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Factors influencing achievement in Junior School Certificate Examination (JSCE) in Home economics in Nigeria.
Subject:
Home economics (Study and teaching)
Educational tests and measurements
Examinations
Author:
Badmus, Medinat M.O.
Pub Date:
03/01/2007
Publication:
Name: College Student Journal Publisher: Project Innovation (Alabama) Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Education Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2007 Project Innovation (Alabama) ISSN: 0146-3934
Issue:
Date: March, 2007 Source Volume: 41 Source Issue: 1
Product:
Product Code: 2731950 Educational Tests NAICS Code: 511199 All Other Publishers SIC Code: 2731 Book publishing
Geographic:
Geographic Scope: Nigeria Geographic Name: Nigeria Geographic Code: 6NIGR Nigeria

Accession Number:
161282223
Full Text:
This study was undertaken to assess the contributions of teachers' knowledge of Curriculum Characteristics, value internalization and commitment, perception of adequacy of facilities, equipment and materials, and degree of performance of implementation roles/behaviours to achievements in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination in Home Economics. Effect of state and teachers' qualification on achievement in the same examination was also assessed.

The study employed ex-post facto research design and a survey strategy. A random sample of one hundred Junior Secondary Schools stratified proportionally by state was selected for the study. An instrument was developed for the study.

Three hypotheses were postulated for the study. Appropriate statistics were used in analyzing the data. The results of the study were presented in tables 1,2,3,4 and 5. The paper concluded by prescribing the needed reforms in the policy related to preparation of Home Economics teachers for Junior Secondary Schools.

INTRODUCTION

The most innovative contribution contained in the National policy of Education (1998) to the development and modernization of Nigerian educational system is in the area of secondary education. The policy prescribes a two tier secondary education lasting for a period of six years. A child is required to spend the first three years of secondary education in Junior Secondary School (JSS) and another three years in the Senior Secondary School (SSS) if a student performs well in both continuous assessment (C.A.) and terminal examinations. However, the Junior Secondary School Education is pre-vocational and academic. Stressed among the prevocational subjects proposed for Junior Secondary School is Home Economics.

Jacobs (1985:10) enunciated that, the most innovative aspect of Junior Secondary School (JSS) is the area of curricula activities which consist of broad or general education, practical opportunities and development of talents. The National Junior Secondary School Home Economics curriculum for the first three years of secondary education in Nigeria is an example. It is designed to provide learners with basic intellectual and practical educational knowledge relevant to Nigerian society. It is also part of the aim of the curriculum to prepare youth formally for jobs as well (Omoregie, 1984:264). Based on the foregoing information which identify the importance of the Junior Secondary School and the Home Economics Curriculum as useful to students, the investigator considers that attention should be focussed on the academic achievement of the programme recipients which is the focus of this study to ensure that the products perform effectively in the society. A wide range of factors have influence on school achievement at various educational level.

Educators such as Wolson (1991:11) and Laxton (1992:13) have indicated that generally students exposed to a programme of instruction or a new curriculum attain significantly the knowledge that is embodied in the programme or curriculum. An example of a new curriculum is National Junior Secondary School Home Economics Curriculum.. Concerning the issue of curriculum characteristics Badmus (1993:141) claimed that, if teachers are to implement the National Junior Secondary School Home Economics Curriculum properly, they must know and understand the major distinguishing characteristics of the curriculum they are to implement. A teacher who does not have the knowledge and understanding of the characteristics of a curriculum may find it difficult to plan instructional activities or help students in academic achievement.

Ibeanu (1986:44) from research evidence showed that test manipulation such as administration, marking and grading of tests affect students' performance or achievement. These manifest in the inconsistency in marking caused by variety of marking severity. Various markers of the same subject differ greatly in their standards and in the qualities which they regard desirable or undesirable. Similarly, teachers, equipment and facilities are determinants of academic achievement. Agbo (1979:13) and Nwelve et al. (1978:21) reported that lack of qualified staff affected student performance. In their study it was revealed that the higher the qualification of the subject-teacher, the higher the level of performance of the students. Failure to provide these essentials, achievement motivation which is the need to compete, to overcome obstacles and atrive for success may not be encouraged in students. There is the tendency that the students become underachievers. Similarly, Okakuro (2000) affirmed that, students' attitude affect their performance in account in senior secondary schools. In her study, it was revealed that 67% of the respondents agreed that students' attitude affect their performance in account in senior secondary schools, while 33% did not agree. This could be as a result of non-provision of students' needs to encourage learning of account and teachers' poor methods of teaching.

