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Why students return for a master's degree in sport management.
Subject:
College students (Psychological aspects)
College students (Research)
Sports (United States)
Sports (Study and teaching)
Sports (Research)
Authors:
Lewis, Benjamin A.
Quarterman, Jerome
Pub Date:
12/01/2006
Publication:
Name: College Student Journal Publisher: Project Innovation (Alabama) Audience: Academic Format: Magazine/Journal Subject: Education Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2006 Project Innovation (Alabama) ISSN: 0146-3934
Issue:
Date: Dec, 2006 Source Volume: 40 Source Issue: 4
Topic:
Event Code: 310 Science & research
Product:
Product Code: E197500 Students, College; 8221211 Masters Degrees; 8221210 Masters & First Professional Degrees NAICS Code: 61131 Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools SIC Code: 8221 Colleges and universities
Geographic:
Geographic Scope: United States Geographic Code: 1USA United States

Accession Number:
156364404
Full Text:
The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of choice factors that were most important to students who decided to matriculate in the field of sport management for a master's degree. A survey questionnaire was mailed to the program or department chairs of 12 randomly selected universities listed on the NASSM web site during Fall 2003. Ten of the twelve packets were returned for a packet response rate of 83%. A total of 360 questionnaire were mailed, 194 were returned for a questionnaire response rate of 54%. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Of the 20 factors, more than two-thirds were rated between "agree" and "strongly agree" points on the scale. Based on the 5-point Likert scale, this suggests that the majority of the factors had some degree of relevance for the students returning for a master's degree in sport management. The three most important choices for returning for a masters degree in sport management were "I enjoy athletics", "I enjoy being in an athletics setting" and I desire to know more about the sport business." Recommendations for those who coordinate programs and advise master degree students in sport management as well as recommendations for further research are also discussed in the manuscript.

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In the new and emerging field of sport management, there has arisen a need for qualified sport managers at every level, from recreational youth programs to world-class professional organizations. From its obscure beginning at Ohio University in 1966, the master's degree in sport management is now looked upon as a prerequisite for job placement. While sport management is a quickly growing field, until recently there has been a dearth of qualified programs able to produce sport managers. The age old professions of medicine, law, business and science have graduated trained managers for centuries, but sport has failed to recognize the need to train managers through offering a master's degree in sport management (Bridges & Roquemore, 1992). Furthering this deficiency is the fact that more disciplines are now competing for the same students (Hossler and Gallagher, 1987; Kallio, 1995). Competition from both the private and public job markets and a strong push for international students, women, older adults and minorities adds to the recruitment strain facing the sport industry (Webb, 1993). Rising tuition, boarding and student fees also play a large role in the number of students who are able to attend graduate school. To this end, although the sport industry is new and emerging, steps must be taken to insure that students of mature academic standing are admitted to master's degree programs. Brassie (1989) lamented the lack of qualified sport managers graduating undergraduate programs across America and noted some institutions barely distinguish the coursework of their undergraduate and graduate level programs. Indeed, in her 1990 study, Brown noted that the sport management field would only gain validity as a "separate field of study" once the majority of students graduating matriculate as managers in sport.

The purpose of this study was to identify choice factors students considered most and least important in studying for a master's degree in sport management. The following research questions were employed in support of the purpose: Are there race factors that affect student's decisions to attend their current master's degree program? Does gender play a role in determining student's decisions to attend their current master's level program? Why do students attend their current program and what level of importance do they assign to different factors?

Literature Review

The literature review was conducted to identify and evaluate existing studies of (1) choice factors of college/university students in general (2) choice factors of student when selecting graduate programs and (3) choice factors of students when selecting sport management as a field of study in a masters degree program. The intent of the current investigation was to empirically evaluate why students return for a master's degree in Sport Management. In addition, a critical analysis will be made of the review in order to provide rationale for the current investigation. The interest of examining choice factors of master's degree students in Sport Management was investigated through research questions representing of the aforementioned areas discussed in view of the analysis of the review of literature.

