It is an undeniable fact that only high-performing organizations
employing highly result-oriented managers can survive and grow in
today's globalized era. High-performing organizations, no doubt,
try to attract the best talent from the job market. In fact, hiring
potentially effective and result-oriented managers has, in recent times,
become the greatest challenge for HR managers of any progressive
organization. However, hiring potentially effective managers calls for a
proper understanding of the personality related factors that invariably
influence a manager's effectiveness in his job. Only continuing
research in this area would help in identifying important personality
variables which can predict managerial behaviour.
Although by common understanding, effective managers are those who
deliver results and add value to the company, some of the researchers
tried to define the concept of managerial effectiveness and distinguish
it from other related concepts. Reddin (1970:4) distinguished between
managerial effectiveness, apparent effectiveness and personal
effectiveness while defining managerial effectiveness as "the
extent to which a manager achieves the output requirements of his
position". Mintzberg (1973) observed that all managerial jobs are
similar in nature and therefore they could be described by certain
common behaviours or roles. He put forward ten managerial roles falling
under three categories: (1) interpersonal (figurehead, leader, liaison),
(2) informational (monitor, disseminator, spokesperson), and (3)
decisional (entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator,
negotiator). According to Mintzberg, managers working in different
positions could be effective depending on the combination of these ten
roles. Das (1991) compared Mintzberg's managerial roles with Indian
managerial roles and found certain skills such as interpersonal
relations, crisis management, employee counselling, oral communication,
etc. as critical to become an effective executive in India. A study by
Das & Manimala (1993) on middle and senior level managers employed
in a variety of organizations revealed that several of the roles
suggested by Mintzberg are played by Indian managers. Roles such as
'leader', 'monitor' and 'entrepreneur'
were found to be the important aspects of the managers' job
whereas, roles such as 'figurehead', 'negotiator',
and 'spokes-person' were found to be less important aspects of
the managers' job.
There are several theoretical conceptualizations of managerial
effectiveness incorporating various managerial roles, skills, and
competencies available in literature. Yukl (1989) integrated several
decades of managerial-role research into a taxonomy of managerial
behaviour. A role-based framework is consistent with Katz and
Kahn's (1978) open systems approach in which roles are determined
by inputs from the environment as well as variations in style as
determined by the individual. They defined behavioural roles as the
"recurring actions of an individual, appropriately interrelated
with the repetitive activities of others so as to yield a predictable
outcome" (p.125). Other significant models of managerial
effectiveness include the ones proposed by Luthans et al (1988),
Balaraman (1989), Quinn (1990), Gupta (1996), Hamlin (2002), and
Srivastava & Sinha (2007).
Gupta (1996:399) defined managerial effectiveness as the
"ability of a manager to carry out the activities required of his
position while achieving the results both current and in terms of
developing further potential". Using factor analysis, 16 dimensions
of managerial effectiveness were identified, viz., confidence in
subordinates, communication & task assignment, networking,
colleagues management, discipline, resource utilization, management of
market environment, conflict resolution, integrity & communication,
client management & competence, motivating, delegation, image
building, welfare management, consultative, and inspection &
innovation. This model has been developed for the Indian context and it
seems to encompass all the relevant dimensions of managerial
effectiveness incorporated in other models. A closer look at these 16
dimensions reveals that there is high degree of man-management focus
inherent in Gupta's (1996) construct. This means that personal
variables that are related to managers' ability to manage people
can have a significant impact on their managerial effectiveness (Nair
& Yuvaraj 2000).