Awe(2002) revealed through her study that parents' attitude towards agricultural science has impact on students' performance in Agricultural Science. She revealed that students whose parents' attitude towards Agricultural Science is encouraging performed better in the subject compared to students whose parents have non-challant attitude towards the subject. In general the performance of students in this subject depends on the personal interest and parental interest.

Oladele et al. (1993) discovered that, lack of qualified teachers, lack of well equipped library, parental guardian influence attitude of students. Instructional materials and time allocation are another important factors affecting students' performance in Agricultural science in secondary schools. In the same vein, Ashien (2003) revealed in his study that, lack of interest and lack of qualified teachers and instructional materials are some of the factors affecting students' performance in senior secondary school Certificate Examination in principles of accounting. This means that, all these factors are important in order to improve the performance of students in accounting. In this light, the study examined critically some factors affecting achievement in Home Economics Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination (JSCE).

Methodology

This is an Ex-post-facto research design. Two types of ex-post facto designs--Causal comparative and multiple correlational designs were involved in the study.

The independent variables for correlational part of the study were:

1. Performance of Teachers' implementation roles/behaviours.

2. Teachers' knowledge of Curriculum characteristics

3. Teachers' value internalization and commitment

4. Perceived adequacy of instructional resources and materials.

5. Teachers' Qualification.

While achievements at Junior Secondary Certificate Examinations in Home Economics was treated as a criterion (dependent) variable.

The target population for this study consisted of all Junior Secondary Schools in South-Western State of Nigeria including all the teachers and students in home economics in these schools.

A random sample of one hundred Junior Secondary Schools stratified proportionally by state was selected purposively from schools situated in not more than three Local Government Headquarters of each of the states of study.

The main research instrument used in the study was a questionnaire for teachers in Junior Secondary Schools. The questionnaire was designed to elicit information on Junior School Certificate Examination (JSCE) results for 1999 as it was the final examination carried out at the time of the study.

Data Collection

Each of the schools involved in the study was visited. The questionnaire was delivered by hand by the researcher. A questionnaire was given to each of the teachers involved in the study. The researcher collected the questionnaires on completion and one hundred completed questionnaires were used for this study.

Data Analysis

ANOVA and multiple regression analysis were the statistical tools used to analyse the data. All tests of significance were carried out at .05 confidence level.

The means score of achievement in Junior School Certificate Examination in Home Economics was determined in each of the states involved in the study.

Results

The results of the study are presented in tables 1,2,3,4 and 5.

Of all the correlation coefficients only the correlation between teachers' qualification and performance of teachers' implementation roles/behaviours on the one hand, and teachers' perceived adequacy of instructional resources and materials were significantly correlated at 0.05 level of significance, r=0.2240 with t = 2.2753; r = -0.342 with t = 3.6029 respectively.

The intercorrelation matrix also revealed that achievement in Junior School Certificate Examination in Home Economics is not significantly related to any of the five predictor variables; its strongest relationship is the teachers' qualification r = -0.1699, t = 1.7067. The ANOVA summary on the goodness-of-fit of such a regression is given in table 2.

The test of goodness-of-fit gave an F-value of 0.74581, df = (5,94) which is less than 2.29 at 0.05 level of significance. The null hypothesis was therefore retained. The coefficient of determination, which is the square of multiple R indicates that the variables jointly account for only 3.8 percent of the variations in achievement at Junior School Certificate Examination (JSCE) in Home Economics.

An attempt to identify such other variables led to the determination of the effect of state (location of examination) and teachers' qualification (from the hint obtained from the intercorrelation matrix) on achievement in Junior School Certificate Examination (JSCE).

A summary of the Analysis of variance is given in table 4.

The F-values for the influence of State and Teachers' Qualification were found to be 7.127 and 1.047 respectively with df of (4,90) and (1, 90). 7.127 is larger than the critical value of F with df = (4,90) [equivalent] 2.89. Hypothesis 2 was therefore rejected while hypothesis 3 was retained. It was concluded that, there was a significant State effect on Achievement in Junior School Certificate Examination (JSCE) in Home Economics but the effect of teachers' qualification on achievement was not significant.

Discussion of Results

Arising from the Central concern of the study, it is surprising that, achievement in Junior School Certificate Examination in Home Economics is not significantly related to any of the variables studied either singly or jointly. In view of these findings, it shows in particular that there was no significant relationship between degree of implementation (the extent to which actual use of the curriculum corresponds with intended or planned use) and achievement in Home Economics. This result supports the studies by Udoh (1990:51) and Okoroafor (1989:48) that there is no significant relationship between degree of implementation and the Junior Secondary School (JSS 3) students' achievement in French and English respectfully. Badmus (1993:146) pointed out that, it is one thing for teachers to know what a curriculum is all about, it is a different thing for them (teachers) to perform their implementation roles as expected.