A review of the literature did not reveal the presence of published studies on the subject of graduate student's choice of a college or university when studying for a master's degree in sport management. In an extensive search, the authors found that most of the past research efforts have attempted to explain college/university choice factors undergraduate students. A list of such studies includes but is not limited to studies by Connelly & Holiday (2001), Lay & MaGuire (1980), Litten (1982), Talbot, Maier & Rushlau (1996), Malaney (1987), Malaney & Isaac (1988), Bradshaw, Espinoza & Hausman (2001), Hoyt & Brown (2003), Pappu (2004), and Hossler & Gallagher (1987). Common findings of the general undergraduate student body in the literature revealed that such factors as parents/guardians, friends, financial assistance, reputation of the academic program, program availability, and location of the institutions have repeatedly surfaced as most influential for students when making a choice of a college or university; (Sevier, 1991; Dixon & Martin, 1991). For example, Dixon and Martin (1991) reported that factors such as parents, reputation of the academic program, program availability, advice of others, location of the institution, and availability of financial aid repeatedly showed up in the literature as most influential for the general student body. Although not as plentiful as the studies of undergraduate college/university studies, there has been a growing body of literature on the college choice decisions of graduate students. Nearly two decades ago, Olson and King (1985), conducted a descriptive study of the variables involved in a graduate student's decision to attend a specific institution. Of 23 variables, twenty five percent or more of the respondents ranked (1) geographical location, (2) cost of education, (3) reputation of faculty in major area, (4) reputation of programs in department of interest, (5) personal contact with faculty,(6) recommendation from significant other and (7) reputation of university as friendly environment as the most important variables. Some of the other studies that followed this initial one were those conducted by Malaney (1987a) Malaney (1987b); Olson(1992); Killio (1995); Webb (1993); and Talbot, Maier, and Rushlau (1996). One of the most recent study was conducted by Poock and Love (2001). They examined the program choice of doctoral students in higher education administration. Based on their findings, factors that involved the faculty (i.e., friendliness of the faculty and positive interaction with the faculty); those associated with the substance of the academic program (i.e., flexibility of program requirement and diversity of course offerings and academic) and key individuals (i.e., students currently in the program and current professional in the field) were rated with the highest means.

While a growing body of literature exists for undergraduate and graduate student's choice in general, there is a dearth of information related to choice of master's degree students in specified fields or disciplines. Webb (1993), studied the program choice of master's degree students in the area of business administration. Of 52 factors, fifty percent or more of the respondents rated (1) academic reputation; (2) accreditation; (3) proximity; (4) tuition, books and fees; (5) location; (6) library. size; (7) parking; and (8) placement reputation as the major factors in helping them select a master's degree program in business administration. Based on the literature review, sport management educators have not devoted effort to studying what motivate students to select sport management as a field of study. More-the-less, the review of the literature for the past ten years did not reveal the presence of any published studies on the subject of master degree student's attitudes toward preparation for a masters degree in sport management. The current research is intended to remedy this knowledge gap by being the first study to investigate empirically why students return for a master's degree in sport management. This research is intended to help build on a small but emerging base of literature concerned with helping sport management educators to be more knowledgeable of the students in their respective programs.

Conceptual Framework

The overall aim of this research investigation was to apply the most applicable theoretical framework of college choice as identified in the literature to the choice decisions of students when selecting to study for a master's degree in sport management. The framework that guide this investigation was based on Hossler and Gallagher's (1987) model. Hossler and Gallagher, proposed a "three-phase model" of college choice students utilize when deciding whether or not to pursue a higher degree. The first phase, Predisposition, is a developmental stage in which students decide if they would like to continue their education. The second phase, Search, involves student research into which schools would best suit their academic, social, and extracurricular needs. The third and final phase, Choice, is when the student selects an institution to attend. Hossler and Gallagher's research draws upon previous studies (Litten, 1982; Jackson, 1982; Chapman, 1984) that also correlate student college choice with a phase-by-phase process. As students matriculate through a school's undergraduate program, it is important for professors to encourage students to ask questions pertaining to the graduate experience (Webb 1993). It is here when undergraduates often decide if graduate school is a viable option. The primary purpose of the current investigation was to examine the choice factors that students considered most important when selecting a master's degree in sport management.

Method

This study was designed as a quantitative non-experimental cross-sectional survey research design. The data were collected from students studying for a master's degree in the field of Sports Management at one point in time (Gall, Gall & Borg 2003). In the current investigation, the independent variables were students classified by their undergraduate major and years of work experience and the dependent variable were the twenty choice factors relating to their decision to attend graduate school. The independent variables (demographic characteristics) were believed to causes in the dependent variables (the twenty choice factors) as perceived by the master degree students.

