Relating OD interventions to the strategy of the firm.
Human resource management (Analysis)
Organizational change (Analysis)
Strategic planning (Business) (Analysis)
Pandey, Sharadindu
Sharma, R.R.K.
Pub Date:
Name: European Journal of Management Publisher: International Academy of Business and Economics Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Business, international Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2008 International Academy of Business and Economics ISSN: 1555-4015
Date: Spring, 2008 Source Volume: 8 Source Issue: 1
Product Code: 9918000 Business Personnel Management
Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States

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The purpose of this paper to explore the matching between generic strategy of the organization and suitable organization development interventions. The linkages between organizational strategy and its HR practices is still not sufficiently explored research area. The present paper captures the evidence to explore the link between typology of the organization and the suitable organizational intervention respectively. We used Miles and Snow typology for the generic strategy of the firm and took 'Defender' and 'Prospector' types. Out of number of interventions for Organization development, we selected a few interventions and gather the research evidence to support our propositions. We collected data from previous researches and case studies.

Keywords--Defender, Prospector, Intervention, Culture.


Researchers always find it interesting to know whether universal HR practices makes the organization effective or effectiveness is contingent upon the strategic orientation of the firm based on the matching HR practices (Arther, 1994; Becker and Gerhart, 1996; Simons, 1999). Fisher (1989) noted that HR professionals are overwhelmingly taking part in the corporate and strategic planning. That leads us to explore in to the area of linkage between the strategic orientation of the firm and the organizational development practices. This view is also supported by the authors like Purcell (1989), Miles and snow (1984) and Legge (1995). Youndt et al (1999) surveyed general and functional managers of the 160 manufacturing firms and found relevance for both universalistic and particular HR practices. The mix results found in their study uncover the possibility of the complex interactions of the variables in consideration. Tanova (2006) explores the relationship between HR policies and the Organizational strategies of the firm based on the Typology of the Miles and Snow (1978; 1987). He found relationships between organizational strategy and HRM approach and between HRM approach and HRM practices, a significant direct relationship was not found between organizational strategy and HRM practices. Simons (1999) emphasizes to focus upon further research to consider the interaction of HR function and organizational strategy in order to come to a more precise conclusion in the field. Increasingly, human resource departments are views as the logical repositories of the growing body of the knowledge and skills in the area of designing and changing organizational system, the central question facing the companies is how to reduce, if not eliminated the lag between the emergence of the new strategies and structures and their appropriate human resource management systems (Miles and Snow, 1984). In recent years OD has emerged as catalyst for enhancing productivity and profitability (Mozenter, 2002). Its tools seek to retain or increase high level of organizational efficiency and at the same time increase fun and involvement at works and dispel the irritants of mechanized organizational existence (Khandwala, 1996). The aim of the OD is enhancing congruence between organizational structure, processes, strategy, people and culture and developing the organizational self renewal capacity (Beer, 1980). A survey of 1700 HR professionals (Charles D.Spener and Associates, incorporated, 1997) shows that OD practitioners should focus more on understanding the strategic Business Model of the company and making sure organizational design, culture and compensation are in alignment.

The Miles and snow typology of the strategic orientation has aroused a great deal of interest and debate among researchers in recent years (Zahra, 1988). Miles and snow (1978) proposed that strategic group classification given by them as defender, prospector and analyzer, are equally effective assuming successful implementation of their strategies. According to Miles and Snow (1978), Defenders concentrate on stable market domain. The Defender's administrative problem--how to achieve strict control of the organization in order to ensure efficiency--is solved through the combination of the structural and the process mechanism that can be generally described as "mechanistic". Defenders characteristics include limited product line; single, capital intensive technology; a functional structure; and skills in production efficiency, process engineering a cost control (Miles and Snow, 1984). On the other sides, "Prospectors" are just opposite to the defenders in their strategic orientation. For them, maintaining a reputation as an introducer of new product and market is important and they regularly experiment for new ways in their response to the environment. Their organizational culture may be termed as "organic". They may find it difficult to attain profitability as Defender does and further they may be as efficient. Prospector's characteristics include a diverse product line, multiple technologies, a product of geographically divisionalized structure, and skills in product research and development, market research and development engineering (Miles and Snow, 1984).Prospectors have low level of specialization, formalization with high level of decentralization, compared with that, defenders are less dynamic and focus upon efficiency in their existing operations, Structurally Defenders are more mechanistic, formalistic, centralized and specialized (Miles and snow, 1978; Daft and weick, 1984; Doty , Glick and Huber,1993). In quintessence, Prospectors function in breadth and Defenders function in depth.


