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A REVIEW OF THE DISTRIBUTION AND ROOSTING ECOLOGY OF BATS IN GEORGIA.
Subject:
Bats (Behavior)
Authors:
Menzel, Michael A.
Chapman, Brian R.
Ford, W. Mark
Menzel, Jennifer M.
Laerm, Joshua
Pub Date:
09/22/2000
Publication:
Name: Georgia Journal of Science Publisher: Georgia Academy of Science Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Science and technology Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2000 Georgia Academy of Science ISSN: 0147-9369
Issue:
Date: Fall, 2000 Source Volume: 58 Source Issue: 3
Geographic:
Geographic Scope: Georgia Geographic Name: Georgia Geographic Code: 1U5GA Georgia

Accession Number:
73844020
Full Text:
Michael A. Menzel [1]

Brian R. Chapman [2]

W. Mark Ford [3]

Jennifer M. Menzel [1]

Joshua Laerm (deceased) [4]

ABSTRACT

There is a paucity of information available concerning the distribution and natural history of bats (order: Chiroptera) in Georgia. Sources are dated and none contains information on all 16 species of bats that occur in Georgia. Herein we attempted to synthesize all information concerning the distribution of all bats that occur in Georgia. To determine the range of each species, we plotted the location of collection and capture of all bats in Georgia by county. Because the distribution of bats often is closely linked to their roosting ecology, we also provide a brief review of the roosting ecology of each species. We described the distribution and roosting habits of all 16 species of bats that occur in Georgia including the eastern pipistrelle, eastern small-footed myotis, southeastern myotis, Indiana bat, little brown bat, northern long-eared myotis, gray bat, Rafinesque's big-eared bat, silver-haired bat, Seminole bat, northern yellow bat, hoary bat, big brown bat, and Brazilian free-tailed bat. This distri bution and roosting ecology information of Georgia bats is critical for effective bat conservation throughout the state.

Key words: bat, Chiroptera, distribution, Georgia, range, roosting ecology.

INTRODUCTION

Georgia, the largest state east of the Mississippi River, hosts a diverse assemblage of bats including 16 (94%) of the 17 species common to the southeastern United States (excluding the southern tip of Florida, 1). Bats comprise approximately 18% of the terrestrial mammalian diversity in Georgia [2]. In part, this diversity is a result of physiographic variability. The state contains six physiographic provinces: Upper Coastal Plain, Lower Coastal Plain, Piedmont, Blue Ridge, Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Plateau (Figure 1; see 3). These provinces host vegetational community types ranging from the coastal pine flatwoods of the Lower Coastal Plain to northern hardwood forests of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The geography of each influences the structure of both floral and faunal assemblages. Many austral species inhabit the Upper and Lower Coastal Plain, whereas species typical of more northern regions and mountainous or karst topography inhabit the Blue Ridge, Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Plateau. The dis tributional ranges of bat species in both groups meet in the Piedmont, making this province the most diverse in Georgia.

Despite the size and variable physiography of the state, there are only seven studies that describe the natural history of bats in Georgia. The remaining information concerning the distribution and roosting habits of bats in Georgia is located in faunal surveys of specific regions of the state [e.g., 2, 4-9] and unpublished museum records.

Information about the distribution and roosting ecology of some bat species that occur in Georgia was summarized in two manuscripts [4, 10]. Because of misidentifications, inaccuracies exist in range maps that were provided in subsequent accounts [11]. Accurate and current distributional information about bat distribution is necessary for successful management and protection. Our objective was to review all museum collection and capture records from the published literature and synthesize this information about the distribution of the 16 species of Georgia bats.

METHODS

To determine the distributional ranges of bats in Georgia, we plotted species locations of specimens that were collected, captured and released, or sighted in Georgia. Capture, collection, and sighting locations were determined from unpublished museum records (Appendix A) and published literature and were plotted by county. The reliability of distributional records differs between unpublished collection records of public museums, unpublished collection records of private museums, published capture records and published reports of bats identified while flying or hanging on a cave wall. Accordingly, we used different symbols when plotting records from each of these sources. For all locations determined from unpublished collection records of public museums, we plotted the points as accurately as possible from the information provided. If a species was collected from different locations within a county, we plotted all locations within the county where the species was collected. When collection location informati on was less detailed, we plotted only one symbol in the center of the county. If records from private museums or published literature indicated that a species was present in a county with museum records, no marks were made. This system allows readers to: [1] determine the counties where each species of bat has been documented; [2] assess the relative reliability of the record documenting this occurrence, and, [3] for records from public museums, to determine approximately where in the county each species was captured. For species whose range does not encompass the entire state, we placed a line across the state indicating the expected range of the species.

We constructed a table to depict the occurrence of each species by physiographic province using information contained in our maps (Table I). We used an X (= typical range) to denote that the species included at least a portion of that physiographic province. We used I (= isolated report) to indicate that the species was captured in the physiographic province, but the typical range of the species did not include the province in Georgia. We used P (= probably occurrence) to indicate that there were no records of the species from the physiographic province, but the distributional range of the species suggests that it should occur in the province.

Because of the distributions of many bat species are closely tied to roosting behavior [12], we also provided reviews of the winter and summer roosting habits of each species of Georgia bat. We also attempted to review the results of all roosting studies conducted in Georgia. In Georgia bats roost in a wide variety of sites and substrates including: tree foliage, tree bark, tree cavities, caves, mines, rock crevices, buildings and artificial "bat" houses (Table II).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

There is no location within Georgia where all 16 species of bats are sympatric. The ranges of five species are restricted to the Blue Ridge, Ridge and Valley, or Cumberland Plateau (Table I). Four species are restricted to the Piedmont, Upper Coastal Plain and Lower Coastal Plain. Because the ranges of many northern species reach southern limits, and the ranges of many southern species reach northern limits in the Piedmont, this region has the highest bat diversity. However, if the probably distribution of each species is considered, the Cumberland Plateau has the highest level of bat diversity in Georgia. Although we believe this might accurately represent the distribution of Georgia bats, additional capture records are needed to verify its validity.

The roosting habits of Georgia bats are varied. All species use all five types of roost during the summer (Table II). The distributions of species dependent on caves or rock crevices for roosts are restricted to the Blue Ridge, Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Plateau physiographic provinces. The distribution of species that roost in foliage and tree cavities is less restricted. Caves and mines are used as winter roosts by more species (n=11) than any other type of roost (Table II). During the summer, exfoliating bark and tree cavities are used as roosts by most species.

Family Vespertilionidae

Family Vespertilionidae is the largest family of bats, consisting of 42 genera and 355 species [13]. This family is cosmopolitan and on every continent except Antarctica. Nine genera and 31 species of vespertilionid bats occur in the United States [14]. Of these, seven genera and 15 species occur in Georgia.

Pipistrellus subflavus (eastern pipistrelle). The eastern pipistrelle is the second smallest species of bat that occurs in Georgia. Two of the four recognized subspecies of the eastern pipistrelle occur in Georgia [15]. The distribution of the southern subspecies, P. s. floridanus, meets the northern subspecies, P. s. subflavus, along the Coastal Plain in Georgia [15]. The eastern pipistrelle occurs throughout much of the eastern half of North and Central America. In the United States, its range extends from Maine, west to Minnesota, and south through east Texas [15].