The sampling frame for this study were students enrolled in 12 master's degree in sport management programs accredited by the North American Society of Sport Management (NASSM). The sampling procedure was employed to select 360 participants; the sample represented 20.0% of all sport management programs offering a master's degree. A total of 360 questionnaires were mailed and of this amount 240 were returned, however, only 194 were useable for data analysis, which was a 54.0% response rate. Respondents who classified themselves as Caucasian (75.4%) were in the majority versus respondents who classified themselves as African-American (9.6%), Asian / Pacific Islander (8.3%), Hispanic (3.8%) or other (2.9%). Of such respondents, 66.7 percent were males and 33.3 percent were females. The variable age ranged from 21 to 49, with a mean of 25.4. Nearly all of the respondents (88.6%) ranged between the ages of 20-29.

This survey consisted of two sections. In section I, the participants were asked to identify demographic characteristics of race, age and ethnicity. In section II, the participants were asked to indicate the extent to which they agree or disagree with 20 choice factors of why they returned for a master's degree in sport management (Rozier, Gilkeson and Hamilton, 1992). Values assigned to the responses were: 5-strongly agree, 4-agree, 3-uncertain/neutral, 2-disagree, and 1-strongly disagree. Using a scale with a middle category with a neutral midpoint is appropriate for this type of scale (McMillan and Schumacher (2001). Face validity of the questionnaire and internal consistency of the Likert scale were based on a previous research (Rozier, et. al., 1992). Cronbach Alpha is the most appropriate type of reliability for survey research and a questionnaire for which there is a range of possible answers for each of the answers as the one used in this investigation. McMillan & Schumacher (2001) and Nunnally & Bernstein (1994) have indicated that the overall reliability of a questionnaire scale should be at least 0.70 in an exploratory investigation as the one being conducted for this research. In a prior study by Rozier, et. al., the attitude inventory had a reliability of 0.78. After modifying the inventory for the current investigation, the overall reliability was 0.77 which met the requirements of the aforementioned researchers.

Data Collections occurred over two months for this study. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Committee of the primary University. Permission was also obtained from each department chair or program coordinator at each participating sport management program. The students were informed about the nature of the study and their right to refuse participation or withdraw from the study at any time. They were informed that participation that was completely voluntary and confidential. No individual names or institutions were included on the surveys thereby making it impossible to link responses to one institution or individual. In addition, an informed consent form was attached to each survey for the participants to review and sign. Also the participants' consent was assured by the completion and returned the questionnaire. A packet of 30 questionnaires was sent to program or department chairs of 12 randomly selected universities listed on the NASSM web site during Fall 2003. Each packet contained a cover letter, 30 copies of the survey, administration instructions and a self addressed stamped packet for returning the surveys.

Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was employed for the analyses. Descriptive statistics were analyzed by means and percentages for the demographic data. To determine whether perceptions of choice factors differed significantly by selected demographic characteristics, data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) procedures. Gender and race were tested by each of the 20 choice factors.

Results of the Study

Table 1 displays the choice factors, number of participants, mean scores, standard deviations and percentages of agreement for each of the 20 choice factors. Mean scores of perception of agreement ranged from the highest mean (4.84) for the factor "I enjoy athletics" to the lowest mean (2.34) "The location was close to home." For each of the 20 factors, the frequencies of the ratings "strongly agree" and "agree" were combined. More than half (55.2%) of the choice factors were ranked as "strongly agree" and "agree". Of the 20 factors, one-fifth were rated between "agree" and "strongly agree" points on the scale. It seems that sport related factors "I enjoy athletics", (M=4.84) "I enjoy being in an athletic setting" (M=.4.80), and "I desire to know about the sport business" (M=4.41) are of highest importance when determining whether to obtain a degree. The two factors seen as providing the least impetus were "My eventual goal is to teach (M=2.41), and "The location was close to home" (M=2.34).

Shown in Table 2, is a summary of the descriptive and inferential statistics and the choice factors of sport management master degree students and gender profile comparisons. A one-way MANOVA was conduced to determine if there were differences in rating the choice factors (dependent variables) and gender (independent variables). Based on the Wilk's Lambda Criterion there were no statistically significant differences between males and females when rating the choice factors. [Wilk's Lambda=0.776, F (20,211) = 0.997, P<0.05].

Table 3 summarized the results of determining if there were differences in rating the factor choices by the students when classified by race [White Americas (n=181), African Americans (n=23), and others (Hispanics/Asian Americans) n=35]. A one-way MANOVA was conducted to determine if there were differences in rating the choice factors (dependent variables) by racial groups (independent variables). The MANOVA procedure employing Wilk's Lambda Criterion indicated there were statistically significant differences among the racial groups when rating the choice factors [Wilk's Lambda = 0.681, F(40,420) = 2.222, p < 0.001)].. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was further conducted for each of the factor choices. ANOVA allows for the comparison of mean scores for means of the population from which the samples were taken were statistically significant. Tukey's Multiple Comparison post hoc tests were used to locate the significant mean differences of the racial groups.