Burke (1994) considers culture as the hallmark of OD. He thinks organizational Development is a process of fundamental change in organizational culture. OD interventions that have power to change culture can there by change individual and organizational performance (French and Bell, 2oo6). Weick (1985) has argued that culture and strategy are partly overlapping constructs. Daimler Benz and Chrysler's merger resulted in the creation of one of the largest transnational companies in the world. It was the case of aligning two cultures--American and German. The influence of the culture affected each stage of the merging process. These differences manifested themselves in many ways including communication styles, decision-making processes and management philosophies. As the newly formed Daimler-Chrysler struggled to implement its merger strategy and create the new organization, the importance of developing culturally appropriate processes and policies that were inclusive of both cultures became increasingly apparent (Eggers and Johnson, 2004). The roles of innovativeness, market orientation, and organizational learning relative to entrepreneurial character may differ depending on organizational type (Hult et al, 2003). Organization may be entrepreneurial and conservative in character. Entrepreneurship is the most important act in challenging existing products and market relationships (Schumpeter, 1934). Some organizations need more entrepreneurial capabilities than others. Those organizations that desire to be highly entrepreneurial must develop an entrepreneurial culture that includes such factors as the ability to learn and to focus on markets. For all firms superior performance is most likely to result from a tight fit between certain cultural competitiveness factors and specific organizational types (Miles & Snow, 1984 and Miles & Snow, 1994).

Shortell et al. (1990) examined strategic adaptation processes in volatile environment. They collected data from eight leading hospital systems composed of 366 hospitals in 45 states. Findings showed that hospitals changed their strategies from 1985 to 1987 in response to changes in the environment. Their strategies were influenced most often by their prior strategies. Green et al. (1995) focused on 135 small to medium U.S. hospitals in a turbulent environment. Four strategic action orientations based on the 28 competitive methods were identified:

1. Strategic analyzers are externally focused. Their orientation is to emphasize on strategic awareness through offensive, proactive competition.

2. Quality providers are internally focused. This orientation is characterized by the phrase "quality through highly skilled employees" and total quality assessment.

3. Price negotiators are externally focused. These hospitals emphasize innovative pay practices, such as incentive-based programs, to lower labor costs and have "little regard for overall efficiency."

4. Cost-efficiency providers are internally focused. These hospitals focus on operational efficiencies but do not develop services or forecast future needs and, consequently, may lose sight of changing consumer needs.

Sashkin and Burke (1987) pointed out that OD is moving in new, exciting directions--structure, culture, and leadership. It is based on approaches and techniques that have been proven effective for solving organizational problems so that they stay solved and for making significant improvements in "organizational life" (Sashkin & Burke, 1987). In the early period, OD focused on "processes" which foster: self-awareness, network of information, interpersonal competence, person-to-person feedback, and consciousness about race and gender, group-initiated change-such as quality circles, building, problem solving, and conflict management (Friedlander, 1998). However, since 1990, OD focused on "structures" which foster: network of information, projects in organization, linkages with environment, programmatic feedback--e.g., 360 degree, institutionalized programs on diversity, and management-initiated change--such as team reengineering, downsizing, restructuring, and outsourcing (Friedlander, 1998). An OD oriented manager is highly aware of organizational diagnosis, processes and is helping people aware of organizational processes such as communication, interpersonal feedback, group problem solving, leadership styles, decision making and goal setting (Monday,1990).