Throughout its range, the eastern pipistrelle establishes hibernacula in culverts [16], storm sewers [17], tunnels [18], caves [19-21] and mines [22, 23] (Table II). Eastern pipistrelles are common in north Georgia during the winter. Approximately 97% of the bats found in mines and caves throughout north Georgia were eastern pipistrelles [24, 25].

Little is known about summer roosts of eastern pipistrelles. Maternity roosts typically are located in barns [26, 27] and houses [28]. Other summer roosts were located in tree canopies [29-31] and in Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides, 32). However, these discoveries are rare considering the commonness of this species. In Georgia, summer roosts of this species were documented in an abandoned house on Sapelo Island and in Spanish moss hanging from understory vegetation [33, 34]. A female eastern pipistrelle and her non-volant young were captured in a pitfall trap set in a basal cavity in a large sweetgum (Liquidamber styraciflua) in the Piedmont of Georgia suggesting that basal cavities may serve as maternity roosts [35].

A total of 220 specimens of the eastern pipistrelle are known from Georgia. The eastern pipistrelle occurs in all physiographic provinces and is common throughout the state (Figure 2).

Nycticeius humeralis (evening bat). Only one of the three subspecies of the evening bat, N. h. humeralis, occurs in Georgia [36]. Evening bats occur throughout the southeastern United States, from Mexico, north to Nebraska, and east to Pennsylvania [36]. There is a paucity of information concerning the winter roosting habits of evening bats. There are no published accounts describing winter roosts of this species (Table II).

Summer roost sites of the evening bat include Spanish moss [32], under loose bark [14, 37, 38,, 39], and tree cavities [14] (Table II). The only evening bat found roosting in a cave was discovered in August (40). Maternity roosts commonly are located in buildings [41, 42] and in tree cavities [39]. Evening bat maternity roosts in Georgia were found under the exfoliating bark of pines, in the cavities of dead and live pines, and in abandoned structures [4, 34]. Evening bat maternity roosts in the Coastal Plain Georgia sometimes occur in structures containing maternity colonies of Brazilian free-tailed bats Tadarida brasiliensis, Jim Ozier pers. comm.).

A total of 180 specimens of the evening bat are known from Georgia. The evening bat occurs throughout Georgia except the Ridge and Valley and Cumberland Plateau (Figure 3). The evening bat is one of the most common species in the Okefenokee Swamp and on Sapelo Island during the summer [5, 33]. Most surveys in the Ridge and Valley or Cumberland Plateau provinces were cave surveys, a method unlikely to detect the presence of evening bats. Based on the range and habitat requirements of the evening bat, this species probably occurs throughout Georgia.

Myotis leibii (eastern small-footed myotis). The eastern small-footed myotis, a monotypic species, is the smallest bat in Georgia [43]. The range of the eastern small-footed myotis is limited to northeastern North America. The eastern small-footed myotis occurs from northern Georgia, west into Oklahoma and Missouri, and north into the St. Lawrence forest region of Ontario and Quebec [43].

The eastern small-footed myotis roosts in caves and mines in other regions of the eastern United States during the winter [44-48] (Table II). Baker [49] recorded the only winter roost of the eastern small-footed myotis in Howard Waterfall Cave, Dade County.

Summer roosts are located under rocks and in buildings [14, 50, 51] (Table II). Summer roosts of eastern small-footed myotis have not been located in Georgia. Menzel et al. [52] captured a reproductively active male in a harp trap set over a mine entrance in Murray County during August, 1998. Mines in northern Georgia may be used as roosts during the autumn by this species.

Only four records of eastern small-footed myotis are known from the northern portion of the state in the Blue Ridge, Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Plateau physiographic provinces (Figure 4). The eastern small-footed myotis appears to be uncommon through its range. The status of this species in Georgia is uncertain.

Myotis austroriparius (southeastern myotis). One of the three subspecies, M. a. austroriparius, of the southeastern myotis occurs in Georgia [53]. Southeastern myotis occur from Louisiana and eastern Texas up the Mississippi Alluvial Valley into southern Indiana and Illinois, and east along the coast of Georgia and the Carolinas. The range extends south into the upper half of peninsular Florida [54].

Most winter roosts of this species are in caves [55] (Table II). There are no published reports of winter roosts of southeastern myotis in Georgia.

Summer roosts of southeastern myotis have been found in caves [55, 56], mines [57], trees [57, 58] and buildings [56-58] (Table II). Summer roosts in Georgia were located in a stable (9, Gentry unpublished museum record) and an abandoned building (Baker, unpublished museum record). A large summer colony of 300 southeastern myotis was located in a Thomas County fertilizer plant [11]. Another large colony of southeastern myotis was located under a bridge in Darien, McIntosh County (Schnell unpublished museum records). The exact location of the bridge was not given and recent efforts by the authors to locate the colony were unsuccessful.

One hundred-fourteen specimens of the southeastern myotis are known from Georgia. With the exception of one collection and one sight record from the Piedmont, records of the southeastern myotis are restricted to the Upper Coastal Plain and Lower Coastal Plain (Figure 5). Barnard [59] reported seeing southeastern myotis foraging over industrial ponds Clayton County. The individual collected from the Piedmont was captured by Baker [4] in a tunnel under the football stadium at the University of Georgia and was considered a "stray." These two records were from the northern portion of this species range. The status of the southeastern myotis in Georgia is unknown.

Myotis sodalis (Indiana bat). The Indiana bat is monotypic [60]. Indiana bats range from New Hampshire, south through western Virginia and North Carolina into the northwestern corner of Georgia, and west into Arkansas, Missouri, and Iowa [61]. A few have been collected from the Marianna region of Florida [61].

Winter roosts of the Indiana bat usually are located in mines and caves [62] (Table II). An unusual location of an Indiana bat hibernaculum was a hydroelectric dam [63]. Indiana bat are known from three caves in Georgia during the winter. Baker [4], collected seven individuals (three male, four female) from Suttons Cave, Dade County, Georgia. Martin and Sneed [64] found one Myotis that they tentatively identified as an Indiana bat during an October survey of Lowery Cave, Chattooga County, Georgia. This cave serves as a bachelor roost for a colony of gray bats, Myotis grisescens, and may also serve as a significant roost for Indiana bat.

Summer roosts are located in cavities and under the bark of trees [65-68]. A summer roost was located in North Carolina in 1999 (S. Loeb, per. comm.). No summer roosts of Indiana bat are known from Georgia.

Fifteen Indiana bats are known from Georgia. The range of the Indiana bat in Georgia is restricted to the Cumberland Plateau (Figure 6).

Myotis lucifugus (little brown bat). Of the six subspecies of the little brown bat currently recognized, only M. I. lucifugus occurs in Georgia [69]. Little brown bats are common throughout much of the United States. In the East, the little brown bat reaches the southern limit of its range in north Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi [69].

Winter roosts of little brown bats commonly are located in caves and mines [4, 70] (Table II). All winter roosts of little brown bats in Georgia were in caves and mines [4, 25, 71].

