Background and motivation
The rapid growth of digital resources has encouraged the
development of digital archives for various purposes. One of the most
important roles of digital archives is to serve as learning material
providers for the learning activities conducted in all levels of schools
(Boumarafi, 2010; Chen, 2010; Chu, Hwang, & Tseng, 2010; Hall &
Davison, 2007). In the past decade, many studies concerning the use of
digital archives in education have been reported (Chiou, Tseng, Hwang,
& Heller, 2010); for example, Chu, Hwang, Huang and Wu (2008)
developed an electronic library to support outdoor learning for an
elementary school natural science course.
While trying to find better ways of using digital resources in
education, educators have recognized the importance of training students
in the competence of collecting and using information for problem
solving. Various studies have been conducted to investigate this issue,
including the development of learning strategies or tools to support
web- based problem-solving activities (Hwang, Tsai, Tsai, & Tseng,
2008; Skylar, Higgins, & Boone, 2007; Tseng, Hwang, Tsai, &
Tsai, 2009), investigations of the learning behaviors and performance of
students using web-based information for solving problems (Allan &
Street, 2007; Tsai, Tsai, & Hwang, 2011), and the development of
subject content-related digital archives for supporting problem-solving
activities (Chen & Chen, 2010; Wang & Hannafin, 2009).
One of the major difficulties of using digital resources in
learning activities is the lack of an easy-to-follow procedure for
inexperienced teachers to design subject content such that suitable
digital archives or technologies can be properly applied to the learning
process (Chu et al., 2008; Hwang, Chu, Lin, & Tsai, 2011; Hwang,
Kuo, Yin, & Chuang, 2010), in particular, problem-solving
activities. Therefore, it has become an important but challenging issue
to develop a learning environment to assist the teachers in using
electronic libraries to develop web-based problem-solving activities.
Based upon these perspectives, in this paper, an electronic
library-oriented learning environment for supporting webbased
problem-solving is presented, which provides an innovative approach to
guiding teachers to systematically and efficiently design web-based
problem-solving activities with electronic libraries. The feedback of
the teachers who have experienced the proposed learning environment is
collected to evaluate the usefulness of this innovative approach;
moreover, an experiment has been conducted on an elementary school
natural science learning activity to compare the learning performance of
the students who learned with the proposed approach and that of the
students who learned with conventional web-based learning approach.
Electronic libraries have been recognized as being important
resources and facilities for supporting educational activities (Saeed,
2006). The rapid advance and popularity of the World Wide Web have
further enabled people to conduct web-based learning activities with
electronic libraries (Mourad et al., 2005; Polly & Ausband, 2009).
Nowadays, electronic libraries play an important role in library
service. Various studies have been conducted to develop new information
technologies to provide more efficient and effective library services
(Uzoka & Ijatuyi 2005). Meanwhile, the number of Internet users is
increasing at a dramatic speed; therefore, it has become an important
issue to develop effective mechanisms for helping students utilize
electronic libraries on the Internet (Saeed, 2006; Chu et al., 2008).
Among the existing alternatives for web-based learning, the
development of a web-based problem-solving activity is one of the most
crucial and challenging issues for teachers. Web-based problem solving
refers to learning activities which engage students in utilizing digital
information in an organized and meaningful manner. In a web-based
problem solving activity, the students are asked to collect data from
the Internet using search engines in order to answer questions raised by
the teachers, or to state their opinions about a particular issue (Polly
& Ausband, 2009).
Many researchers have reported the effectiveness of web-based
problem-solving approaches. Kanuka, Rourke and Laflamme (2007) found
several advantages of such an approach, including providing the
opportunity to structure the collected information, and allocating
clearly defined roles and responsibilities for the students. Zheng,
Perez, Williamson and Flygare (2008) further investigated the
perceptions of teachers regarding the use of web-based problem-solving
strategies, and received positive feedback. It can be seen that guiding
the students to learn to solve problems via searching for information
from digital resources has become an important and challenging issue.
These studies not only demostrate the importance of providing new
electronic library services in education, but also show the necessity of
developing new facilities to help teachers develop web-based
problem-solving activities that will enable the students to solve
problems by searching for information from electronic libraries. In the
following sections, a new approach to coping with these problems is
presented in detail.