Though the relationship between achievement and qualification was statistically not significant, indicates that students taught by holders of Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE teachers) tend to achieve higher than those taught by degree holders because they were found to be more effective than the degree holders. This finding is not surprising, by policy, holders of the Nigerian Certificate in education (NCE) are especially trained to teach in Junior Secondary Schools (JSS) (NPE 1998:26).

These findings point to two major things. First, it calls for the need to view users of any curriculum as being important. It is believed that involvement of users-to-be in curriculum tasks fosters motivation. If the users of the curriculum from which high academic achievement is expected were actively involved in the development, they would have been familiar with the demands of the curriculum and in particular all the independent variables in the study that were not significantly related to achievement. For example, if teachers are familiar with the implementation roles/behaviours or the prescribed procedures to teach the contents in a curriculum, students' achievement will be high. Second, it points to the fact that, the incentive for teachers should be reviewed so as to motivate teachers (Fullan and Pomfret 1977:386). Such incentives include time, in-service training, involving teachers in curriculum planning and development, provision of appropriate instructional resources, regular payment of teachers' salary and other forms of people-based support (Badmus 1993:215).

POLICY IMPLICATIONS

The findings of this study have far reaching implications for policy reform related to preparation of Home Economics teachers for junior Secondary Schools in Nigeria and for teaching and supervision of Home Economics in Nigerian Schools. First, the policy of planning and developing curriculum at the National level and disseminated to the entire users at the classroom level should be reviewed. This approach proves difficult in getting across to teachers the ideas about the new curriculum and the theoretical considerations underlying it, in such a way as to ensure that these are reflected in their practice. Second, the findings of the study call for ultimate policy to re-structure the course content of teacher-education curriculum on Home Economics in Colleges of Education and University to reflect their requirements in Junior Secondary Schools and to equip them for effective performance of their duties. For example, the subject method course should teach the prescribed teachers' implementation roles/behaviours and also teach the approximate uses of the newly prescribed instructional resources and materials. Micro-teaching should be emphasized in subject method. In addition, the curriculum development course should be designed to include the major characteristics of the curriculum such as the philosophy, objectives, values, goals, assumptions and other essential characteristics of the National Junior Secondary School Home Economics Curriculum.

Finally, it should be a matter of policy that, in-service education, courses, and seminars related to the problems of the Home economics teachers should be organized on a continuing basis to make them attain greater proficiency in their work. This policy is essential to be able to tackle the following problems.

1. the teachers' lack of clarity about the curriculum.

2. the teachers' lack of the kinds of skills and knowledge needed to conform to the new roles/behaviours.

3. the unavailability of required instructional materials, and

4. lack of knowledge and understanding of the major characteristics of the curriculum.

5. updating of practicing teachers' knowledge.

Conclusion

Achievement in Junior School Certificate Examination in Home Economics (dependent variable) do not relate significantly to performance of Teachers' implementation roles/behaviours, Teachers' value internalization and commitment, perceived adequacy of instructional resources and materials and teachers' qualification (independent variables).

References

Agbo, J.N. (1979) "Factors that contribute to the Poor Performance of Secondary School Students in Enugu Educational Zone in School Certificate and Ordinary Chemistry", PGDE Project, Institute of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, p. 13.

Awe, A.F. (2002) " Parental Influence On Students' Performance In Agricultural Science In Ihjebu-East Local Government Area of Ogun State". Undergraduate project. UNIBEN.

Ashien, K.P. (2003) "A Study of Factors Affecting Students Performance In Senior School Certificate Examination In Principles of Accounting in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State Nigeria" Undergraduate project. UNIBEN.

Badmus, M.M.O. (1993) "An Assessment of the Implementation of the National Junior Secondary School Home Economics Curriculum in South-Western States of Nigeria" Ph.D. Thesis, University of Benin, Benin City, pp. 141-146.

Barker-Lunn (1970) "Streamining in the Primary School Slought". National Foundation for Education Research.

Douglas, J.W.B. (1964) The Home and the School (London: MaeGibbon and Kee, p. 144).

Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Policy on Education (1998) (Lagos: Federal Ministry of Information, Printing Division, p. 26).

Fullan, M.1 and Pomfret, A. (1977) "Research on Curriculum and Instruction Implementation" Review of Educational Research, Winter, Vol. 47, p. 386.

Glass, G.V. and Stanley, J.E. (1970) "Statistical Methods in Education and Psychology" (London: Prentice-Hall International Inc.).