There are four groups of interrelated issues that are possible targets for OD interventions (Cummings and Worley, 2001).

* Human Process (e.g., sensitivity training, team building and conflict resolution).

* Techno-structural (e.g., quality circles or total quality management, and work process design).

* Human Resource Management (e.g., job design, performance appraisal, reward systems and multicultural training).

* Strategic (e.g., strategic planning/management, future search conferences and corporate culture change).


2.1 Strategic management Interventions: developing culture

As Harrison (1992) puts, 'Culture is to an organization what personality is to an individual. Culture includes how rules, regulations and policies are formulated and implemented, how people relate to each other. What individual and group think as an organizational entity? Organizational culture can be diagnosed following different approaches. However, this part takes into account four types of organizational culture identified by Harrison (2002).These include:

a. Power Culture

Such culture is based on strength whereby the organization exhibits direction, decisiveness and determination. Leader acts like father figure. He carries him/her self well before followers and protect the interest of its loyal. His order may sounds commanding but that ensures the interest of the organization.

b. Role Culture

It is based on organizational structure. Performance of the individual is evaluated by the written description and so long as that is followed, employees are hassle free. People are rewarded for the loyal service to the organization. Role related ambiguities are reduced by clarity in the objectives and in procedures. Zone of the authority and responsibility is well defined that why there is less tussle for grabbing the power.

c. Achievement Culture

Achievement culture bases on competencies of the individuals which ensure the success and distinction in the organization. People pursue the sense of immediacy to accomplish are goals set by others or themselves. Rules and the procedures are never come in the way of performance. People feel comfortable for working long hours. They feel work challenging and tenable. Morale of the group is usually higher.

d. Support Culture

Support culture is based on relationships sustaining mutuality, service and unification. People support each another. People regard harmony. They provide proper space for the functioning of others. They acknowledge the contribution made by others. Sense of belongingness is quite apparent in these types of cultures. The above types of organizational culture have their own advantages and disadvantages. For instance, power and role culture mainly focus on formal authority, control and clarity of functional roles. As a result having a strong leader and clear task structure minimize conflict and confusion, which are the advantages of such organizations. On the other hand fear and anxiety, lack of promoting creativity and culture confined to rules and regulations limit employees to go beyond. These are the disadvantages. Therefore, what is important for managers is to diagnose their organizational culture, identify the strengths and weaknesses and make balance among these cultures or promote those, which are more relevant for their organization in relation to the demands of the internal and external environments. A Corporate culture grounded in socially approved values and ethical business principle is a vital ingredient in a company' long term strategic success ((Badaracco, 1995). Sensitive executive make sure that current decisions and policy changes will be construed by organizational members as consistent with cultural values and supportive of the company's new strategic direction (Olian and Rynes, 1991).Pratitioners of OD, for their most part concerned with enhancing the adaptive mechanism with in organizations (Smircich, 1983).

2.1.1 For defenders

A power and role culture is quite evident in the defender organization. If an organization drive is to become the low cost producer then actions subsequent to achieve the goal may be conservative expense pattern by the company, scrutinizing the budget request and distributing few perks to executive. Managerial actions to tighten the strategy--culture fit need to be both symbolic and substantive (Thompson et al, 2005). Symbolic actions are those signals which are sent by the leadership with in the organization. Executives frequently use the methods like symbols, role models, ceremonial occasions and group gatherings to establish the culture. The task awaiting individual managers to find ways to use stories, legends and other ways of symbolism in their unique situation to find their own ends (Peters, 1978.).At Alberto Culver, a company based at US was committed to change its culture at its North American division. Company executives identified its cultural goals and conducted an annual all employee 360 degree feedback to assess the exercise. A list of 10 cultural imperative was made formal that includes honesty, ownership, trust, customer orientation, commitment, fun, innovation, risk taking, speed, urgency and feedback. Extensive celebration and award building took place at company (Bernick, 2001). Alberto Culver, in its cultural change exercise adopted some substantive measures for cultural change. They tried to build zeal around and spread it to all corners of the division. Important thing about cultural change is management's will and commitment to bring the change and make it permanent. These efforts are chiefly led by chief executive essentially and supported by the senior staff of the company.