Development of the electronic Library-Oriented learning environment
The electronic library-oriented learning environment,
Library-Quest, has been developed. Figure 1 shows the structure of
Library-Quest, which consists of five components: a Search Agent to
derive relevant information from the electronic library which was
designed by teachers, a Content Analyzer to recognize the derived
information, a Content Reorganizer to reformat the information for show,
a Searching Behaviors Recorder to record each students'
problem-solving portfolio, and a Searching Behaviors Analyzer to help
the teachers analyze the students' online behaviors based on their
To more effectively assist them in administering web-based
problem-solving activities, the teachers can create learning activities,
materials and student accounts in advance. According to the pre-defined
user accounts, LibraryQuest can provide different interfaces for
students and teachers; hence, after the students log into Library-Quest,
they will see a list of issues to be explored, which are pre-defined by
the teachers. When the students choose an issue, a search interface for
problem solving will be displayed.
As shown in the left snapshot of Figure 2, the student interface
consists of four operation areas: The question and answer area is
located on the left-hand side and can be hidden, the function-selecting
area is located on the upper-right and provides several useful functions
for problem-solving, such as simple search, advanced search, category
browsing, title browsing and author browse, the information-searching
and result area is located on the lower-left of the window, and the
content area is located on the lower-right for displaying the selected
information, including text, images and video. An illustrative example
of using the student interface is given in the right snapshot of Figure
2. After reading a question, the students can temporarily hide the
"question and answer" area, such that they will have plenty of
space to use the "category browsing" function to search for
information and to browse the content that might be relevant to the
question. The entire student portfolio, including the search functions
that have been selected, the browsed content and the student behaviors,
are recorded in the server.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Figure 3 shows the teacher interface for browsing the
problem-solving portfolio of individual students. The problem-solving
portfolio includes the answers to each question, the search functions
that have been selected, the contents that have been browsed, and the
browsing time for each content, etc. The "operation" column
records the problemsolving behaviors of each student, including
"submit answer," "temporary answer," "input
keywords in simple search function," "information selection in
simple search function," "browse content in simple search
function," "input keywords in advanced search function,"
"information selection in advanced search function,"
"browse content in advanced search function," "browse
content in category browsing function," "browse content in
title browsing function," and "browse content in author browse
function." In the following, the search functions of Library-Quest
are introduced in detail.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
The simple search function
Figure 4 shows the student interface for using the "simple
search" function to collect information for problem solving. The
student can enter keywords or a phrase to search for information in the
selected field, browse the search results returned from the server which
was created by the teachers, and then browse the content that might be
relevant to the question.
The advanced search function
Figure 5 shows the student interface for using Boolean operators to
gather information for problem solving. The student can input keywords
or phrases to search for information in the selected fields with Boolean
operators, browse the search results that are returned from the server
which was created by the teachers, and then browse the content that
might be relevant to the question.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
The category browsing function
Figure 6 displays the student interface of using the "category
browsing" function to obtain information for problem solving. The
student can follow the steps as below, and then browse the content that
might be relevant to the question.
Step 1: select a main category.
Step 2: select a secondary category based on the selected main
Step 3: select a title based on the selected secondary category and
The title browsing function
Figure 7 illustrates the student interface for using the
"title browsing" function to collect information for problem
solving. The student can select a title, and then browse the content
that might be relevant to the question.
[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]
The author browse function
Figure 8 shows the student interface of using the "author
browse" function to gather information for problem solving. The
student can select an author, and then select a title based on the
selected author to browse the content that might be relevant to the
Study 1: Teachers' feedback of using Library-Quest
An experiment has been conducted to evaluate the "perceived
ease of use," "perceived usefulness" and "attitude
toward using" of 103 elementary and high school teachers (the
learning activity designers). The participants first experienced the
learning activity development and analysis functions as well as the
problem-solving interface of Library-Quest; next, they were arranged to
use the problem-solving interface of Library-Quest to search for data
from the electronic library to answer the questions concerning the
ecological issues of the Chiku wetland in southern Taiwan. The Chiku
wetland is the largest and the most intact lagoon in Taiwan. The main
water source of the wetland is the Zengwun River which brings large
varieties of biological, nutritive products, forming the excellent
habitat. Many shorebirds, wildfowl and egrets gather on sandbars in the
river, the most famous being the black-faced spoonbill. There are less
than 2,000 black-faced spoonbills on the planet, of which 850 stay on
the fish farm in the Chiku wetland each year from October to February.