A few studies have examined the role of certain personality
variables on managerial effectiveness in the Indian context. For
instance, Rastogi and Dave (2004) studied the managerial effectiveness
of top and lower level managers in production and marketing departments
in relation to their personality type using a sample of 80 managers from
various private sector organizations from the state of Uttar Pradesh in
India. The Managerial Effectiveness Questionnaire (Gupta 1996) was used
to measure managerial effectiveness. The major findings were that in the
production department, both top and lower level managers having Type-B
personality were found more effective and in marketing department
top-level managers having Type-A personality and lower level managers
having Type B personality were found more effective in comparison to
Emotional Intelligence & Managerial Effectiveness
In the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the role
of emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) on managerial behaviour
(Callahan Fabian 1999, Bryant 2000). Researchers are particularly trying
to understand the role emotions and emotional intelligence play in the
organization through change efforts, leadership effectiveness, training
and organizational performance.
The genesis of the study of EI has its roots in David
Wechsler's idea of "non-collective aspects of general
intelligence", which reaches as far back as 1940 (Wechsler 1940).
Subsequently, Leeper (1948) proposed that "emotional thought"
is part of and contributes to "logical thought" and
intelligence in general. These early proposals were succeeded nearly
half a century later by the ideas of Harvard University's Howard
Gardner, who felt that intelligence encompasses multiple dimensions,
combining a variety of cognitive aspects with emotional intelligence (or
"personal intelligence" as he called it). The emotional or
personal dimension of his concept of "multiple intelligence"
included two general components that he referred to as
"intrapsychic capacities" and "interpersonal skills"
(Gardner 1983). On the other hand, Mayer and Salovey looked primarily at
six components of "emotional intelligence" that are very
similar to BarOn's components (Mayer et al. 1990).
Based on Gardener's (1983) theory, BarOn (1997a) defined
emotional intelligence as "an array of non-cognitive capabilities,
competencies, and skills that influence one's ability to succeed in
coping with environmental demands and pressures". This suggests
that non-cognitive intelligence helps to predict success because it
reflects how a person applies knowledge to the immediate situation. In a
way he suggested that measuring emotional, personal, or social
intelligence is to measure one's ability to cope with daily
situations to get along in the world.
A study by Singh (2001) concluded that different professions do
require different levels of EQ. However, having a high or average EQ may
not be labelled as 'good' or 'bad' in a profession.
It is necessary to have a right balance of various emotional
competencies which may help one become a star performer. It also found
that many professions exhibited moderate EQ. However, it should not be
interpreted that high EQ is not required in these professions.
Studies have indicated positive relationship between emotional
intelligence and managerial success. For instance, Daftuar et al (2000)
investigated the relationship between EQ and sixteen dimensions of
managerial effectiveness using EQ Map of Cooper & Sawaf (1997). They
found the self- awareness of managers to be positively correlated with 9
dimensions; resilience with 12 dimensions, interpersonal connection with
12 dimensions, integrity with 12 dimensions and intuition with 14
dimensions of managerial effectiveness. Shipper et al (2003) explored
the relationship between EI and managerial effectiveness using a
cross-cultural sample of 3,785 managers of a multinational firm located
in U.S, UK, and Malaysia. They found that empathy, self-awareness, and
self- regulation are highly related to managerial effectiveness. In a
study by Sy et al (2006), participants were 187 food service workers and
their 62 managers at nine divergent locations of the same restaurant
franchise. The results of this study also support previous research
(e.g. Wong & Law 2002, Law et al. 2004) indicating that employees
with higher EI have higher job performance. The study suggests that
employees with high EI are more adept at using their emotions to
facilitate job performance. Employees with high EI are more adept at
using their emotions to facilitate job performance. In the Indian
context, similarly, Kumar (2001) found high correlations of emotional
intelligence with team cohesiveness, organizational effectiveness, job
satisfaction, and transformational leadership among executives.