Little brown bats roost in the summer under rocks, woodpiles, and in trees [69] (Table II). Maternity roosts commonly are located in buildings [72-74]. No summer roosts of little brown bats have been discovered in Georgia.

In addition to capture records in the literature, 12 other little brown bats are known from Georgia. Based on museum specimens, this species is primarily restricted to the Cumberland Plateau, Ridge and Valley, and Blue Ridge (Figure 7). All specimens from Georgia were collected in caves or mines or were captured in mist nets set near the entrances of caves and mines. The little brown bat reaches the southern limit of its range in Georgia and is uncommon in the state.

Myotis septentrionalis (northern long-eared myotis). The northern long-eared myotis is monotypic [43]. The northern long-eared myotis occurs throughout much of the eastern half of the United States, ranging from Saskatchewan east to Quebec and south to Florida [75].

Most winter roosts of northern long-eared myotis are in caves [19, 74] and mines (76) (Table II). Goehring [17] documented a hibernaculum in a storm sewer. All winter roosts of northern long-eared myotis in Georgia are in mines and caves [4, 25, 71], where individuals of this species are often second in abundance only to the eastern pipistrelle.

Summer roosts of northern long-eared myotis are in abandoned buildings [77, 78], behind shutters [79], and under the bark of trees [80] (Table II). Most summer roosts in Georgia were located in caves and buildings [4]. An unusual roost of the northern long-eared myotis was located in a box-style deer trap set in the Blue Ridge Wildlife Management Area, Fannin County (unpublished record).

Twenty-one northern long-eared myotis are known from Georgia. Although Rice [81] collected an individual from the panhandle of northwestern florida and one was collected from Harris Co., Georgia, this species generally is restricted to the Blue Ridge, Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Plateau provinces of Georgia (Figure 8). Collection records suggest the northern long-eared myotis is common in northern Georgia.

Myotis grisescens (gray bat). The gray bat is a monotypic species. Although the largest known colonies of gray bats are located in the karst regions of Tennessee and Alabama, the range of this species includes northern Missouri, Arkansas, and Kentucky, and Georgia.

Gray bats typically use caves or cave-like environs as hibernacula [14, 82] (Table II). Clawson [83] noted that gray bats may be more restricted to cave habitats than any other mammal in the United States. Winter roosts of gray bats in Georgia were found in caves and in the tunnel under Sanford Stadium at the University of Georgia [4]. Large groups of gray bats do not roost in Georgia during the winter.

Although a cluster of gray bats was located in a barn in Missouri [84], caves are the typical summer roosts [14]. Gray bats use Frick's and Lowery's Cave as summer roosts in Georgia [64, 85].

Seven gray bats are known from Georgia. Although the range of the gray bat in Georgia is restricted to the limestone karst topography of the Cumberland Plateau and Ridge and Valley, individuals are documented in the Piedmont during autumn (Figure 9). The gray bat is rare in Georgia.

Corynorhinus rafinesquii (Rafinesque's big-eared bat). Both subspecies of Rafinesque's big-eared bat (C. r. rafinesquii and C. r. macrotis) occur in Georgia [86]. Corynorhinus r. macrotis is restricted to extreme northern Georgia [87]. The range of Rafinesque's big-eared bat extends throughout the southeastern United States from southern Virginia, south along the Atlantic Coast into Florida, and west into Oklahoma and east Texas [86].

Throughout their range, winter roosts of Rafinesque's big-eared bats have been located in caves and mines [14, 88] (Table II). Rafinesque's big-eared bats roost in both environs in Georgia [4, 71].

Summer roosts occur in abandoned buildings, caves, mines, hollow trees, and under bark [4, 14, 52, 58, 86, 89, 90] (Table II). Summer roosts of this species in Georgia were located in buildings and below leaf litter [5]. Baker [4] discovered two individuals roosting in a mine in Fannin Co., Georgia in April.

Twenty-six Rafinesque's big-eared bats are known from Georgia. Although this species was documented only from the northern and southern portions of the state, Rafinesque's big-eared bat may occur throughout Georgia (Figure 10). The lack of records from the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain of Georgia might be due to the lack of survey effort in these physiographic regions. Although Rafinesque's big-eared bat may be more common in the Coastal Plain than in other regions of the state, this species appears to be uncommon throughout Georgia.

Lasionycteris noctavigans (silver-haired bat). The silver-haired bat is the only member of the genus Lasionycteris. The species is monotypic [91]. The silver-haired bat occurs throughout Canada and most of the United States. It reaches the southern limit of its range in the Southeast near the fall line of Georgia [91].

Winter roosts of the silver-haired bat are in mines [4, 88, 92], caves [78, 93], rock crevices [94], buildings [94, 95], in tree hollows, and under loose bark [96, 97] (Table II). Winter roosts of the silver-haired bat in Georgia were found in a cave, railroad tunnel [4], and under the bark of a pine tree. We collected silver-haired bats roosting in houses in the Blue Ridge of Georgia.

Summer roosts are located in tree cavities, under bark [98-101], and in rock crevices (Saugey, personal communication). No summer roosts of the silver-haired bat were located in Georgia.

Silver-haired bats are migratory and generally do not occur in Georgia during the summer [91, 102]. Uncommon in Georgia, twenty-seven silver-haired bats are known from the state. The silver-haired bat is limited to the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Plateau physiographic provinces (Figure 11).

Lasiurus borealis (eastern red bat). The eastern red bat is a monotypic species [103]. The range of the eastern red bat extends throughout the eastern United States.

The winter roosts of eastern red bats are poorly documented. Saugey et al. [104] reported eastern red bats roosting in leaf litter in Arkansas during the winter. No winter roosts of the eastern red bat are known from Georgia.

Although red bats sometimes roost in woodpecker holes [105], the summer roosts of eastern red bats most commonly are located on small branches or in clusters of leaves in the crowns of deciduous trees [14, 106, 107] (Table II). Constantine [108] found eastern red bats roosting in Spanish moss in Georgia.

A total of 182 individuals were collected in Georgia. The eastern red bat is common from the coastal islands and Okefenokee Swamp north to the Blue Ridge mountains and Cumberland Plateau (5, 109, Menzel, unpublished records, Figure 12).

Lasiurus seminolus (Seminole bat). The Seminole bat is monotypic [110]. Seminole bats are common in the Deep South. Although a few wandering individuals have been reported in New York [111] and Pennsylvania [112], the species' range is from southeastern Virginia, south to Florida, and west into eastern Texas [110].

Winter roosts of Seminole bats commonly are located in Spanish moss [32] (Table II). All Seminole bat winter roosts in Georgia have been located in Spanish moss hanging from live oaks (Quercus virginiana) in oak hammon communities (108, Menzel unpublished records). During the summer, Seminole bats hang from small branches in the canopies of pines [34, 106].

A total of 163 individuals are known from Georgia. This distribution extends from the coastal prairies and marshes along the Gulf Coast in the West through the eastern deciduous forest to subtropical cypress swamps and hammocks in Florida and Georgia (Figure 13). The Seminole bat is common in the Upper and Lower Coastal Plain but is less abundant in the Piedmont.