In this learning activity, the participants were asked to answer the
following questions concerning the Chiku wetland:
(1) What are the representative birds in the Chiku ecological
region in Taiwan? How are they distributed in this region?
(2) What are the migratory birds in Tainan which forage in the
Chiku fish ponds? Does this area provide enough food for them?
(3) What are the representative plants in the Chiku wetlands? Do
they have special features that are different from the plants in other
(4) The government would like to urbanize the Chiku region. Do you
agree with this? Why or why not?
After experiencing the use of the electronic library and the
learning activity development procedure, the teachers were asked to
complete a questionnaire that consists of three scales (six items for
each scale), presented with strongly agree/disagree statements on a
six-point Likert scale. Two experts in the field of Internet-based
instruction had commented on the items of the questionnaire for face
validity, and two elementary school teachers had been selected to
clarify the wording of each item. A detailed description of the three
scales is presented below.
(1) Perceived usefulness scale: assessing perceptions of the degree
to which teachers expect that using LibraryQuest will enhance
students' learning performance.
(2) Attitude toward using scale: measuring perceptions of the
degree to which teachers will be willing to use it and recommend it to
(3) Perceived ease of use scale: exploring perceptions of the
degree to which teachers expect Library-Quest to be free of effort.
Teachers' feedback via exploratory factor analysis
In accordance with the suggestions of Henson and Roberts (2006),
Lee, Johanson, and Tsai (2008), and Worthington and Whittaker (2006),
this study first examined the KMO measure of sampling adequacy index and
Bartlett's test of sphericity to ensure whether the samples are
appropriate for exploratory factor analysis. The results indicated that
the KMO measure of sampling adequacy index was 0.84, and Bartlett's
test of sphericity was significant ([chi square] (df = 78, n = 103) =
966.99, p < .0001), showing that the samples are appropriate for this
kind of analysis. Then, a principle components analysis with an oblique
rotation was implemented on these items. According to the factors of the
questionnaire seemed to be correlated, an oblique rotation was applied
in this study. In addition, a combination of methods (e.g., conceptual
clarity, eigenvalue > 1, and scree plots) were utilized to decide the
number of the retained factors, suggesting that three factors should be
retained. For the final version of the questionnaire, an item within a
factor was retained only when its pattern coefficient (factor loading)
was greater than 0.50 on the relevant factor and less than 0.50 on the
non-relevant factor. Consequently, the initial 18 items were reduced to
13 items in the final version of the questionnaire (shown in Appendix
A), and the total variance explained is 75.10%.
As shown in Table 1, the communalities (h2) of all items were at
least 0.50. The retained three factors included Perceived usefulness
(PU), Attitude toward using (A), and Perceived ease of use (EOU). The
reliability (Cronbach's alpha) for each factor is high (i.e., 0.93,
0.85 and 0.84, respectively; the overall alpha coefficient is 0.90),
indicating that these factors had sufficient reliability for measuring
teachers' views toward Library-Quest.
Teachers' ratings on the questionnaire
Table 2 shows the teachers' average ratings and standard
deviations on the scales. The teachers gave the highest ratings on the
"attitude toward using" scale, implying that an electronic
library-oriented approach has potential to assist teachers in supporting
web-based problem-solving activities; hence, the teachers are willing to
keep using Library-Quest and recommend it to their peers. In addition,
the teachers have positive perspectives of the electronic
library-oriented approach and gave high ratings on all of the scales
(above 4 on a 1-6 Likert scale), implying that an electronic
library-oriented approach has high potential for supporting web-based
problem-solving activities with proper user interface design and the
provision of collocated functions. In sum, this study can conclude that
the effectiveness of Library-Quest is accepted by most of the teachers.
Comparisons of usage feedback between male and female teachers
This study compared the responses of the male and female teachers,
as shown in Table 3. The results revealed that there were no significant
differences between the male and female teachers in terms of their
beliefs of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use; however,
there were significant differences in the "attitude toward
using" scale, with the male teachers having higher ratings on the
scale than the female teachers. These results indicate that the male
teachers expressed stronger willingness to keep using Library-Quest and
to recommend it to their peers than did the female teachers.