Rational Emotive Behaviour
Rational Emotive Behaviour (REB), another construct having
emotional undercurrents has, in recent times, been found to have
implications for managerial behaviour. The theory behind Rational
Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), developed by Albert Ellis (1973),
posits that our feelings are primarily caused by the specific thoughts
and messages we tell ourselves. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
is active-directive, but is also unusually post-modernistic and
constructivist in that it specializes in showing clients how their
conscious and unconscious absolutistic philosophies lead to much of
their dysfunctional feelings and behaviours, and what they can do to
make themselves more open-minded and flexible in their intra-personal
and interpersonal relationships (Ellis 1998). Ellis posited that if
people could be prevented from indulging in irrational thoughts and
beliefs, they would improve their ability to direct their energy toward
self-actualization (the rational drive), which he believed could best be
accomplished through reason (Ellis 1994). The ABC framework is the
cornerstone of rational emotive practice. In this framework,
'A' stands for an activating event, 'B' stands for
beliefs or evaluative cognitions of the world, and 'C' stands
for emotional and behavioural consequences.
Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy has been used to study the
influence of rational thinking and emotions and its influence on
personality since long. REBT consists of belief systems which further
comprises rational beliefs which are provable and verifiable, are
associated with appropriate emotions, and more productive and self-
helping behaviours. These are usually logical and consistent and lead to
desirable and happy feelings. On the other hand, irrational beliefs deal
with no evidence to support the belief, and are associated with
inappropriate emotions. They are also associated with less productive
and self-helping behaviours. These beliefs are often illogical and
inconsistent and often lead to undesirable and miserable feelings.
Kilburg (1996) has described a number of the typical goals of
coaching, including (i) increasing the client's behavioural range,
flexibility, and effectiveness; (ii) improving the client's social
and psychological awareness and competencies; (iii) increasing the
client's tolerance and range of emotional responses; and (iv)
strengthening the client's hardiness and stress management skills.
Given the identified outcomes of the REBT process, they believed it is
possible to use the basic principles of this therapeutic approach to
meet a number of these goals.
Executive coaching forms an important aspect of Managerial
Effectiveness. Sherin and Caiger (2004) have suggested behavioural
change as an important component of executive coaching and thus
suggested the use of REBT for executive coaching. The study suggested
that much of executive coaching involves assisting them to strategically
develop adaptive work behaviours. Underlying many of these interventions
is the need to effect behavioural change. Indeed, many coaching models
include behavioural change as a fundamental aspect of their process. For
example, Saporito's (1996) four stages of executive coaching
include effecting and monitoring behaviour change as a key component of
the coaching which is an important managerial process. An emotionally
intelligent person is high at traits like assertiveness, independence,
empathy, inter-personal relationship, happiness, etc. An emotionally
intelligent person is also efficient at stress tolerance and impulse
control. Additionally, such a person is also optimistic and believes in
reality testing, thus, helping in understanding as to how rational he or
In a study by Sporrle and Welpe (2006), by adopting the theoretical
framework of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (Ellis 1962, 1994), the
cognitive antecedents of functional behaviour and adaptive emotions as
indicators of emotional intelligence (EI) were examined and central
assumptions of REB were tested. In an extension of REB, it was
hypothesized that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions
reflect more EI than maladaptive emotions, which result from irrational
cognitions, because the former leads to functional behaviour. The
results of the first study using organizational scenarios in an
experimental design confirmed central assumptions of REB and supported
the hypotheses. In a second correlational study the connection between
rational cognitions and EI by measuring real person data using
psychometric scales was replicated. Both studies indicated that
irrational attitudes result in reduced job satisfaction.
This study was carried out with the following objectives.
1. To find out the nature of relation between Emotional
Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness.
2. To ascertain the nature of relationship between Rational Emotive
Behaviour and Managerial Effectiveness.
3. To study the role of Rational Emotive Behaviour in the
relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial
Based on the review of relevant literature, the following
hypotheses were formulated and verified in the study.
H1.Emotional Intelligence will be positively related to Managerial
H2.Rational Emotive Behaviour will be positively related to
H3.Rational Emotive Behaviour will moderate the relationship
between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness.
1. Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQi): BarOn (1997b, 2000)
describes the Emotional Quotient inventory as a self report measure of
emotionally and socially competent behaviour which provides an estimate
of one's emotional and social intelligence. The instrument was
initiated in the early 1980s as an experimental tool. EQ- i, consists of
15 subscales with 133 items. It has a five point rating scale. A score
of 1 is awarded if the respondent has checked on Very Seldom or Not True
of Me, 2 to Seldom True of Me, 3 to Sometimes True of Me, 4 to Often
True of Me and a score to Very Often True of Me or True of Me. Out of
the 133 items belonging to different sub-scales 57 are to be reverse
Emotional Self Awareness (ES), Self-Regard (SR), Assertiveness
(AS), Independence (IN), and Self--Actualization (AS) constitute
Intra-personal skills. Inter-personal skills on the other hand consist
of Empathy (EM), Social Responsibility (SRES), and Interpersonal
Relationship (IR). Additionally there is the adaptability scale, which
consists of Reality Testing (RT), Flexibility (FL), and Problem Solving
(PS). Equally important is the Stress Management skill which includes
Impulse Control (IC) and Stress Tolerance (ST). The General mood scales
on the other hand are Happiness (HA) and Optimism (OP). Bar On (2000)
has reported the internal reliability by using the Cronbach alpha
ranging from 0.70 for Social Responsibility to 0.89 for Self -Regard.
Kumar (2001) in his Indian study reported the internal consistency of
the 15 sub-scales ranging from 0.65 to 0.89. The Cronbach alpha value of
EQi computed in this study is 0.68.
2. Rational Behaviour Inventory: The Rational Behaviour Inventory
(RBI) developed by Shorkey and Whiteman (1977) has a five point rating
scale. It consists of 37 items. The reliability index computed in this
study is 0
3. Managerial Effectiveness Scale: This scale developed by Gupta
(1996) consists of 45 items measuring 16 dimensions. The scale has been
further factor analysed giving 3 factors named as Activities of His
Position, Achieving the Results and Developing Further Potential. It has
positively and negatively worded items with a five point rating scale.
Positive items are scored by assigning 5 to a rating of Always; 4 to
Usually; 3 to Neutral; 2 to Sometimes; and 1 to Never. The test-retest
reliability and split half reliability are 0.73 (Gupta 1996). The
Cronbach alpha value computed in this study is 0.88.
The present study consisted of 305 managers from several industries
across India including manufacturing, information technology, human
resource consulting, banking, energy, and telecommunication. Out of the
305 managers, 197 participants were middle level managers and 108 were
entry level managers. A sample of around 300 executives was primarily
the target sample so as to ensure a good mix of male- female, middle
level- entry level, and private-public sector categories of executives.
It has been seen that the roles and responsibilities of entry level and
middle level managers (viz. team working; decision making; planning and
organizing) are quite similar in nature in comparison to senior level
managers where the roles and responsibilities include transformational
leadership, strategic thinking, mission and vision formation of the
organization. First-line managers are primarily involved in project
management activities. Middle-level managers are heavily involved in
personnel supervision activities, though they are still involved in
project management. Upper-level managers are heavily involved in
strategic planning, however they also have involvement in project
management and personnel supervision but, comparatively to much lower
extent (Friedman & Fleishman 1990). For this purpose, it has been
decided to adopt purposive sampling method to study entry level and
middle level managers to maintain the homogeneity of the sample. To give
a wider representation of the managerial population, the sample
comprised managers from public sector as well as private sector
industries. Out of the 305 managers, 148 were from public sector and 157
from private sector companies. These managers were from some of the top
companies located in the major metro cities of India where the need to
manage risk, handle stress, and to adapt efficiently is high. The
entry-level managers ranged in age from 21 years to 40 years with an
average age of 28 years whereas, the middle-level managers ranged in age
from 24 years to 58 years with a mean age of 38 years. It was ensured
that an entry level manager has a minimum of 1 year of experience and a
middle level manager has a minimum experience of 3 years.