Of the 20 factors, subsequent ANOVAs showed that there were statistically significant differences for the factor (p < 0.05). First the factor "I enjoy being in an athletic setting" was rated more important by White Americans (M=4.84, SD=.462) than by others (Hispanics and Asian Americans) (M=4.48, SD=.887). African American participants, (M=4.90, SD=.288) also rated this factor more important than did others (Hispanics and Asian Americans) (M=4.48, SD=.887) [F (2, 229)=6.459, p<0.01]

Differences were also formed when the groups rated the factors "the location was close to home." African Americans students rated this factor higher (M=3.14, SD=. 162) than did White American students (M=2.37, SD=.142) and other (Hispanic and Asian students (M= 1.76, SD= 1.12) [F(2.229)= 6.290, p<0.01].

The factor "I can always find a job in the sport management field" was rated statistically significant higher by others Hispanic/Asians (M= 3.67, SD= .938) than the other two racial groups; White American (M= 2.99, SD= .960) and African Americans (M= 2.95, SD= .976) respectively F[(2.229)= 6.977, p<0.01].

A final difference was found for the factor " I desire to know about the sport business" by others- Hispanic/Asian Americans (M= 4.73, SD= 583) than by White Americans (M= 4.36, SD= .735) [F (2.229)= 3.890, p<0.05].

Recommendations for Sport Management Degree Programs

It is important for administrators and faculty who advise students in graduate programs to be aware of the factors that are most influential on a student's decision for returning for a masters degree in sport management. Based on the findings of this investigation, two recommendations are made in reference of sport management programs.

First, program coordinators must be aware that the choice factors for students selecting a masters degree program in sport management is complex and dynamic in nature. According to this exploratory investigation, a variety of factors were important in helping students in making a decision for returning for a master's degree in sport management. For example, more than half (55.2%) of the participants ranked more than two third (14 or 70.0)%) of the factors as very important ones when making their decisions to select a graduate program in sport management studies (Table I).

Second, program coordinators must be aware that the choice factors for selecting a master's degree program in sport management may be different among racial groups within the field of sport management. In the current study, there were a limited number of responses from African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans and Native Americans. Therefore, the coordinators and others responsible for recruiting students in this type program must be sensitive not only to race, but gender as well as race by gender

Recommendations for Further Research

* Replicate this study using just one institution.

* Replicate this study using a larger sample of students drawn from a broad range of programs and institutions. During the time of this study, there were more than 50 programs that award a master's degree in sport management studies (King, 2004). Therefore, we recommend that this study be replicated by sampling every sport management program in existence. In the current study, we sampled just 12 of them. The methodology employed in this study appears to be effective, and it seems logical that a larger sample could result in a more generalizable outcome.

* Replicate this with students from a multicultural perspective by examining student of different subcultures within a masters degree program in sport management. Currently in the US, there are six major subcultures including European Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans and Arab Americans. Future studies should also focus on the different subcultures of international students, women, and older people to determine whether their characteristics would make a difference in how they would rate various choice factors.

* Conduct a longitudinal study to determine if the factors related to the decisions to apply to and attend an institution have influence on the retention rates of those in a master degree program in sport management

* Replicate this study using the institution's size and type (private or public) as the independent variables.

* Explores the program choice of master students in related field such as recreation management, physical education, leisure services, hospitality management. In replicating this study, it would be helpful to also include as part of the sample those who had been interested in sport management but changed their minds. They might give an additional perspective of what factors led them to that decision.

Conclusions

As the number of master's degree programs increase in sport management, the competition for graduate students will no doubt toughen, therefore, program administrators and academic advisors of such programs must take bold steps to deliver such programs that will produce satisfied graduates. The results of this study suggest that graduate students, when deciding to return for a master's in sport management studies based their decisions on a variety of choice factors. Of 14 choice factors, "I enjoy athletics", "I enjoy being in an athletic setting" and "I desire to know about the sport business" appears to have the greatest influence on student decisions.

This exploratory study has increased our understanding of why students return for a master's degree in sport management. Although the conclusions of this investigation are specifically generalizable to master degree programs in sport management in the sample of this investigation, the finding may have some implications for why students return to a master degree program in sport management in general. Program coordinators and those involved in recruiting must be aware of the current mode of thinking by the students who come to their respective programs.

