Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis), Vikram University, Ujjain

Sharma, M.P. (1997), "Organizational Commitment and Its Determinants", Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 33(2): 193-210

Singh, P., Warrier, S. & Das G. (1979), "Leadership Process and Its Impact on Productivity, Satisfaction and Work Commitment", Decision, 6, 1979

Sinha, A. (1980), The Effect of Leadership Styles on the Quality of Education, Doctoral Dissertation, Patna; Patna University

Sinha, J. (1980), The Nurturant Task Leader: A Model of the Effective Executive, New Delhi, Learning Concept

Sinha, J.B.P, (2001), "Matching Leadership Roles with the Nature of Organizations", Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 37(1), 80-92

Tripathi, Sangeeta & Tripathi Nachiketa (2009), "Influence Strategies & Organizational Success: Moderating Effect of Organizational Culture", The Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 45 (2): 213-27

Ravindra Jain is Professor in Business Management, Faculty of Management Studies, Vikram University, Ujjain 456010 E-mail: jainravindrak@rediffmail.com. R. Premkumar is Registrar in National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE) Mumbai. E-mail: premilango@gmail.com
Appendix I

Variables Pertaining to Management Styles (MS) Selected for the
Present Study *

(A) Goal Setting and Strategic Formulation

MS-1 (A)    Organization's goals are set and strategy for reaching
            them is evolved at meetings of committees of senior and
            top level managers.

MS-2 (A)    Departmental/divisional/sectional goals are set and
            strategy for reaching them is evolved at meetings
            attended by most managers of the department/division/
            section.

MS-3 (A)    At meetings to take major decisions, there is a great
            deal of openness, frankness, sharing of information, and
            emphasis on looking several rather than a few
            alternatives, examination of the pros and cons of each
            alternative, and selection of an alternative on the
            basis of consensus.

MS-4 (A)    There is a strong emphasis by management on team work
            and co-operation at the top and senior levels of the
            organization.

MS-5 (A)    The management gives great emphasis to the
            organization's core values and ideals while making major
            decisions.

MS-6 (A)    The top management exhibits a great deal of integrity
            and honesty in pursuing goals and implementing
            strategies.

MS-7 (A)    The top management keeps in mind the interests of not
            only owners but also especially of employees and
            customers' organizations while taking major decisions.

MS-8 (A)    Goals are set and strategy formulated on the basis of a
            lot of systematic research, forecasts, and data based
            analysis.

MS-9 (A)    The costs and benefits of alternative strategies are
            quantified to the extent possible, and these data are
            carefully considered while making strategic choices.

MS-10 (A)   The management devotes considerable efforts to evolve
            comprehensive strategic whose elements fit in and
            support one another.

MS-11 (A)   Management does a good deal of long term planning and
            goal setting.

MS-12 (A)   The management makes it a point to share information
            about the challenges before the organization and the
            organization's goals and plans with not only top and
            senior managers but also middle and lower level managers
            and even non-supervisory staff.

MS-13 (A)   Information pertaining to the organization's performance
            on its goals is widely shared with managers and other
            staff.

MS-14 (A)   In this organization goals and strategies emerge after a
            great deal of discussion and interaction at all levels.

MS-15 (A)   The organization is committed to playing a good
            corporate citizen role (special employment opportunities
            for disadvantaged communities, investments in community
            welfare, pollution control and proper waste disposal,
            etc.)

MS-16 (A)   The organization makes it a point to disseminate among
            staff members information on developments in the
            economy, significant innovations in its fields of
            operation developments relating to the markets things in
            government policies etc.

B. Co-ordination of Inter-dependent activities

MS-1 (B)    Coordination of activities that need careful
            orchestration is usually sought by forming committees of
            representatives of these activities.

MS-2 (B)    There is great emphasis on co-operation and team work
            between heads of departments.

MS-3 (B)    In sorting out co-ordination problems the management's
            emphasis is on serving the larger interests and goals of
            the organization, a spirit of sacrifice and
            accommodation, fairness and justice.

MS-4 (B)    There is great emphasis on sharing targets, budgets, and
            achievements of each department/division with the rest,
            so that in planning and executing activities, managers
            of departments/divisions are well aware of each other's
            commitments, problems, and constraints.