Results & Discussion
In order to study the distribution of data, descriptive statistics
like Means and Standard Deviations were found out. For the purpose of
testing the hypotheses and establishing relationships among the
variables, statistics like correlation and simple regression were used.
Further, Fisher's r to z transformation test was used to study the
effect of the moderating variable.
In order to ensure that the public sector and private sector
samples do not differ significantly on the variables under study, t-test
was conducted. The results of t-test signify non-significant difference
in Emotional Intelligence (t = 1.056, p<0.06, df = 147). Hence, the
two samples were combined and all statistical analyses were done for the
total sample. The statistical package used for data analysis in this
study is SPSS 15.0.
Table 1 shows the descriptive statistics of the independent and
dependent variables. Minimum- maximum ranges, means, and
standard-deviations are listed in table 1. All variables have a high
mean value. The specific skills of Emotional Intelligence and Rational
Emotive Behaviour have high standard deviation values indicating a good
spread of scores while variables of Managerial Effectiveness have low
standard deviation value.
Results of correlational analysis presented in Table 2 reveal that
there is a strong positive relation between Emotional Intelligence and
Managerial Effectiveness. Results also show a significant positive
relation between Rational Emotive Behaviour and Activities of His
Position and Achieving the Results factor of Managerial Effectiveness.
In addition, a strong correlation between Emotional Intelligence and
Rational Emotive Behaviour is seen. All of the five specific skills of
Emotional Intelligence are significantly correlated to Rational Emotive
Table 3 reveals that Emotional Intelligence (Adaptability Skills,
Stress Management, and General Mood) is a significant predictor of
Activities of His Position factor of Managerial Effectiveness. It can be
seen from Table 4 that emotional Intelligence is not a significant
predictor of Achieving the Results. Table 5 depicts that Emotional
Intelligence (Inter-personal Skills, Adaptability, and General Mood) is
a significant predictor of Developing Further Potential. Also, it can be
seen from Table 6, that Rational Emotive Behaviour is a significant
predictor of Activities of His Position, Achieving the Results, and
Managerial Effectiveness as a composite score.
It was hypothesized that Rational Emotive Behaviour acts as a
moderating variable in the relationship between Emotional Intelligence
and Managerial Effectiveness. To study the effect of this moderating
variable, the significance of difference of correlation has been studied
between the values of r of Managerial Effectiveness corresponding to
'High' Emotional Intelligence and 'Low' Emotional
Intelligence scores. For this purpose, the Fisher r to z transformation
test has been used. Required correlation for high and low sub-groups
which were already formed were computed. In order to implicate only
extreme sub-groups on each of the two dimensions, those above [P.sub.66]
and below [P.sub.33] cut-off points were considered in this analysis
The results of Fisher r to z transformation test reveal that
Rational Emotive Behaviour acts as a moderating variable for the effect
of Emotional Intelligence on Managerial Effectiveness (z= 2.25**, p<
Significant positive relation has been found between Emotional
Intelligence ([R.sup.2] = 0.19, = 0.37***, p<0.001) and Managerial
Effectiveness. This supports Hypothesis 1 which states that Emotional
Intelligence will be positively related to Managerial Effectiveness. It
can be noted from the results that Emotional Intelligence is a
significant predictor of Managerial Effectiveness. This is in line with
the findings of the study by Shipper et al (2003) which conclude that
empathy, self awareness, and self regulation are highly related to
Significant positive relation has been found between Rational
Emotive Behaviour ([R.sup.2] =0.18, = 0.239**, p<0.01) and Activities
of His Position factor of Managerial Effectiveness. Significant positive
relation has been found between Rational Emotive Behaviour ([R.sup.2] =
0.15, = 0.135**, p<0.01) and Achieving the Results factor of
Managerial Effectiveness. Also, Rational Emotive Behaviour has been
found to significantly predict Managerial Effectiveness as a whole
([R.sup.2] = 0.23, = 0.25**, p<0.01). This partially supports
Hypothesis 2, which states that Rational Emotive Behaviour will be
positively related to Managerial Effectiveness. DiMattia (1993) argued
that the rational emotive behaviour approach suits the organizational
context because of its preventive, psycho-educational emphasis and its
short-term, solution-focused orientation. When successful, the REB
process functions to increase the client's capacity for rational,
critical, and psychologically sophisticated reasoning and thereby allows
the client to challenge and replace any unrealistic expectations that
might have negatively influenced his or her performance (Ellis 1994).