Lasiurus intermedius (northern yellow bat). Of the three subspecies of northern yellow bats currently recognized, only L. i. floridanus occurs in Georgia [113]. Although one northern yellow bat was collected in New Jersey [114], the species is restricted to coastal areas of the southeastern United States and Central America [113].

Little is known concerning the winter roosting habits of northern yellow bats. Winter roosts of this species usually are in Spanish moss in other regions of the Southeast and in Georgia [32, 108] (Table II).

Summer roosts are in palm grooves [21], on hardwood stems [115], in pineoak woodlands [116-119], and in Spanish moss [32]. All reported summer roosts of northern yellow bats in Georgia were located in Spanish moss [34].

Twenty-six individuals are known from Georgia. The northern yellow bat occurs throughout Georgia below the fall line, but is most abundant in the Lower Coastal Plain (Figure 14). The status of the northern yellow bat in Georgia is unknown.

Lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat). One of the three subspecies of the hoary bat, L. c. cinereus, occurs in Georgia [120]. The range of the hoary bat extends from northern Canada near the tree line, south through Central America. Interestingly, the hoary bat is the only non-marine native mammal in the Hawaiian Islands. The southern limit of the hoary bat extends through Argentina and Chile [120].

Little is known concerning the winter roosting habits of hoary bats (Table II) and no winter roasts of this species are recorded in Georgia. Most summer roosts of the hoary bat are located in the tree foliage [121]; roosts also are known from a woodpecker hole and a squirrel's nest [122, 123] (Table II). No summer roasts of the hoary bat are recorded in Georgia.

Twenty-two individuals are recorded from Georgia. The species occurs throughout the state (Figure 15). The status of the hoary bat in Georgia is unknown.

Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat). Two of the 11 subspecies of the big brown bat occur in Georgia: Eptesicus fuscus fuscus and E. f. osceolae [124]. The range of the big brown bat extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific Coast and from Canada south through Central America into Brazil [124]. A common bat, it is found throughout the Continental United States and is most abundant in the Deciduous Forest Biame [125].

The big brawn bat is among the mast thoroughly studied bats in North America. Hibernacula are found in mines, caves, rock crevices, storm sewers, and buildings [14, 45, 93, 126-129] (Table II). Winter roosts of big brown bats in Georgia are in caves and mines [4, 25, 71].

Maternity roosts may be situated in hollow oak (Quercus sp.), bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), and American beech (Fagus grandifolia) trees, but most commonly are located in structures such as barns or houses (14, 130-133, Menzel, unpublished records). Harper [5] located a maternity roost of big brown bats in the Okefenokee Swamp of Georgia under the loose bark of a pine snag. In the Upper and Lower Coastal Plain of Georgia, maternity roosts containing mixed colonies of big brown and free-tailed bats are common in man-made structures (Ozier, personal communication).

One hundred thirty-eight big brown bats are known from Georgia. Within the state, its range extends from the cypress bays of the Okefenokee Swamp [5] to the Blue Ridge Mountains (4, Figure 16, Appendix A). The big brown bat is common in Georgia

Family Molossidae

There are 16 genera and 86 species in the family Molossidae (13). Members of this family are found in southern Europe, Asia, Africa, Malaysia, and from the northern half of South America north into the United States. Some species in this family are highly colonial in habit, forming the largest aggregations of mammals known. Two genera and six species of molossids occur in the United States. One species occurs in Georgia.

Tadaria brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat). The Brazilian free-tailed bat, also call the Mexican free-tailed bat, is the smallest member of its genus in the United States. Of the nine subspecies of the Brazilian free-tailed bat currently recognized, only T. b. cynocephala occurs in Georgia [134]. The Brazilian free-tailed bat has an extensive range in the Americas [134]. Georgia lies on the northeastern edge of its range. From Georgia and North Carolina, the distribution extends west to southern Oregon and south to the Patagonian region of Chile and Argentina [134].

Most Brazilian free-tailed bats from the southwestern United States migrate to Mexico during the winter. Winter roosts of Brazilian free-tailed bats in the southeastern United States are located in hollow trees and man-made structures [58]. No winter roosts of Brazilian free-tailed bats are recorded in Georgia.

Summer roosting habits of Brazilian free-tailed bats differ across the United States. Roosts may be located in buildings, hollow trees, and the expansion joints of bridges [14, 58, 135]. Brazilian free-tailed bats are gregarious and almost always roost in colonies [14]. Although summer colonies in the Southwest may contain [greater than]1,000,000 individuals, colonies in the Southeast contain [less than]50,000 individuals. In Georgia, summer roosts of Brazilian free-tailed bats are located in buildings and under bridges (10, Menzel, unpublished collection records). We have found Brazilian free-tailed bats co-inhabiting maternity roosts with big brown bats in the Piedmont of Georgia.

Sixty-six individuals are recorded from Georgia. The Brazilian free-tailed bat is common in both the Upper and Lower Coastal Plain of Georgia and is rare in the Piedmont (Figure 17).

CONCLUSIONS

This synthesis of the distribution and roosting ecology of bats in Georgia permits more accurate assessment of the effects of changes in land use patterns throughout the state on each species. Since intensive bat surveys have never been conducted in many regions of Georgia, the composition of bat communities throughout the state is poorly understood. Even fewer studies have investigated the roosting habits of bats in Georgia. No winter roosts of four species, and for four other species, no summer roosts are reported from Georgia. For one species, the hoary bat, no roosts have been located within the state during anytime of the year despite its presence in the state. Additional information concerning the roosting habits of many species of bats in Georgia is needed. Our synthesis provides a baseline of information useful for assessing the impact of current and future land management decisions on bats in each physiographic province in the state and for directing future studies concerning the distribution and ro osting ecology of the bats of Georgia.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This project was funded by the Daniel B. Warnell School of Forest Resources and Museum of Natural History, University of Georgia. We thank F.B. Golley for providing access to his personal records and information that he used during the writing of the Mammals of Georgia. The collection locations from all public museums were plotted by D.M. Krishon. Many helpful editorial comments concerning earlier drafts of this manuscript were provided by J.W. Edwards.

(1.) Wildlife and Fisheries, Division of Forestry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6125

(2.) D.B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602

(3.) USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, Box 404, Parsons, WV 26287

(4.) Museum of Natural History, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602

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Distribution of the sixteen species of bats that occur in Georgia according to the six physiographic provinces (X = typical range, I = isolated reports, P = probable occurrence).

Typical roosting habitats of the sixteen species of bats that occur in Georgia. Winter roosts (W) and summer roosts (S) are noted.

Appendix B. A list of specimens reported from the collections records of public museums. See Appendix A for museum acronyms.