Ibeanu, M.E. (1986) "Evaluation of the Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Home Management in the Eastern States of Nigeria", Ph.D. Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, p. 44.

Jacobs, J. (1985) "Schools and the New System of Education", Sunday Sketch January, p. 10.

Laxton, A. (1992) "Improving the Performance of Students' Academic Achievement in Secondary Schools", Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, vol. 18:1, June, p. 11.

Nwelue, G. Egede, C., Nzurum, O. (1978) "Factors Associated with Students Poor Performance in Physical Sciences in West African School Certificate Examination" P.G.D.E. Project University of Nigeria, Nsukka, p. 57.

Oladele, S.O; Ayodele, M.O.; Oluyide, F.A. and Alawode, F. (1993) "Factors Affecting Students' Performance In Secondary Schools In Obokun Oriade and Ilesa Local Government Areas of Osun State" Undergraduate Project, UNIBEN.

Okakuro, E (2000) "Factors Responsible for the Performance of Students In Accounting In Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination In Ward South Local Government Area of Delta State" Undergraduate project UNIBEN.

Omoregie, O. (1984) "A Similation Model for Measuring the Fitness of the 6-3-3-4 System's Mid-Secondary Out-put in Nigeria" Journal of Nigeria Education Research Association. Vol. 4:1 p.264.

Okoroafor, C.N. (1989) "An Evaluation of the Junior Secondary School English Language Curriculum in Bendel State", M.Ed. Project, University of Benin, Benin City, p. 63.

Udoh, G.E. (1990) "An Assessment of Implementation of the Junior Secondary School Curriculum in Akwa Ibom State", M.Ed. Project, University of Benin, Benin City, p. 51.

DR. MEDINAT M.O. BADMUS

Senior Lecturer in Home Economics Education

Department of Vocational and Technical Education Faculty of Education

University of Benin, Benin City
Table 1: Intercorrelation Matrix of Teachers' qualification,
Achievement in Home Economics, Teachers implementation Roles/
behaviours, Knowledge of Curriculum characteristics, Value
internalization and Perceived adequacy of instructional resources
or materials.

1. Achievement in Junior            1   -0.0016    0.1309   -0.0394
   Secondary Certificate Exam.
   (Home Economics)
2. Performance of Teachers'             1         -0.0318    0.1205
   Implementation roles/behaviour
3. Teachers' knowledge of                               1   -0.1171
   Curriculum Characteristics
4. Teachers' value                                             1
   Internalization and
   Commitment
5. Perceived adequacy of
   Instructional resources and
   Materials
6. Teachers' Qualification

1. Achievement in Junior            0.1245    0.1699
   Secondary Certificate Exam.
   (Home Economics)
2. Performance of Teachers'         0.1493    0.2240 *
   Implementation roles/behaviour
3. Teachers' knowledge of           0.1177   -0.1154
   Curriculum Characteristics
4. Teachers' value                  0.0584    0.0561
   Internalization and
   Commitment
5. Perceived adequacy of            1         -0.342 *
   Instructional resources and
   Materials
6. Teachers' Qualification                      1

* Significant at 0.05 level.

Table 2: ANOVA Summary for Prediction of Achievement in Junior School
Examination in Home Economics.

Multiple r.        0.19534
R. Square          0.03816
Adjusted R.
Square            -0.01300
Standard
Error             .52491

Sources       df    SS         MS         F
Regression     5    1.02749    0.020530   0.74581
Residual      94    25.90033   0.27554

Total         99

achievement in Junior School Certificate Examination (JSCE).

Table 3: Mean Score of Achievement in Junior School Certificate
Examination in Home Economics

                                 STATES

Qualification    Laos   Ogun   Oyo/Osun   Edo/Delta   Ondo

N.C.E.           1.21   1.07   1.01       1.05        1.74
Graduate         1.39   1.08   1.25       1.12        1.78
[bar.x] (Mean)   1.24   1.07   1.05       1.09        1.76

                    STATES

Qualification    [bar.x] Mean

N.C.E.           1.17
Graduate         1.34
[bar.x] (Mean)   1.22

Table 4: ANOVA Summary for Effects of State and Teachers' Qualification
on Achievement in Junior School Certificate Examination (JSCE) in Home
Economics

Source          SS       DF   MS      F         Sign
                                                F

State           6.301     4   1.575   7.127 *   0.000
Teachers'
Qualification   0.231     1   02231   1.047     0.309
Interaction     0.127     4   0.032   0.144     0.965
Explained       7.035     9   0.782   3.536     0.001
Residual        19.893   90   0.221
Total           26.928   99   0.272

* Significant at 0.05 level
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