The correlation among Internet usage experience, teaching
experience and the questionnaire responses
As shown in Table 4, only one significant correlation is found
among Internet usage experience, teaching experience and the
questionnaire responses. That is, teachers' age had a significantly
positive relationship to the "attitude toward using" scale (r
= 0.22, p < 0.05). This means that older teachers tended to have
stronger willingness to keep using Library-Quest and recommend it to
their peers. This finding is quite different from those of several
previous studies that reported negative relationships between age and
attitude toward using technologies (Lee & Tsai, 2010; Madden, Ford,
Miller, & Levy, 2005; Martin, McCaughtry, & Kulinna, 2008). In
addition, most previous studies indicated that teaching experience was
negatively related to attitude toward using technologies (Lee &
Tsai, 2010; Yaghi, 2001); however, in this study, it was found that the
experienced teachers had even more favorable attitudes than the
inexperienced teachers in terms of using Library-Quest. Therefore, it is
exciting to conclude that our approach has been readily accepted by
those teachers, especially by those who are older and more experienced.
Such a positive attitude expressed by senior and experienced teachers
implies that our innovative approach has more potential than other
information technologies to be widely accepted by teachers of different
ages and backgrounds.
Study 2: The effects of Library-Quest on students' learning
To investigate the effect of the proposed approach on
students' learning performance, an experiment has been conducted on
an elementary school natural science course. Moreover, the learning
achievements and attitudes of the participants are measured to evaluate
the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
The participants were two classes of grade six students from an
elementary school in southern Taiwan. One class with 31 students
(including 18 males and 12 females) was assigned to be the experimental
group, and the other class with 31 students (including 20 males and 11
females) was the control group. Both groups of students were taught by
the same teacher. The average of the students was 12. In other words, a
quasi-experiment was undertaken for study 2.
Measuring tools and learning procedure
Before the learning activity, all of the students took a pre-test,
which was developed by four experienced teachers for evaluating the
students' prior knowledge of natural science. The pre-test
consisted of 17 yes-or-no questions, 19 multiple-choice questions and 3
fill-the-blank questions. The perfect score of the pre-test was 100.
During the learning activity, both groups of students were asked to
answer the four questions concerning the Chiku wetland described before.
The time of this learning activity was 50 minutes. The students in the
experimental group employed the Library-Quest to search for data to
answer the questions. On the other hand, the students in the control
group were asked to answer the questions via the traditional
technology-enhanced learning approach; that is, using common search
engines to search for data from the web.
After the learning activity, all of the students took a post-test,
which was developed by two experienced teachers for evaluating the
students' learning achievement during the learning activity. The
post-test consisted of 5 yes-or-no questions, 5 multiple-choice
questions, 2 check-all-that-apply questions and 2 question-and-answer
items. The perfect score of the post-test was 30.
The students in both groups were also surveyed for their attitudes
toward the science learning activity both before and after the
treatment. The science learning attitude measure originated from the
questionnaire developed by Hwang and Chang (2011). It consisted of 7
items with a six-point Likert rating scheme, where "6"
represented "strongly agree" and "1" represented
"strongly disagree." The Cronbach's Alpha value of the
science learning attitude measure was 0.94. For example, two of the
questionnaire items were "It is worth learning the natural science
course well" and "I will actively search for more information
and learn about natural science."
Experimental results for study 2
To evaluate the effectiveness of Library-Quest, ANCOVA is employed
to analyze the post-test scores of the students by using the pre-test
scores as the covariate to exclude the impact of the pre-test. The
non-significant interaction of the independent variable and the
covariate of the learning achievement test showed that F = 1.92 (p >
.05), implying that the use of ANCOVA was appropriate.
Table 5 shows that the ANCOVA result, showing that the two groups
had significantly different learning achievements with F = 15.17 (p <
.001) after excluding the impact of the pre-test scores. The adjusted
mean of the experimental group scored was 20.67, which was higher than
that of the control group (i.e., 17.63), showing that the use of
Library-Quest was helpful to the students in enhancing their learning
achievement in this course.