Pipistrellus subflavus - Total of 220 as follows: Bartow Co: Kingston, Saltpeter Gave, 5 (UGAMNH); Ladds Lime Cave, 1 (UGAMNH); 9 mi E Rome, 1 (UGAMNH). Camden Co: Cumberland Island, 5 (UGAMNH). Catoosa Co: Ringgold, Chapman's Cave, 1 (UGAMNH). Charlton Co: Johnson Road Cementary, 1 (UGAMNH); Okefenokee Swamp, Chesser's Island, 1 (UGAMNH); 1 (UF); Okefenokee Swamp, Floyd's Island, 5 (UGAMNH); bridge over Cornhouse Creek on GA 23, 3 (UGAMNH); Okefenokee Swamp, 10 (CU); Okefenokee Swamp, Billy's Island, 1 (UF); 1 (USNM); Okefenokee, Minne Lake Narrows, 1 (USNM). Chatham Co: Savannah, Quarantine Station, 1 (USNM). Chattahoochee Co: locality unspecified, 1 (UGAMNH). Chattooga Co: Subligna, Dry Creek Cave, 2 (UGAMNH); Subligna-Parkers Cave, 1 (UGAMNH). Clarke Co: Athens, 4 (UGAMNH). Clinch Co: 4.5 mi SSE Argyle, 1 (UGAMNH). Dade Co: Trenton, Case Cave, 8 (UGAMNH); Trenton, 1 (UGAMNH); Trenton, Daniel's Cave, 1 (UGAMNH); Trenton, Howard Waterfall Cave, 2 (UGAMNH); Bone Cave, 1 (UGAMNH); Rising Fawn, Beyer's Cave, 3 (UGAMNH); Trenton, Suttons Cave, 8 (UGAMNH); Cave 4 mi W Trenton, 1 (FMNH); 13 (CHAS); 1 (LACM). Decatur Co: Bainbridge, Powell Hill Cave, 2 (UGAMNH); 9 ml SW Bainbridge, 3 (UMMZ). Dougherty Co: 12 mi W Albany, 1 (UGAMNH). Douglass Co: Lithia Springs, 3 (UMMZ). Emmanuel Co: 1 mi west Midville, 1 (KU); Ogeechee River, 1 (KU). Fannin Co: Dial, old gold mine, 1 (UGAMNH). Floyd Co: Cave Springs, 2 (UGAMNH). Fulton Co: downtown Atlanta, 1 (UGAMNH); Roswell, 4 (MCZ); Fort McPherson, 1 (USNM). Grady Co: Waterfall Cave, 5 (UGAMNH); Cairo, Waterfall Cave, 2 (UGAMNH); 2 (UF); 23 (UIMNH); 2 (JMM); 1 (LACM); 1 (USNM); locality unspecified, 6 (UF); Beachton, Birdsong Plantation, 1 (UIMNH); 1 (USNM). Green Co: Oconee National Forest, 2 (UGAMNH). Liberty Co: N Lecont Plantation, 1 mi W Riceboro, 1 (UIMNH); N Lecont Plant, 3 mi SW Riceboro, 1 (UIMNH). Long Co: 5 mi west Ludowici, 1 (UGAMNH). Lumpkin Co: Grier's Cave, 1 (UGAMNH); Dahlonega, Lockhart Mine, 1 UGAMNH); 8 mi E Dahlonega, Tennessee Copper Mine, 1 (UGAMNH); Aurar ia, 3 (UGAMNH); Dahlonega, Calhoun Mine, 1 (UGAMNH); Dahlonega, Gold Nugget Mine, 2 (UGAMNH); Dahlonega, Turkey Mine, 1 (UGAMNH); Dahlonega, Finley Mine, 1 (UGAMNH). Murray Co: Chatsworth, Talc Mine, 2 (UGAMNH). Muscogee Co: Columbus, 2 (LACM). Pickens Co: Long Swamp Creek Cave, 1200 ft., 2 (UGAMNH); Jasper, mineshaft, 1 (UGAMNH). Polk Co: Rockmart, White River Cave, 12 (UGAMNH); Taylorsville, Deaton's Cave, 1 (UGAMNH). Rabun Co: 1 mi upstream from Tugalo Lake on Chattooga River, 1 (UGAMNH). Stephens Co: Toccoa, 1 (USNM). Thomas Co: Thomasville, Ocholocknee River, 1 (CHAS). Towns Co: Young Harris, bat caves, 1 (UGAMNH); Young Harris 4, (UGAMNH). Union Co: Toccoa Experimental Station, 4 (UGAMNH); Blairsville, Owltown Gap, Coosa Gold Mine, 1 (UGAMNH). Walker Co: Lafayette, Ellison's Cave, 1 (UGAMNH); Lafayette, Pettijohn Cave, 4 (UGAMNH); Anderson Spring Cave, 2 (UGAMNH); Durham, Lookout Mt., 1 (USNM). Ware Co: Suwannee Creek on Perimeter Rd, 2 (UGAMNH); intersection of rds CCA28 & CCA9, 3 (UGAMNH). Washington Co: Sandersville, 4 (UGAMNH). White Co: Helen, old gold mine, 1 (UGAMNH). Whitfield Co: Dalton, Ketchums Cave, 1 (UGAMNH). Locality unspecified, 1 (UF). Locality unspecified, 1 (USNM).

Nycticeius humeralis - Total 180 as follows: Appling Co: locality unspecified, 1 (UGAMNH). Banks Co: 4 mi N Homer, 20 (UGAMNH); 4 mi N Homer, 1 (KU). Ben Hill Co: Fitzgerald, 5 (UGAMNH). Charlton Co: Int. of Johnson Cemetery Rd & GA 23, 1 (UGAMNH); Floyd's Island, 1 (UGAMNH); 1 (USNM); locality unspecified, 30 (CU); Okefenokee Swamp, Coffee Bay, 1 (ANSP); Okefenokee Swamp, Billy's Island, 3 (UF); Okefenokee Swamp, Billy's Island, 1 (USNM); 1 (KU); Okefenokee Swamp, Chesser's Island, 1 (UF); 2 (KU). Clarke Co: Athens, 13 (UGAMNH); Athens, UGA campus, 5 (UGAMNH); Athens, Prince Ave. Baptist Church, 2 (UGAMNH). Clayton Co: Jonesboro, 10 (UGAMNH). Cobb Co: Marietta, 2 (UMMZ). Cook Co: locality unspecified, 3 (UF). DeKalb Co: Decatur, 1 (AMNH); Emory University, 1 (USNM). Dougherty Co: 12 mi W Albany, 1 (UGAMNH). Emanual Co: 1 mi W Midville, 8 (KU). Floyd Co: 2.8 mi E Rome on Hwy 411, 1 (UGAMNH); 1.5 mi W Rome on Hwy 20, 1 (UGAMNH). Fulton Co: Atlanta, Equitable Bldg. downtown, 1 (UGAMNH); Roswell, 1 (DMNH); 1 (V PIMM); 1 (LACM); 2 (KU). Grady Co: locality unspecified, 1 (UF); Beachton, Birdsong Plantation, 1 (FMNH); 1 (UIMNH); 5 (CHAS). Hall Co: Clermont, 16 (UGAMNH). Liberty Co: Riceboro, 2 (USNM). Lincoln Co: Lincolnton, 1 (UGAMNH). Madison Co: Hwy 98, 3 mi west of Jackson, 1 (UGAMNH). McIntosh Co: Sapelo Island, 3 (UGAMNH). Miller Co: Colquitt, 3 (UGAMNH). Mitchell Co: Sales City, 1 (LACM). Polk Co: Taylorsville, Deaton's Cave, 1 (UGAMNH). Putnam Co: Eatonton, 3 (UGAMNH). Stephens Co: Toccoa, 3 (USNM). Thomas Co: locality unspecified, 6 (UF); Thomasville, 1 (USNM). Tift Co: Tifton, 1 (USNM); 1 (MVZ). Union Co: Toccoa Experimental Station, 1 (UGAMNH). Ware Co: Suwannee Creek on Perimeter d., 3 (UGAMNH); 9 mi SE Waycross, 1 (KU). Locality unspecified, 1 (USNM).