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BENJAMIN A. LEWIS

JEROME QUARTERMAN

Florida State University
Table 1. An attitudinal summary of why students return for a master
degree in sport management studies

             Choice factor                  N    Mean    SD     SA/A

I enjoy athletics                          239   4.84    .470   97.9
I enjoy being in an athletic setting       239   4.80    .544   96.2
I desire to know about the sport
  business                                 239   4.41    .710   92.5
There is no other career that I would
  desire more                              239   4.05   1.014   75.3
I would enjoy the social status of a
  sport management job                     239   3.99    .948   76.6
I will have the opportunity to influence
  others                                   236   3.90    .935   69.1
Sport management would allow movement
  among many settings in which to work     239   3.85    .808   69.0
A career in sport management allows for
  advancement                              239   3.83    .804   65.7
A career in sport management allows more
  variety that other occupations           239   3.82    .874   66.1
Friendliness of dependent faculty/staff    239   3.74    .915   60.7
Opportunity for an assistantship or
  graduate assistantship                   238   3.68   1.272   58.8
I desire a good salary                     239   3.66   1.111   63.2
I desire to have the opportunity to move
  anywhere and find a job                  239   3.56   1.136   55.2
Time required to complete program          238   3.55   1.119   56.7
I am able to continue working in a job     238   3.42   1.204   47.7
Availability of evening classes            239   3.13   1.257   38.8
I can always find a job in the sport
  management field                         238   3.10    .982   33.2
The work hours and work schedule are
  desirable                                239   2.88   1.078   27.6
My eventual goal is to teach               239   2.41   1.312   22.6
The location was close to home             239   2.34   1.434   23.0

Subjects were asked to respond to each item using a 5-point Likert
scale: strongly agree (5); agree (4); uncertain/neutral (3); disagree
(2); and strongly disagree (I). A score of 5 represented the highest
perception of agreement

Table 2
A Summary of means and significant MANOVA results of choice of why
student return for a master degree in sport management studies
when classified by gender

                                              Male     Female
Choice Factors (Dependent Variable)          (N=159)   (N=80)

                                             M           SD      M

I will have the opportunity to influence
  others                                     3.84        .977   4.01
I enjoy athletics                            4.82        .497   4.86
I enjoy being in an athletic setting         4.77        .597   4.86
The location was close to home               2.29       1.393   2.44
My eventual goal is to teach                 2.39       1.307   2.46
I can always find a job in the sport
  management field                           3.10        .992   3.09
I desire a good salary                       3.61       1.119   3.75
There is no other career that I would
  desire more                                4.10       1.008   3.94
The work hours and work schedule are
  desirable                                  2.91       1.084   2.84
I desire to have the opportunity to move     3.55       1.134   3.56
  anywhere and find a job
I would enjoy the social status of a sport
  management job                             3.93       1.026   4.11
A career in sport management allows more
  variety that other occupations             3.71        .909   4.03
A career in sport management allows for
  advancement                                3.85        .828   3.79
Sport management would allow movement
  among many settings in which to work       3.74        .836   4.05
I desire to know about the sport business    4.40        .739   4.44
I am able to continue working in a job       3.30       1.274   3.65
Friendliness of dependent faculty,'staff     3.70        .884   3.84
Availability of evening classes              3.08       1.243   3.21
Time required to complete program            3.47       1.187   3.73
Opportunity for an assistantship or
  graduate assistantship                     3.61       1.310   3.83

                                              SD       F       p

I will have the opportunity to influence
  others                                      .840   1.840     .176
I enjoy athletics                             .413    .438     .509
I enjoy being in an athletic setting          .413   1.814     .179
The location was close to home               1.517    .658     .418
My eventual goal is to teach                 1.331    .123     .726
I can always find a job in the sport
  management field                            .970    .001     .979
I desire a good salary                       1.097   1.242     .266
There is no other career that I would
  desire more                                1.023   1.323     .251
The work hours and work schedule are
  desirable                                  1.073    .163     .687
I desire to have the opportunity to move     1.146    .045     .832
  anywhere and find a job
I would enjoy the social status of a sport
  management job                              .763   2.007     .158
A career in sport management allows more
  variety that other occupations              .763   7.425   * .007
A career in sport management allows for
  advancement                                 .758    .214     .644
Sport management would allow movement
  among many settings in which to work        .710   7.940   * .005
I desire to know about the sport business     .653    .015     .903
I am able to continue working in a job       1.020   4.282   * .040
Friendliness of dependent faculty,'staff      .974    .671     .413
Availability of evening classes              1.290    .662     .417
Time required to complete program             .954   3.148     .077
Opportunity for an assistantship or
  graduate assistantship                     1.188   1.482     .225

Subjects were asked to respond to each factor using the following
scale: strongly agree (5); agree (4); uncertain/ neutral (3);
disagree (2); strongly disagree (1).