2.1.2 For prospectors

Achievement and support cultures seem fit for the prospector organizations. People are pushed for their individual performances. Their talents are recognized and rewarded. Individuals are encouraged to work in group as the strength of the group is far larger than the individual's excellence. They cooperate for the group performances and therefore develop the support culture in organization. An obsession with technology and competitive drive describes the Microsoft culture that contributed to tremendous company growth during its first 30 years in business. In 2002, as competition increased through movements that included open source programming and software, innovations in Internet search and services, and customer expectations for security, privacy and convenient file sharing of copy write materials increases, shareholders demanded an articulate roadmap for new market development that complemented and augmented the Windows and Office revenue bases. Moreover, the severe competitive landscape for technical talent, and an established market base contributed to the perception of Microsoft as a 'has been (Olesen et al, 2007).

The business strategy focuses on the value proposition of products and services that work well together, from enterprise platform to pocket devices as the user moves across a dynamic work and play lifestyle. Executing such a strategy demanded the culture shift its focus and place higher priority on skillful internal collaboration and a focus on customers and services. To execute this strategy, the company reorganized functional units of product group, operations group and sales group into business units organized around product portfolios with individual profit and loss statements. This reorganization increased the need for general management talent to run business units. Capitalizing on this shift, the company turned its focus toward building a broader range of leadership talent, and implemented a career model framework that also addressed the underlying culture change needed to execute the business strategy (Olesen et al, 2007).

HSBC sustained the Achievement culture in implementing the Talent management Practices. Two characteristics that are brand and 150 year old culture make HSBC unique in the financial services industry. These two are founded on its core values of Integrity, Collegiality and Diversity. Recognizing need to change in order to build business by leveraging emerging markets, new customer groups and technology. The new strategy focused on driving organic revenue growth especially in the Emerging Markets, and continued cost containment. Focus on emerging Markets creates a need for leaders who understand both local business context and global strategy. From an organizational development perspective, one way to achieve continuity around core values and create global alignment with business strategy is to fully leverage human capital within the organization (Gakovic and Yardley, 2007). To help accomplish this, HSBC implemented a global talent management process as one stream of a people strategy aimed at attracting, motivating, and retaining the very best (Gakovic and Yardley, 2007).

2.2 Organizational Learning

Learning necessitates a facility for discontinuous information processing on the part of both firms and individuals, the capability to deploy knowledge and demonstrable skills in novel ways and flexible combinations (Argyris & Schoen 1996).Rising competitive pressures have fueled interest in organizational learning as a major determinant of sustainable organizational performance, which suggests that to survive and thrive firms will need to learn at an increasingly rapid rate (Rousseau, 1997). Competition has been observed to promote organizational learning in single-unit firms, typically small, frequently entrepreneurial enterprises, while larger multiunit firms tend to manifest less learning in response to competition, instead levering their market position to obtain competitive advantage (Barnett et al 1994).

2.2.1 For Defenders

Organizational learning can occur within a firm when it involves diffusion of Knowledge between members and across units (e.g. Epple et al 1996). It suits the nature of the prospector type of organization. The major distinction is this type of organizational learning's requirement that members convey their learning to one another, develop shared understandings or common cognitive structures regarding application of shared knowledge, and otherwise externalize what they learn (Lyles & Schwenk 1992; Goodman & Darr 1996). In a research study on pizza franchises, unit cost declined significantly as stores gained experience in production (Darr et al 1994). Internal organizational barriers often inhibit within-firm learning. Goodman & Darr (1996) report that even a multiunit firm ostensibly committed to learning may find it difficult to disseminate information and create shared understandings about new processes and capabilities. If shared cognitive structures are critical for organizational learning, these may be easier to achieve in smaller, single-unit firms.