Myotis leibii - Total 4 as follows: Dade Co: Trenton, Howard Waterfall Cave, 1 (UGAMNH). Union Co: Toccoa Experimental Station, 2 (UGAMNH); 1 (USNM).

Myotis austroriparius - Total 114 as follows: Charlton Co: Floyd's Island, 2 (UGAMNH); Okefenokee Refuge, 1 (USNM). Clark Co: Athens, 1 (UGAMNH). Glynn Co: Brunswick, 1 (UGAMNH). Grady Co: Beachton, 1 (FMNH). McIntosh Co: Sapelo Island, 4 (UGAMNH); Darien, 23 (UGAMNH). Miller Co: Colquitt, 2 (UGAMNH). Thomas Co: Thomasville, 28 (UIMNH); 10 (CM); 29 (MVZ); 1 (CMNH). Washington Co: locality unspecified, 5 (UGAMNH); Sandersville, 3 (UGAMNH); Glennville, 2 (UGAMNH). Lowndes Co: Valdosta 1 (VAL).

Myotis sodalis - Total 15 as follows: Dade Co: Trenton, Case Cave, 1 (UGAMNH); Trenton, Suttons Cave, 7 (UGAMNH); Trenton, cave 4 mi West of Trenton, 7 (UGAMNH).

Myotis lucifugus - Total 12 as follows: Bartow Co: Kingston, Saltpeter Cave, 2 (UGAMNH). Dade Co: Trenton, Case Cave, 1 (UGAMNH); Rising Fawn, Beyer's Cave, 1 (UGAMNH); Trenton, Suttons Cave, 2 (UGAMNH). Polk Co: Taylorsville, Deaton's Cave, 1 (UGAMNH). Towns Co: Young Harris, Ivy Log Cave, 2 (USNM). Walker Co: 5 mi W Lafayette, Ellison's Cave, 1 (UGAMNH). Locality unspecified, 1 (MCZ); 1 (USNM).

Myotis septentrionalis - Total 21 as follows: Bartow Co: Kingston, Saltpeter Cave, 2 (UGAMNH). Dade Co: Rising Fawn, Beyer's Cave, 3 (UGAMNH); Sitton's Cave, 2 (UGAMNH); Cloudland, 1 mi from Alabama line, 1 (AMNH). Fannin Co: Blue Ridge Game Management Area, 1 (UGAMNH); Dial, old gold mine, 1 (UGAMNH). Harris Co: Standing Bay Creek camp, 2 (UGAMNH). Lumpkin Co: Dahlonega, Mary Henry Mine, 1 (UGAMNH). Pickens Co: Long Swamp Creek Cave, 1200 ft., 1 (UGAMNH). Polk Co: Rockmart, White River Cave, 2 (UGAMNH); Taylorsville, Deaton's Cave, 3 (UGAMNH). Towns Co: Young Harris, Ivy Log Cave, 1 (USNM). Union Co: Toccoa Experimental Station, 2250 ft., 1 (UGAMNH).

Myotis grisescens - Total 7 as follows: Clarke Co: UGA campus, 3 (UGAMNH). Polk Co: Taylorsville, Deaton's Cave, 2 (UGAMNH); Rockmart, White River Cave, 1 (UGAMNH); Taylorsville, 1 (UGAMNH).

Corynorhinus rafinesquii - Total 26 as follows: Charlton Co: Okefenokee Swamp, Floyd's Island, 6 (UGAMNH). Clinch Co: Fargo, in old building, 5 (UGAMNH). Fannin Co: Dial, 2 (UGAMNH). Grady Co: locality unspecified, 1 (UF); Beachton, 1 (UIMNH). McIntosh Co: Butler Island, 1 (UGAMNH). Rabun Co: Bascom's Cave, 3 (UGAMNH). Towns Co: Young Harris, 2 (USNM). Union Co: Toccoa Experiment Station, 5 (UGAMNH).

Lasionycteris noctivagans - Total 27 as follows: Bartow Co: Caseville, 1 (UGAMNH)); Kingston, Saltpeter Cave, 3 (UGAMNH). Clarke Co: Athens, 5 (UGAMNH). Dade Co: Trenton, Sittons Cave, 1 (UGAMNH). Dawson Co: Dawsonville, 1 (UGAMNH). Fulton Co: Roswell, 1 (DMNH); Roswell, 1 (KU); locality unspecified, 1 (VPIMM); Roswell, 6 (LACM). Grady Co: locality unspecified, 1 (UF). Jones Co: Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, 1 (UGAMNH). Lumpkin Co: Dahlonega, 1 (UGAMNH). Morgan Co: Rutledge, 1 (UGAMNH). Putnam Co: Rock Eagle Lake, 1 (UGAMNH). Stephens Co: Toccoa, 1 (USNM). Towns Co: Young Harris, 1 (USNM).