MS-5 (B)    Management emphasizes that operating conflicts should
            generally be resolved as far down the hierarchy as
            possible and preferably by people sitting down and
            talking out their problems face to face.

MS-6 (B)    For designing innovations and changes, or for tackling
            complex issues, management often sets up inter
            functional or inter disciplinary task forces headed by
            effective coordinators.

MS-7 (B)    All major activities and new initiatives are carefully
            planned in advance to minimize later coordination
            difficulties.

MS-8 (B)    There is full freedom for managers to approach managers
            of other departments at any level for getting jobs done,
            and no insistence at all that all such contacts must be
            routed through 'proper channels'.

C. Control of Operations

MS-1 (C)    Operations at all levels are reviewed collectively
            through the mechanism of periodic performance review
            meetings.

MS-2 (C)    Control of operations is sought to be achieved by widely
            disseminating operating information, widespread sharing
            of operating problems and constraints, and use of task
            forces or teams to over come problems or constraints and
            get results.

MS-3 (C)    Professionalism is strongly stressed in this
            organization, and professional identity and pride ensure
            that task related commitments are met.

MS-4 (C)    A fairly comprehensive formal management information and
            control system has been institutionalized in the
            organization.

MS-5 (C)    In this organization there is much peer group pressure
            for excellent performance and for meeting task related
            commitments.

MS-6 (C)    Managerial and other personnel so strongly identify with
            the mission of the organization, its vision of
            excellence and core values that no effort is spared in
            their pursuit.

MS-7 (C)    Control and accountability are sought not primarily
            through cost or profit centers but rather through
            responsibility centers in which accountability is for
            efficiency or productivity, profitability, quality and
            innovation.

D. Human Resource Management

MS-1 (D)    The practice in the organization is to involve even new
            employees in decision making by making them members of
            appropriate committees.

MS-2 (D)    As far as personnel matters are concerned, this
            organization operates on trust rather than mistrust.

MS-3 (D)    Supervisors and mangers of this organization are
            rewarded for practicing the participative form of
            leadership.

MS-4 (D)    Employees are well rewarded for their competence in
            solving problems at work.

MS-5 (D)    Jobs are defined broadly rather than narrowly, and
            employees are encouraged to interpret their roles
            creatively. Supervision is general rather than detailed.

MS-6 (D)    Innovation and experimentation at all levels are
            rewarded.

MS-7 (D)    The biggest rewards in this organization go to those who
            get results within time and cost parameters.

MS-8 (D)    There is a strong emphasis at all levels on research
            based rather than ad hoc or casual decision making.

MS-9 (D)    There is a strong emphasis on building up expertise at
            all levels and in all operating areas, and a program of
            providing technical training to cover all employees has
            been institutionalized.

MS-10 (D)   There is a strong emphasise on human resource
            development through schemes of human relations and
            competence building, training, rotation, job enrichment,
            decentralization, counseling, career planning etc.

MS-11 (D)   Functions, inductions and training programme, and in
            internal newsletters or other forms of communication,
            norms of good conduct, values, the organization's
            mission, its vision of excellence, etc. is strongly
            emphasized.

* [Source : Khandwalla 1995]

Appendix II

Variables Pertaining to HR Effectiveness (HRE) (in Terms of
 'Productivity ' and 'Adaptability') **

HRE -1      Thinking now of the various things produced by people
            you know in your division, how much are they producing?

HRE -2      How good would you say is the quality of the products or
            services produced by the people you know in your
            division?

HRE -3      Do the people in your division seem to get maximum
            output from the resources (money, people, equipment,
            etc.) available to them? How efficiently do they do
            their work?

HRE -4      How good a job is done by the people in your division in
            anticipating problems that may come up in the future and
            preventing them from occurring or minimizing their
            effects?

HRE -5      From time to time newer ways are discovered to organize
            work, and newer equipment and techniques are found with
            which do the work. How good a job do the people in your
            division do at keeping up with these changes that could
            affect the way do their work?

HRE -6      When changes are made in the routines or equipment, how
            quickly do the people in your division accept and adjust
            to these changes?

HRE -7      What proportion of the people in your division readily
            accepts and adjust to these changes?

HRE -8      From time to time emergencies arise, such as crash
            programmes, schedules moved ahead, or a break down in
            the flow of work occurs. When these emergencies occur
            they cause work overloads for many people.  Some work
            groups cope with these emergencies more readily and
            successfully than others. How good a job do people in
            your division do at coping with these situations?