This study further employed ANCOVA to analyze the learning attitude
post-questionnaire scores of the students toward science by considering
the learning attitude pre-questionnaire scores. The non-significant
interaction of the independent variable and the covariate of the
learning attitude scale showed that F = 1.85 (p >.05), implying that
the use of ANCOVA was appropriate.
As shown in Table 6, the ANCOVA result was F = 7.38 (p < .01),
showing that the learning attitudes of the two groups were significantly
different after excluding the impact of the learning attitude
pre-questionnaire scores. Moreover, the adjusted mean of the
experimental group was 4.88, which was higher than that of the control
group (i.e., 4.60), suggesting that Library-Quest approach was able to
foster the learning attitude of students toward science.
In the past decades, various powerful search engines have been
developed that enable users to search for information from digital
archives on the Internet. Such technologies for using and managing
digital content have motivated educational applications on the Internet.
Most current studies mainly focus on the issue of improving the
efficiency of retrieving data from digital archives; nevertheless, one
critical bottleneck of applying digital content to educational purposes
is the lack of a way of assisting the teachers in conducting quality
learning activities to guide the students to use digital content for
In this study, a web-based learning environment, Library-Quest, is
proposed to cope with this problem. Library-Quest provides not only an
electronic library-oriented learning environment for supporting
web-based problem-solving activities, but also a mechanism for analyzing
the problem-solving behaviors of the students. From the experimental
results, it is found that Library-Quest is readily accepted by the
teachers for developing and conducting web-based problem-solving
activities. Moreover, there are several interesting findings that are
quite different from those reported by previous studies (Lee & Tsai,
2010; Madden, Ford, Miller, & Levy, 2005; Martin, McCaughtry, &
Kulinna, 2008). For example, the older teachers tended to be more
willing to use Library-Quest, and the experienced teachers did not
resist the use of Library-Quest as expected. This finding implies that
developing extended learning facilities or functions is a good way to
promote the application scope and utilization rate of electronic
libraries. In addition, the positive attitude from older and experienced
teachers toward the use of electronic libraries in learning is rarely
seen in other technology-enhanced learning approaches, implying that
electronic libraries have more potential to become a widely used
learning tool than other information technologies.
Furthermore, from the experimental results of a natural science
course, it was found that the use of Library-Quest not only improved the
learning achievement of the students, but also improved their learning
attitude toward science. Such findings conformed to what were reported
by previous studies that students usually had difficulties in coping
with problems in more open-ended environments (Brush & Saye, 2000).
Research has concluded that higher degree of learner control may not
necessarily facilitate learning, and sometimes it may impede learning
(Lin & Hsieh, 2001). Good instructional designs should provide
optimal learning control for students. The experimental results
suggested that compared to common search engines for free navigation
with full learner control, Library-Quest may offer optimal learner
control for the students, thus enhancing learning achievements and
From the findings of this study, it may be provided some insights
for further research. However, this study was conducted using
quantitative measures, which may not provide in-depth insights regarding
students' problem-solving abilities in an electronic library-based
learning environment. Future studies are suggested to analyze
students' learning portfolios to find the problem-solving patterns
of different learning-achievement students, which could provide
important references to teachers for learning design. Moreover, the
sample in this study only included elementary school students, and
elementary and high school teachers. Future research should attempt to
address this issue in other school levels (such as university) for
receiving more feedback from both teachers and students.
Appendix A: The final version of questionnaire items
Perceived usefulness (PU)
1. The use of Library-Quest is helpful to students for
understanding the questions.
2. The use of Library-Quest would enhance students' ability to
search for information when problem-solving.
3. Library-Quest is helpful to the students in solving the
4. Library-Quest provides a good way of problem-solving.
5. The use of Library-Quest makes students have more interest in
Attitude toward using (A)
1. I am willing to use other electronic libraries in the future.
2. I have more willingness to use electronic libraries than before.
3. I will actively look for information from electronic libraries.
4. I hope I can participate in relevant activities like this one.
Perceived ease of use (EOU)
1. It took only a short time to learn how to operate Library-Quest.
2. The designs of Library-Quest's interface fit users'
3. The interface of Library-Quest is easy to operate.
4. The search results which are displayed in Library-Quest are
clear and easy to read.