Lasiurus boraelis - Total 182 as follows: Baker Co: 10 mi SW Newton, 3 (UIMNH). Ben Hill Co: Fitzgerald, 10 (UGAMNH). Berrien Co: Nashville, 1 (USNM). Bibb Co: 10 mi NE Macon, 1 (CM). Camden Co: Greenbriar Creek, 3 (UGAMNH); St. Mary's, 1 (DMNH); 1 (VPIMM); 1 (USNM); Cumberland Island, 1 (DMNH). Charlton Co: Johnson Cementary Rd., 1 (UGAMNH); Okefenokee Swamp, Floyd's Island, 1 (UGAMNH); 1 (ANSP); Okefenokee Swamp, 6 (CU). Chatham Co: Savannah, 1 (USNM); West Northfield, 1 (USNM). Clarke Co: Athens, 24 (UGAMNH). Cobb Co: Marietta, 2 (UMMZ); 1 mi N Powder Springs, 1 (UF). Dade Co: Rising Fawn, Beyer's Cave, 1 (UGAMNH). Decatur Co: 4 mi E/NE Hutchinson's Ferry, 2 (UF). DeKalb Co: 3030 Clairmont Rd., 1 (UGAMNH). Dougherty Co: 12 mi W Albany, 2 (UIMNH). Effingham Co: 3 mi W Clayton, 1 (KU). Floyd Co: Rove, 4 (UGAMNH). Fulton Co: 6470 Long Island Dr., 1 (UGAMNH); Roswell, 1 (AMNH); 2 (DMNH); 6 (MCZ); 1 (VPIMM); 5 (UMMZ); 3 (UCLA); 6 (LACM); 1 (KU); Ft. McPherson, 3 (USNM); Atlanta, 1 (USNM). Gordon Co: locality u nspecified, 1 (UGAMNH); Oakman, Oakmans Cave, 1 (UGAMNH). Grady Co: locality unspecified, 19 (UF); Birdsong Plantation, 7 (UIMNH); Sherwood Plantation, 5 (CHAS); 5 (USNM); Beachton, 2 (USNM). Hall Co: locality unspecified, 1 (UGAMNH). Hancock Co: Hamburg State Park Dr., 2 (UGAMNH); Hwy 15, 10 mi S Sparta, 1 (UGAMNH). Jackson Co: locality unspecified, 1 (UGAMNH). Jones Co: Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, 5- Points Lake, 1 (UGAMNH). Liberty Co: 3 mi SW LeGonte Plantation, 5 (UF); locality unspecified, 1 (USNM). Lumpkin Co: Camp Wahsega, 1 (UGAMNH). Murray Co: Chatsworth, 1 (USNM). Oconee Co: Watkinsville, 1 (UGAMNH); Hwy 441, 1 (UGAMNH). Polk Co: Taylorsville, Deaton's Cave, 4 (UGAMNH). Sumter Co: locality unspecified, 1 (UF). Towns Co: Beech Creek, 4 (UGAMNH); Young Harris, 1 (USNM). Union Co: Toccoa Experimental Station, 5 (UGAMNH). Walker Co: Mount Carmel, 1 (USNM). Ware Co: Swamp Perimeter Rd., 0.2 mi W Suwannee Creek, 3 (UGAMNH); locality unspecified, 2 (UF). Wayne Co: Altamaha River, 1 (UGAMNH). White Co: 4 mi N Cleveland on Hwy 75, 1 (UGAMNH). Lowndes Co: Valdosta, 1 (VAL). Locality unspecified, 1 (AMNH).

Lasiurus seminolus -- Total 163 as follows: Baker Co: Emory Field Station, 2 (UGAMNH). Ben Hill Co: Fitzgerald, 4 (UGAMNH). Bulloch Co: States-boro, 3 (KU). Camden Co: Cumberland Island, 1 (UGAMNH); 1 (CHM); 1 (MCZ); St. Mary's, 1 (AMNH); 3 (VPIMM): 1 (MVZ). Charlton Co: Johnson Cementary Rd., 2 (UGAMNH); Chesser Island Rd., 0.5 mi E Snowden Rd., 4 (UGAMNH); Okefenokee Swamp, Floyd's Island, 2 (UGAMNH); 1 (CHAS); 2 (USNM); Suwannee Canal Recreation Area, DOR, 1 (UGAMNH); 3.2 mi S Camp Cornelia on Trail Ridge Rd., 1 (UGAMNH); Cornhouse Creek at GA 23 bridge, 9 (UGAMNH); Camp Cornelia, 4 (UGAMNH); Okefenokee Swamp, 5 (ANSP); 9 (CU); 1 (UMMZ); Okefenokee Swamp, Billy's Lake, 2 (USNM); Okefenokee Swamp, Jones Island, 1 (USNM); Okefenokee Swamp, Billy's Island, 1 (KU); Okefenokee Swamp, Chesser's Island, 1 (KU); 1 (UF). Chatham Co: locality unspecified, 2 (USNM); Savannah, Whitehall Plantation, 1 (USNM). Clarke Co: Athens, 1 (UGAMNH). Clinch Co: 4.5 mi SSF Argyle, 4 (UGAMNH). Dougherty Co: 12 mi W Albany, 1 (UIMN H); Albany, 1 (JMM). Effingham Co: 3 mi W Clayton, 4 (KU). Fulton Co: Atlanta, 1 (UGAMNH); locality unspecified, 1 (UF). Grady Co: locality unspecified, 8 (UF); Beachton, 2 (FMNH); Birdsong Plantation, 4 (UIMNH); Sherwood Plantation, 2 (UIMNH); 7 (CHAS); 2 (USNM); locality unspecified, 1 (USNM). Jones Co: Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, Five-Points Lake, 1 (UGAMNH). Liberty Co: Riceboro, 8 (USNM). Long Co: 5 mi W Ludowici, 1 (UGAMNH). McIntosh Co: Sapelo Island, 6 (UGAMNH). Muscogee Co: Ft. Benning, Buena Vista Rd, 1 (UGAMNH). Peach Co: locality unspecified, 1 (UGAMNH). Sumter Co: Americus, 5 (UGAMNH). Thomas Co: Burton's Farm, Hwy 84, 1 (UGAMNH); Thomasville, 3 (AMNH). Tift Co: locality unspecified, 1 (UF); Tifton, 1 (USNM). Ware Co: Okefenokee Swamp, Buzzard Roost Lake, 1 (KU); Suwannee Creek on Perimeter Rd, 10 (UGAMNH); locality unspecified, 1 (UF); 9 mi SE Waycross, 3 (KU); Grand Prairie, Buzzard Roost Lake, 1 (UF).

Lasiurus intermedius -- Total 25 as follows: Camden Co: Cumberland Island, Dungeness, 1 (UGAMNH). Charlton Co: Okefenokee Swamp, 2 (CU). Dougherty Co: 12 mi W Albany, Tallahassee Plantation, 1 (UGAMNH). Effingham Co: 3 mi W Clayton, 1 (KU). Grady Co: Beachton, 2 (UGAMNH); Beachton, Birdsong Plantation, 10 (FMNH); 6 (USNM). McIntosh Co: locality unspecified, 1 (UGAMNH). Ware Co: Suwannee Creek, 1 (UGAMNH). Lowndes Go: Valdosta, 1 (VAL).

Lasiurus cinerius - Total 22 as follows: Bulloch Co: Statesboro, 1 (KU). Charlton Co: Okefenokee Swamp, Chesser's Island, 1 (ANSP); Okefenokee Swamp, 1 (UMMZ). Cherokee Co: 10 mi N Walesca, Pine Log Mtn, 1 (UGAMNH). Clarke Co: Athens, 3 (UGAMNH). DeKalb Co: NE Atlanta, Artwood Rd, 1 (UGAMNH). Fulton Co: Chattahoochee River at Hwy 400, 1 (UGAMNH); Roswell, 1 (VPIMM). Glynn Co: Sterling, 2 (USNM); 1 (MCZ). Grady Co: Beachton, 2 (FMNH); Birdsong Plantation, 1 (UIMNH); Sherwood Plantation, 2 (USNM). Beachton, Birdsong Plantation, 1 (USNM). Montgomery Co: locality unspecified, 1 (MCZ). Sumter Co: Americus, 1 (FMNH). Locality unspecified, 1 (USNM).