** [Source : Premkumar 2007]


Table 1 Coverage of the Executives in the Sample Survey

  Type of
Organization      No. of Executives in the Sample    Total No. of

                 Manufacturing   Service Providing   Executives in
                 Organizations   Organizations        the Sample

Private Sector         80              50             130 (43.3%)
Organizations
Public Sector         106              64             170 (56.7%)
Organizations

Total             186 (62.0%)      114 (38.0%)            300

Note: Figures in parentheses are percentages of the executives in
respective categories to the total no. of executives in the sample.

Table 2 Age and Gender Profile of the Respondents in the
Sample Survey

                         No. of Executives
Age Range (in years)       in the Sample           Total No. of

                       Male              Female   the Executives in
                                                  the Sample

Between 25 to 35        73               10          83 (27.7%)
Between 35 to 50       165               25         190 (63.3%)
Above 50                24               03          27 (9.0%)
Total                  262 (87.3%)   38 (12.7%)        300

Note: Figures in parentheses are percentages of the executives in
respective categories to the total no. of
executives in the sample.

Table 3 Profile of Educational Qualifications of the Respondents in
the Sample Survey

Qualification in the Sample   Number of Executives

Matriculation                        07(2.3%)
Graduate Degree                    163(54.3%)
Post Graduate Degree                70(23.4%)
Professional Diploma                60(20.0%)
Total                                     300

Note: Figures in parentheses are percentages of the executives in
respective categories to the total no. of executives in the sample.

Table 4 Profile of Length of Work Experience of the Respondents in
the Sample Survey

Range of Length of Work         Number of Executives
Experience of the Executives       in the Sample

Below 05 Years                       58 (19.3%)
Between 05 to 10 Years              88 (29.37%)
Above 10 Years                      154 (51.4%)
Total                                       300

Note: Figures in parentheses are percentages of the executives in
respective categories to the total no. of executives in the sample.

Table 5 Four Management Styles Practiced in Indian Organizations

Management Styles   Mean values    The Extent of
                     (N = 300)       Practice

Participative          2.93       Moderate Extent
Altruistic             2.89       Moderate Extent
Professional           2.77       Moderate Extent
Organic                2.65       Moderate Extent

Note:Set standards for the Statistical Analysis

High degree : For mean values 4 and above

Moderate degree : For mean values 3 and above but less than 4.

Low degree : For mean values less than 3.

Table 6 Management Styles in Indian Public Sector 8 Private Sector
Organizations (t-test Results)

Management        Private Sector      Public Sector       t-value
Styles            Organizations       Organizations
                     (N = 130)          (N = 170)

                 Mean    Standard     Mean    Standard
                Values   Deviation   Values   Deviation

Participative    2.84       .64       2.99       .68       -1.86
Altruistic       2.89       .69       2.89       .67        .029
Professional     2.74       .62       2.99       .68       -3.15
Organic          2.55       .69       2.73       .69       -2.17

Management      Significance
Styles

Participative       .06
Altruistic          .97
Professional        .00 *
Organic             .03 *

* Significant at 0.05 level of significance (Table value = 1.96)

Note: set standards for the Statistical Analysis:
High degree : For mean values 4 and above

Moderate degree : For mean values 3 and above but less than 4.
Low degree : For mean values less than 3.

Table 7 Management Styles Practiced in Indian Manufacturing and
Service Providing Organizations (t-test Results)

Management     Manufacturing Sector      Service Providin      t-value
Styles             Organizations           Organizations
                     (N = 186)              (N = 114)

                 Mean     Standard       Mean      Standard
                Values   Deviation      Values    Deviation

Participative    3.00       .62          2.74        .73         3.25
Altruistic       2.93       .65          2.77        .75         1.96
Professional     2.96       .62          2.73        .70         2.91
Organic          2.72       .66          2.47        .74         3.01

Management      Significance
Styles

Participative      .00 *
Altruistic          .05
Professional       .00 *
Organic            .00 *

* Significant at 0.05 level of significance (Table value = 1.96)
Note: set standards for the Statistical Analysis:

High degree : For mean values 4 and above

Moderate degree    : For mean values 3 and above but less than 4.

Low degree : For mean values less than 3.