2.2.2 For prospectors

Organizational learning occurs between firms, with dissemination and implementation of new knowledge obtained through external monitoring or benchmarking and interpersonal contact (Miner & Robinson 1994). Since the prospector organizations are outward oriented, learning between firms is appropriate culture for them. New organizational forms such as joint ventures, outsourcing among organizational networks, research consortia, and other forms of organizing (Aldrich & Sasaki 1995) provide evidence that organizational learning will occur across increasingly blurry boundaries.

These "boundary less" organizations, defined here as organizations whose membership, departmental identity, and job responsibilities are flexible (Kanter 1989, Miner & Robinson 1994). Organizing with its flexible work arrangements, personnel movements, reliance upon personal expertise, and systematic information processing, places a premium on experimentation and collective learning. As boundaries between firms blur, one can expect more rapid organizational learning. The shift toward network organizations (Snow et al 1992) suggests that knowing who is becoming as important as knowing how (DeFillippi & Arthur). Cummings (1984) has proposed a four-stage OD model for improving collaboration in networks called Trans- organization development (TOD), defined as an intervention concerned with helping organizations to join into partnerships with other organizations to perform tasks or to solve problems that are too complex for single organizations to resolve. It helps organizations to recognize the need for partnerships and to develop appropriate structures for implementing them. (Cummings & Worley, 1997). The intervention is based on addressing the organizational dynamics often encountered within inter-organizational configurations, arising chiefly as a result of the absence of typical organizational control and coordinating mechanisms, often exacerbated by the different ways of working, philosophies, and histories of partner organizations (Gray, 1989; Park, 1996; Van Raak, Paulus, van Merode, & MurVeeman, 1999). These dynamics then affect motivation, commitment, relationships, and performance within the network (Wandersman, Goodman, & Butterfoss, 1997).

2.3 Team Interventions

A recent study found that companies that "invest in human capital, work to develop and retain valued employees, and measure and hold people accountable for that investment, have a powerful competitive advantage" (IBM, 2005). Bales (1950) built on the research into team roles by analyzing the interaction between members of small groups and categorizing the types of behaviour into task oriented and socio emotional. Fisher et al. (1998) showed that dividing team roles into either 'task' or 'relationship' orientation could be used as a basis to predict team harmony and productivity. Performing prospectors had CEOs with output-oriented backgrounds whereas the high-performing defenders had CEOs with throughput-oriented backgrounds, a finding that was echoed in related work by Chaganti and Sambharya (1987).

2.3.1 For defenders

Throughput functions (e.g., process improvements, accounting) center on improving the internal efficiency of the transformation process (Hambrick and Mason, 1984).Process Consultation may be fitting approach for the defenders as defender organization is oriented towards the throughput of the organization. Process consultation is the third party intervention approach where consultant focuses on the human and social processes in the organization (French and Bell, 2006). In the view of Schien (1968) important processes in the organizations are communications, the role and the functions of the group members, group problem solving and the decision making, group norms and the group growth, leadership and the authority and inter-group cooperation and the competition.

Role Negotiation Technique is an effective way of bringing about the positive improvement in a situation where power and influence issues are working to maintain an unsatisfactory status quo (French and Bell, 2006). It brings 'imposed structure' for controlled negotiation between the parties where one party agrees in writing to change one set of the behaviour in return to the change of the behaviour by the opposite party. Harrison (1972) finds this technique very advantageous as it intervenes directly in the relationship of the power, authority and influence within the group.