The Fisher r to z test confirms the significant moderating effect
of Rational Emotive Behaviour (z= 2.01**, p< 0.01) on the relation
between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness, thereby,
lending support to Hypothesis 3. This suggests that when Emotionally
Intelligent executives display Rational Emotive Behaviour, they can be
predicted to be effective on their jobs. Possibly, Rational Emotive
Behaviour provides executives with a set of rational choices to choose
from (rather than being victims of one's own habit patterns),
thereby, ensuring high level of managerial effectiveness.
Conclusions & Implications
The study reveals that Emotional Intelligence as a whole seems to
be a significant predictor of Managerial Effectiveness. Except Achieving
the Results, all other factors of Managerial Effectiveness are predicted
by Emotional Intelligence. This helps to conclude that high level of
Emotional Intelligence could lead to high Managerial Effectiveness. This
conclusion of the present study is supported by a few earlier studies
(e.g., Daftuar et al 2000 and Shipper et al, 2003).
Also, the moderating effect of Rational Emotive Behaviour has been
found significant between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial
Effectiveness. The effect of Emotional Intelligence on Managerial
effectiveness is affected by Rational Emotive Behaviour. The ability to
behave in a rationally emotive way by Emotionally Intelligent managers
would enhance managerial effectiveness in an organisation.
This study suggests the quintessential role of behavioural
variables such as Emotional Intelligence and Rational Emotive Behaviour
for identifying result-oriented executives for organisations. The
two-fold approach of hiring new personnel with these two behavioural
skills and at the same time training the existing personnel on these
skills would have a compound leverage effect. EI is yet not in ambit of
organisational development initiatives of the Indian corporate sector.
Hiring managers on the basis of their emotional intelligence as well as
rational emotive behaviour could ensure better fit with managerial
positions requiring higher levels of effectiveness.
The present study has a few limitations. Firstly, the sample is
heterogeneous as the participants are from several industries. However,
it is argued that heterogeneity of a sample contributes towards wider
generalization of the findings and therefore it can be considered to be
the strength rather than the weakness of a research (Kaur 1992, Shukla
1988, Srivastava 1990). The matter remains debatable as the non-random
sampling method imposes further constraints on the generalization issue.
However, since no significant difference was found in the mean Emotional
Intelligence scores of public sector and private sector executives, the
homogeneity of the sample is ensured. Secondly, the sample chosen
consists of only entry-level and middle-level executives and does not
involve the top-management. The top-management executive could not be
included in the study because of the length of the questionnaire
affecting the response time and because of the differences in their
competencies when compared with the other two levels. Thirdly, all the
measures used to assess the variables are self-report assessments.
While extending this research, future studies could focus on
selecting a particular sector of industry to enhance the focus of the
study. Also, studies could focus exclusively on the top management of
the corporate sector to study the effect of Emotional Intelligence and
Rational Emotive Behaviour on strategic competencies. Future studies
could also use qualitative data sources like 360 degree feedback.