Table 8 Inter-Correlations among the Selected Four Management Styles
as Practiced in Indian Organizations

                              Karl Pearson's Correlation

Dimensions      Participative   Altruistic   Professional   Organic

Participative         1
Altruistic         .830(*)          1
Professional       .819(*)       .808(*)          1
Organic            .764(*)       .728(*)       .778(*)      1

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)

Table 9 Degrees of 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' of HR in Indian
Organizations

Dimensions of HR        Mean Values   Standard     Degree
Effectiveness            (N = 300)    Deviation

Productivity of             3.5          .65      Moderate
Human Resources

Adaptability of             3.3          .77      Moderate
Human Resources

Overall Effectiveness       3.4          .64      Moderate
of Human Resources

Note : Set standards for statistical analysis:

High degree : For mean values 4 and above

Moderate degree : For mean values 3 and above but less than 4.

Low degree : For mean values less than 3.

Table 10 Degrees of 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' of HR in Indian
Private Sector and Public Sector Organizations (t-test Results)

Dimensions of                  Private Sector       Public Sector
HR                              Organizations       Organizations
Effectiveness                     (N = 130)           (N = 170)

                           Mean     Standard    Mean     Standard
                           Values   Deviation   Values   Deviation

Productivity                3.33       .25       3.12       .23
Adaptability                3.24       .45       3.22       .43
Overall HR Effectiveness    3.33       .65       3.49       .77

Dimensions of              t-value   Significance
HR
Effectiveness

Productivity               -1.865         .163
Adaptability                 .029         .977
Overall HR Effectiveness   -3.115         .222 *

* Significant at 0.05 level of significance (Table value = 1.96)
Note: Set standards for the Statistical Analysis:

High degree : For mean values 4 and above

Moderate degree : For mean values 3 and above but less than 4.

Low degree : For mean values less than 3.

Table 11 Degrees of 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' of HR in Indian
Manufacturing and Service Providing Organizations (t-test Results)

Dimensions of              Perceptions of Executive   Perceptions of
HR                         of Manufacturing Sector    Executive from
Effectiveness                    (N = 186)            Service Sector
                                                         (N = 114)

                              Mean      Standard           Mean
                             Values     Deviation         Values

Productivity                 3.5479      .56808           3.3273
Adaptability                 3.4287      .72586           3.2018
Overall HR Effectiveness     3.4930      .56164           3.2696

Dimensions of              Perceptions of   t-value   Significance
HR                         Executive from
Effectiveness              Service Sector
                             (N = 114)

                              Standard
                             Deviation

Productivity                   .75610        2.860       .005 *
Adaptability                   .82484        2.481       .014 *
Overall HR Effectiveness       .74688        2.93        .004 *

* Significant at 0.05 level of significance (Table value = 1.96)
Note: Set standards for the Statistical Analysis:

High degree : For mean values 4 and above

Moderate degree : For mean values 3 and above but less than 4.

Low degree : For mean values less than 3.

Table 12 Correlation Between 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' of HR

Dimensions of HR   Karl Pearson's Correlation
Effectiveness
                   Productivity   Adaptability

Productivity            1           .657(**)
Adaptability         .657(**)          1

** Significant at 0.01 and above level (2-tailed).

Table 13 Multiple Regression of the Relationship between Management
Styles and Effectiveness of Human Resources

Model                          R      R Square   Adjusted
                                                 R Square

Relationship Between        .940(a)    0.885       .700
the Overall HR

effectiveness and the
Various Managerial Styles

Model                         Std. Error
                            Estimate of the

Relationship Between            .57904
the Overall HR

effectiveness and the
Various Managerial Styles

Predictors: (Constant), Organic, Altruistic, Professional,
Participative

Table 14 ANOVA Test for the Significance of Multiple Regression
Analysis of the Relationship Between Management Styles and
Effectiveness of Human Resources

Model                                Sum of    df     Mean      F
                                     Squares         Square

Relationship Between    Regression   26.336    4     6.584    19.637
the Overall HR          Residual     98.911    295    .335
effectiveness and       Total        125.247   299
the Managerial Styles

Model                   Sig.

Relationship Between    .000(a)
the Overall HR
effectiveness and
the Managerial Styles

Predictors: (Constant), Organic, Altruistic, Professional,
Participative Dependent Variable: Overall HR Effectiveness
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