Eptesicus fuscus - Total 138 as follows: Barrow Co: Winter, 1 (UGAMNH). Camden Co: Cumberland Island, Dungeness, 3 (UGAMNH). Charlton Co: Okefenokee Swamp, Camp Cornelia, 2 (UGAMNH); Johnson Cementary Rd, 1 (UGAMNH); Okefenokee Swamp, Floyd's Island, 1 (UGAMNH); locality unspecified, 1 (ANSP); Okefenokee Swamp, 4 (CU). Clarke Co: Athens, 42 (UGAMNH); 2 (FMNH). Decatur Co: Climax, 2 (UGAMNH); Bainbridge, 4 (FMNH). DeKalb Co: Scottdale, 1 (UGAMNH). Fannin Co: Morganton, 2 (UGAMNH). Glynn Co: Sterling, 1 (USNM). Grady Co: Sherwood Plantation, 2 (USNM). Jones Co: Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, 4 (UGAMNH). Liberty Co: Riceboro, LeConte Plantation, 1 (USNM). Lumpkin Co: Camp Wahsega, in cabin, 15 mi NW Dahlonega, 3 (UGAMNH). McIntosh Co: Sapelo Island, 4 (UGAMNH). Murray Co: Chatsworth, 3 (UGAMNH). Oconee Co: Watkinsville, 18 (UGAMNH). Pickens Co: Long Swamp Creek Cave, 1 (UGAMNH). Polk Co: Taylorsville, Deaton's Cave, 3 (UGAMNH). Rabun Co: Clayton, 11 (UGAMNH). Taylor Co: Patsiliga Creek, 2 (UGAMNH). Thomas C o: locality unspecified, 1 (UF); Thomasville, 5 (CHAS); Thomasville, 3 (CMNH). Towns Co: Beech Creek at Tallulah River, 1 (UGAMNH); Young Harris, 4 (USNM). Union Co: Toccoa Experimental Station, 1 (UGAMNH). Ware Co: Okefenokee Refuge, 4 (USNM). Locality unspecified, 1 (MCZ).

Tadarida brasiliensis - Total 66 as follows: Baldwin Co: Milledgeville, 2 (UGAMNH). Ben Hill Co: Fitzgerald, 1 (UGAMNH). Charlton Co: Okefenokee Swamp, Chesser's Island, 1 (ANSP); Okefenokee Swamp, Camp Cornelia, 7 (USNM). Chatham Co: Savannah, Hutchinson Island, 2 (UGAMNH); Savannah, 1 (JMM); 2 (USNM); 1 (JMM). Clarke Co: Athens, UGA Campus, 1 (UGAMNH). Decatur Co: Climax, 1 (UGAMNH); Bainbridge, 2 (FMNH). Grady Co: Beachton, 1 (FMNH). Liberty Co: Midway, 1 (AMNH); Riceboro, Near LeConte Plantation, 1 (USNM). McIntosh Co: Butler Island, 1 (UGAMNH). Miller Co: Colquitt, 4 (UGAMNH). Tattnall Co: Glennville, 3 (UGAMNH). Telfair Co: McRae, 4 (UGAMNH); 2 (JMM); 3 (KU). Thomas Co: locality unspecified, 1 (UF); Thomasville, 13 (UIMNH); 2 (MVZ). Washington Co: Sandersville, 1 (UGAMNH). Ware Co: Waycross, 1 (USNM). Wilcox Co: Abbeville. 1 (UGAMNH). Locality unspecified, 1 (UF). Lowndes Co: Valdosta, 1 (VAL).
Physiographic Province [1]
                                                       Total
Species                    CP  RV  BR  P   UCP  LCP  Documented
Pipistrellus subflavus     X   X   X   X   X    X        6
Mycticeius humeralis       P   X   X   X   X    X        5
Myotis leibii              X   P   X                     2
M. austroriparius                      I   X    X        3
M. septentrionalis         X   X   X   I                 4
M. lucifugus               X   X   X   I                 4
M. sodalis                 X   P                         1
M. grisescens              X   X       I                 3
Lasionycteris noctivagans  X   X   X   X   I    I        6
Corynorhinus rafinesquii   P   P   X   P   P    X        2
Tadarida brasiliensis                  I   X    X        3
Eptesicus fuscus           P   X   X   X   X    X        5
Lasiurus borealis          X   X   X   X   X    X        6
L. seminolus                           I   X    X        3
L. intermedius                             X    X        2
L. cinereus                P   P   P   X   X    X        3
Total Documented           8   8   9   12  10   11
Prob. Common Distribution  12  12  10  7   10   10
                             Probable
                              Common
Species                    Distribution
Pipistrellus subflavus          6
Mycticeius humeralis            6
Myotis leibii                   3
M. austroriparius               2
M. septentrionalis              3
M. lucifugus                    3
M. sodalis                      2
M. grisescens                   2
Lasionycteris noctivagans       4
Corynorhinus rafinesquii        6
Tadarida brasiliensis           2
Eptesicus fuscus                6
Lasiurus borealis               6
L. seminolus                    2
L. intermedius                  2
L. cinereus                     6
Total Documented
Prob. Common Distribution
(1.)CP = Cumberland Plateau,
RV = Ridge and Valley,
BR = Blue Ridge, P = Piedmont,
UCP = Upper Coastal Plain,
LCP = Lower Coastal Plain.


Species                    Foliage  Bark/     Art.     Cave/    Rock
                                    Cavity  Structure  Mine   Crevices
Pipistrellus subflavus        S       S         S       WS
Nycticeius humeralis          S       S         S
Myotis leibii                                   S        W       S
M. austroriparius                     S         S       WS
M. septentrionalis                    S        WS        W
M. lucifugus                          S         S       WS
M. sodalis                            S                 WS
M. grisescens                                           WS
Lasionycteris noctivagans             WS        W        W       S
Corynorhinus rafinesquii              WS       WS       WS
Tadarida brasiliensis                 WS       WS       WS
Eptesicus fuscus                      WS       WS       WS
Lasiurus borealis            WS
L. seminolus                 WS
L. intermedius               WS
L. Cinereus                  WS
                    The acronym and title of museum
                  collections containing bay specimens
                             from Georgia.
Acronym   Collection
AMNH      American Museum of Natural History,
          New York, NY
ANSP      Philadelphia Academy of Natural
          Sciences, Philadelphia, PA
CHAS      Chicago Academy of Science
CHM       Charleston Museum Records
CM        Carnegie Museum of Natural History,
          Pittsburgh, PA
CMNH      Cleveland Museum of Natural History
CU        Cornell University
CUVC      Clemson University
DMNH      Delaware Museum of Natural History
FMNH      Field Museum of Natural History,
          Chicago, IL
JMM       Joseph Moore Museum, Earlham College
KU        University of Kansas, Museum of Natural
          History, Lawrence, KS
LACM      Natural History Museum
MCZ       Museum of Comparative Zoology
MVZ       Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University
          of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA
UCLA      University of California Museum of
          Natural History, Los Angeles, CA
UF        Florida Museum of Natural History
UGAMNH    University of Georgia, Museum of natural
          History, Athens, GA
UIMNH     University of Illinois, Museum of Natural
          History, Urbana, IL
UMMZ      Mammal Collections, Museum of Zoology,
          University of Michigan-Ann Arbor,
          Ann Arbor, MI
USNM/FWS  National Museum of Natural History,
          Vertebrate Zoology Department/U.S. Fish
          and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC
VAL       Valdosta State University
VPIMM     Virginia Tech Museum of Natural History
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