2.3.2 For Prospectors

The global economy necessitates Virtual teams-teams that have a clear task and those require team members to work interdependently to accomplish the task but are geographically dispersed and communicate through technology rather than face to face (Gibson & Cohen, 2003). As a growing new phenomenon, virtual teams have attracted research interest (Bunker et al, 2004). Virtual teams are useful in following (Bunker et al, 2004).

* Cross-cultural psychology to managing differences.

* Impact of technology for the advantages and drawbacks of different types on group dynamics.

* Reward systems to compensate people so as to increase their motivation and productivity.

* Social networks and knowledge management to increase information and problem solving within an organization.

Gibson and Cohen's (2003) draw on actual studies of virtual team functioning as well as ideas about effective team creation.

2.4 Techno-structural Interventions

A structure involves the way in which the task of the organization is divided (differentiation) and the coordination (Integration). In the formal sense, structure is set forth by the organizational charts, by positioned job description, and by rules and procedures. It is also concerned with the patterns of authority, communication and the work flow (Kast & Rosenzweig, 1985). Burke and Litwin (1992) propose that structural focus of change has greater impact on systems and task requirements. There needs to be a "holistic" approach to the strategic process to address the structural flexibility and learning aspects of change. This involves the creation of strategies and structures that can continually respond to the environment and a culture where managers will be more open to learning and less afraid to make changes for improvement (Kleiner and Brown, 1997).

2.4.1 For defenders

A collateral organizational structure is an OD intervention which involves the creation of a parallel and coexisting organization which supplements the formal structures. This collateral structure enables an organization to manage change and innovation without disrupting the formal structures and mechanism needed to managing more repetitive tasks (Buch and Aldrich, 1999). This intervention is applied when organization process through the downsizing operations. These newly formed structures are small and represent the cross section of the organization. They follow the norms, opposite to organizational norms. Groups are working in tandem and with synergy. Communication channels are not restricted. Collateral organization is well versed to run with innovation with its liberal organizational character.

Employee involvement programmes is an intervention recommended for reversing the tendency towards centralization and over control (Buch and Aldrich, 1990). For enhancing the productivity in the group and increasing the well being of the staff, this programme may also be run as Quality for Work Life (QWL) and Quality circles.

2.4.2 For Prospectors

Prospectors, however, take the opposite approach to defenders. They prefer dynamic markets and choose internal flexibility to cope with these. Their loose structures, decentralization and low division of labour make them ideally suited to this type of market. It also predisposes them towards more emergent forms of change. Therefore, faced with a choice, they will inevitably opt for instability over stability, and flexibility and decentralization over tight, centralized control (Burns, 1997).Based on a growing literature in organization design (Galbraith, 1977; Nadler et al., 1992; Galbraith & Lawler, 1993), OD has created new structures that fit better to today's situations than traditional bureaucratic designs. These include: 'high-involvement organizations' that push decision-making, information and knowledge, and rewards downward to the lowest levels of the organization (Lawler, 1986. All these structures are extremely lean and flexible; they enable organizations to respond rapidly to changing Conditions Consistent with these new structures.

2.5 Human Resource Management Interventions

A task-related Change should positively impact the efficiency and effectiveness of the task process (Lau and Ngo, 2001). Miles and Snow (1984) characterize organizations that primarily hire at entry level (staffing), and develop (management training and development) employees over time as having a 'make' orientation).Prospector organizations are willing to go to market to 'buy' human resources because innovation is valued more than efficiency. Acquiring employees who have experience with a variety of organizations, in a variety of situations, encourages new ways of considering opportunities (Peck, 1994).