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Table 1: Descriptive Statistics of Independent and Dependent Variables
Variable N Mean Minimum Maximum SD
Intrapersonal 305 263.59 209 312 18.45
Interpersonal 305 103.83 61 135 16.89
Adaptability 305 88.95 58 115 10.61
Stress Management 305 60.54 34 82 9.149
General Mood 305 61.61 43 80 8.064
Rational Emotive Behaviour 305 21.03 7 34 5.135
Activities of his position 305 108.76 69 152 15.52
Achieving the results 305 23.90 10 32 4.309
Developing further potential 305 20.570 8 30 4.223
Table 2: Inter correlation Matrix
Intra- Inter- Adap- Stress Mgt.
personal personal tability
Inter-personal 0.718 ** 1
Adap-tability 0.789 ** 0.658 ** 1
StressMgt. 0.591 ** 0.471 ** 0.698 ** 1
GeneralMood 0.728 ** 0.625 ** 0.713 ** 0.471 **
RationalBeh. 0.214 ** 0.095 0.214 ** 0.342 **
AHP 0.04 0.11 0.125 ** 0.30 **
ATR 0.004 -0.021 0.064 -0.04
DFP 0.069 0.23 ** 0.179 ** 0.047
General Rational AHP ATR DFP
RationalBeh. 0.119 * 1
AHP 0.31 ** 0.25 ** 1
ATR -0.004 0.135 ** 0.682 ** 1
DFP 0.122 * 0.064 0.867 ** 0.685 ** 1
* Significant at 0.05 level (2- tailed); ** Significant at 0.01
level (2- tailed)
Table 3: Simple Linear Regression of Activities of His Position with
Factors of Emotional Intelligence
DV IV [R.sup.2] [R.sup.2]
Intra-personal 0.001 0.000
Activities of Inter-personal 0.012 0.008
His Position Adaptability 0.105 0.051
Stress Management 0.269 0.234
General Mood 0.134 0.112
DV IV [beta] F (1,303)
Intera-personal 0.030 0.484
Activities of Intera-personal 0.11 3.724
His Position Adaptability 0.124 ** 4.779
Stress Management 0.305 ** 4.786
General Mood 0.324 ** 4.35
** Significant at 0.01 level
Table 4: Simple Linear Regression of Achieving the Results with
Factors of Emotional Intelligence
DV IV [R.sup.2] [R.sup.2]
Intra-personal 0.001 0.000
Activities of Inter-personal 0.000 0.000
His Position Adaptability 0.032 0.028
Stress Management 0.011 0.001
General Mood 0.012 0.011
DV IV F (1,303)
Intra-personal 0.003 0.004
Activities of Inter-personal -.020 1.131
His Position Adaptability 0.113 1.225
Stress Management 0.041 0.139
General Mood 0.0296 1.501
Table 5: Simple Linear Regression of Developing Further Potential
with Factors of Emotional Intelligence
DV IV [R.sup.2] [R.sup.2]
Intra-personal 0.004 0.001
Developing Inter-personal 0.16 0.13
Further Adaptability 0.22 0.21
Potential Stress Management 0.020 0.018
General Mood 0.14 0.11
DV IV F (1,303)
Intra-personal 0.068 1.437
Developing Inter-personal 0.130 ** 5.235
Further Adaptability 0.179 ** 10.080
Potential Stress Management 0.04 1.675
General Mood 0.121 ** 4.558
** Significant at 0.01 level
Table 6: Simple Linear Regression of Factors of Managerial
Effectiveness and Managerial Effectiveness with Rational
IV DV [R.sup.2] [R.sup.2]
RE B Activities of His Position 0.18 0.17
Achieving the Results 0.15 0.146
Developing Further Potential 0.004 0.007
Managerial Effectiveness 0.23 0.21
IV DV F (1,303)
RE B Activities of His Position 0.239 ** 6.19
Achieving the Results 0.135 ** 5.649
Developing Further Potential 0.06 1.232
Managerial Effectiveness 0.25 ** 5.92
** Significant at 0.01 level
Table 7: Fisher r to z Transformation Test for Rational Emotive
Behaviour as a Moderating Variable for Emotional Intelligence (IV)
and Managerial Effectiveness (DV)
Variable Groups Variables r z
Rational Emotive High Group (n=102) EI & ME 0.24 +2.25 **
Low Group (n=107) EI & ME -0.017
** significant at 0.01 level