This study is supported in part by the National Science Council of
Taiwan under contract numbers NSC 99-2511-S011-005- MY3, NSC
99-2511-S-011-011-MY3 and NSC 99-2631-S-011-002.
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Pei-Shan Tsai (1), Gwo-Jen Hwang (2), Chin-Chung Tsai (2),
Chun-Ming Hung (3) and Iwen Huang (3)
(1) Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, 2Graduate
Institute of Digital Learning and Education, National Taiwan University
of Science and Technology, #43, Sec.4, Keelung Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan
// (3) Department of Information and Learning Technology, National
University of Tainan, No. 33, Sec. 2, Shulin St., Tainan city 70005,
Taiwan // D9622305@mail.ntust.edu.tw // firstname.lastname@example.org //
email@example.com // firstname.lastname@example.org //
* Corresponding author
(Submitted June 12, 2010; Revised July 27, 2011; August 01, 2011)
Table 1. Rotated factor pattern and structure matrices for the three
factors (n = 103)
Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3
Item P S P S P S Mean S.D. [h.sup.2]
Factor 1: Perceived usefulness
PU1 0.91 0.92 -0.05 0.46 0.00 0.41 4.42 1.13 0.65
PU2 0.88 0.89 -0.23 0.25 0.14 0.41 4.72 1.10 0.80
PU3 0.86 0.89 0.18 0.47 0.00 0.44 4.26 1.05 0.77
PU4 0.80 0.87 0.14 0.07 -0.06 0.51 4.38 1.05 0.59
PU5 0.80 0.82 0.20 0.39 0.05 0.32 3.95 1.06 0.80
Factor 2: Attitude toward using
A1 -0.01 0.26 0.91 0.90 -0.06 0.05 4.41 1.01 0.87
A2 0.16 0.37 0.81 0.84 -0.22 0.28 4.37 1.02 0.83
A3 0.03 0.32 0.80 0.83 0.16 -0.04 4.05 1.22 0.81
A4 0.00 0.39 0.71 0.75 0.34 0.43 4.47 0.92 0.70
Factor 3: Perceived ease of use
EOU1 -0.11 0.33 0.06 0.14 0.93 0.89 4.65 0.98 0.73
EOU2 0.07 0.45 -0.02 0.11 0.85 0.87 4.97 0.86 0.81
EOU3 0.20 0.55 0.21 0.35 0.63 0.75 4.64 0.70 0.73
EOU4 0.34 0.55 -0.17 0.02 0.57 0.71 4.84 0.70 0.68
Note. P = Pattern coefficients; S = structure coefficients;
[h.sup.2] = communalities of the measured variables.
Table 2. Teachers' ratings on the scales
Scale Mean S.D. Range
Perceived usefulness 4.25 0.92 1.0-6.0
Attitude toward using 4.78 0.68 1.0-6.0
Perceived ease of use 4.44 0.89 1.0-6.0
Table 3. Gender comparisons of the teachers' ratings of the scales
Scale Gender Mean S.D. t
Perceived usefulness Male (n = 43) 4.41 0.94 1.51
Female (n = 60) 4.13 0.90
Attitude toward using Male (n = 43) 4.98 0.53 2.75 **
Female (n = 60) 4.63 0.74
Perceived ease of use Male (n = 43) 4.59 0.97 1.39
Female (n = 60) 4.34 0.82
** p < 0.01
Table 4. The correlation between teachers' responses to the scales
and their background
Scale Age Teaching Web Experience of
experience experience Web-related
Perceived usefulness 0.14 0.12 -0.05 0.06
Attitude toward using 0.22 * 0.18 0.03 0.16
Perceived ease of use 0.05 0.09 0.04 0.05
* p < .05
Table 5. ANCOVA result of the post-test achievement scores
Group N Mean S.D.
Post-test Experimental group 31 20.58 3.95
Control group 31 17.71 2.31
Group Adjusted Std. F
Post-test Experimental group 20.67 .55 15.17 ***
Control group 17.63 .55
*** p < .001
Table 6. The ANCOVA result of the learning attitude
post-questionnaire toward science
Group N Mean S.D. Adjusted Mean
Post-test Experimental group 31 4.96 0.54 4.88
Control group 31 4.53 0.86 4.60
Group Std. Error. F
Post-test Experimental group .07 7.38 **
Control group .07
** p < .01