2.5.1 For Defenders

Defenders create a secure market share with moderate steady growth. To support their strategy, they rely heavily on internally developed staff where employees are carefully selected, placed and trained (Bird et al, 1995). In addition they are expected to have longevity within the organization, that is to say they will stay in the firm as employees for some time (Legge 1995, Miles and Snow 2001).In companies, where top managers are concerned about motivational consequences of downsizing, they have asked consultants to design and run workshops for generating loyalty to the organization and to its management. Participants in such events privately mock the idea of loyalty to a company that has been manifestly disloyal to so many ex-employees, while publicly do what they perceive is expected of them (Neumann et al,1999)

Job characteristics model is based on the work of Hackman and Oldham (1975, 1980), and examines jobs in terms of their motivating potential. The Theory proposes that jobs affect members' motivation through their impact on three psychological states. The more those jobs are designed to enhance these states, the more motivating. Hackman and Oldham's approach has considerable empirical support (Fried & Ferris, 1987); it is used in OD to assess jobs and to redesign them if necessary, jobs are traditionally design to ensure efficiency and control. That matches the objectives of the defender organizations.

2.5.2 For prospectors

Prospectors are organizations that are characterized by rapid growth and continual resource deployment, particularly of technical and management staff Bird et al 1995). To support this strategy, HR performs an entrepreneurial role, helping to identify and quickly develop crucial staff through the rapid movement and alteration of assignments. Key staff are brought in externally as well as developed internally. (Miles & Snow 2001, Othman 1996). Flexible job assignments are mechanism expected to encourage creativity. Unlike defender organizations which strive to control employees through bureaucratic methods, prospector organizations seek innovative problem identification and solving. Professionals are hired both for their knowledge and for their ability to work autonomously and in coordination with other highly-skilled people (Peck, 1994). The exchange of ideas among professionals is seen as a method of identifying opportunities, not as a threat to control. The innovation literature supports the notion that flexibility encourages innovation (Tomatzky, 1983).


Across the past century many change implementation approaches have been championed, most falling into the two broad categories of participative or unilateral implementation (Beer and Nohria, 2000; Chapman, 2002). Prospector organizations are creative, competitive, explorer and innovative. Thus they require the OD intervention which can reinforce values mentioned above in the organization. Sensitivity training, employee participation in decision making, teams and job redesign are participative methods that can in the alignment of prospector organization. A unilateral method that suits the defender organizations are prescriptive techniques which mostly uses technological solutions such as system and product redesign, restructuring of communication and authority. That helps the top management to control and exercise their authority. Unilateral techniques as the term sounds tend to be top to bottom, procedure oriented and with focus to allocate resources. Because objective and formal aspects of the organization can be modified with these methods, the prior support of the workforce is not necessary (Waldersee and Griffiths, 2004) so this methods doesn't build support culture in the organization. Individuals and teams are restricted to their roles. Dunphy and Staces (1990) and Powell and Posner (1980) argue that the workforce does often not support structural-technical changes. Changes such as downsizing, reorganizing work flows, automating and deskilling, often involve significant disruption of social relationships and are unlikely to be supported even with a consultative process (Waldersee and Griffiths, 2004). For behavioral-social changes, Powell and Posner (1980) argue that "shared" approaches to implementation are most appropriate. Intervention methods such as participation, team building, and process consultation will build "support" for the change (Lawler, 1992). Without this support, it is unlikely that significant changes in attitude, culture or behavior can be achieved.


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Mr. Sharadindu Pandey is a Research scholar at Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India. He is involved in the study of aligning strategy and OD techniques.

Dr. R. R. K. Sharma is Professor of Management at Industrial and Management Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India. His research interest includes change management, innovation and operations management.

                               FOR DEFENDER

Strategic                      Symbols, Role models,
                               Ceremonial occasions and Group
                               gatherings, Organizational
                               Learning with in the firm
Team Building/ Human Process   Process Consultation, v
                               negotiation Techniques
Techno-structural              Collateral Organizational
                               Structures, Employee
                               Involvement Programmes
Human resource management      Work shops for generating
                               loyalty, Job characteristics model


                               FOR PROSPECTOR

Strategic                      Career model framework, Talent
                               management, Organizational
                               Learning between the firm,
Team Building/ Human Process   Virtual teams
Techno-structural              High Involvement Organizational
Human resource management      Flexible Job assignments
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