* denotes significance at the 0.05 level.

Table 3
A Summary of means and significant MANOVA results of choice of why
student return for a master degree in sport management studies when
classified by race

                                                 G1
                                                White
                                               American
Choice Factors (Dependent Variable)            (N=181)

                                             M      SD

I will have the opportunity to
  influence others                          3.85    .942
I enjoy athletics                           4.84    .392
I enjoy being in an athletic setting        4.84    .462
The location was close to home              2.37   1.427
My eventual goal is to teach                2.33   1.301
I can always find a job in the sport
  management field                          2.99    .960
I desire a good salary                      3.57   1.106
There is no other career that I would
  desire more                               3.70    .947
The work hours and work schedule are
  desirable                                 2.86   1.093
I desire to have the opportunity to
  move anywhere and find a job              3.58   1.135
I would enjoy the social status of a
  sport management job                      3.93    .910
A career in sport management allows more
  variety that other occupations            3.76    .876
A career in sport management allows
  for advancement                           3.78    .796
Sport management would allow movement
  among many settings in which to work      3.88    .762
I desire to know about the sport business   4.36    .735
I am able to continue working in a job      3.36   1.212
Friendliness of dependent faculty/staff     3.74    .924
Availability of evening classes             3.10   1.270
Time required to complete program           3.51   1.148
Opportunity for an assistantship or
  graduate assistantship                    3.72   1.262

                                                G2
                                               African-
                                               American
Choice Factors (Dependent Variable)             (N=23)

                                             M      SD

I will have the opportunity to
  influence others                          3.86    .854
I enjoy athletics                           4.95    .209
I enjoy being in an athletic setting        4.90    .288
The location was close to home              3.14   1.621
My eventual goal is to teach                2.62   1.161
I can always find a job in the sport
  management field                          2.95    .976
I desire a good salary                      3.76   1.058
There is no other career that I would
  desire more                               4.00   1.128
The work hours and work schedule are
  desirable                                 2.95    .825
I desire to have the opportunity to
  move anywhere and find a job              3.29   1.118
I would enjoy the social status of a
  sport management job                      4.14    .778
A career in sport management allows more
  variety that other occupations            3.90    .767
A career in sport management allows
  for advancement                           3.67    .795
Sport management would allow movement
  among many settings in which to work      3.62    .635
I desire to know about the sport business   4.48    .593
I am able to continue working in a job      3.33    .935
Friendliness of dependent faculty/staff     3.57    .788
Availability of evening classes             3.24   1.214
Time required to complete program           3.81    .834
Opportunity for an assistantship or
  graduate assistantship                    3.72   1.166

                                                 G3
                                                Others
Choice Factors (Dependent Variable)             (N=35)

                                             M      SD

I will have the opportunity to
  influence others                          4.18    .923
I enjoy athletics                           4.70    .825
I enjoy being in an athletic setting        4.48    .887
The location was close to home              1.76   1.124
My eventual goal is to teach                2.64   1.447
I can always find a job in the sport
  management field                          3.67    .938
I desire a good salary                      3.91   1.147
There is no other career that I would
  desire more                               4.13   1.207
The work hours and work schedule are
  desirable                                 3.00   1.163
I desire to have the opportunity to
  move anywhere and find a job              3.61   1.173
I would enjoy the social status of a
  sport management job                      4.24   1.200
A career in sport management allows more
  variety that other occupations            3.94    .923
A career in sport management allows
  for advancement                           4.03    .838
Sport management would allow movement
  among many settings in which to work      3.73   1.094
I desire to know about the sport business   4.73    .583
I am able to continue working in a job      3.70   1.315
Friendliness of dependent faculty/staff     3.97    .938
Availability of evening classes             3.15   1.248
Time required to complete program           3.64   1.125
Opportunity for an assistantship or
  graduate assistantship                    3.36   1.374

Choice Factors (Dependent Variable)           F      p

I will have the opportunity to
  influence others                          1.790   .169
I enjoy athletics                           2.059   .130
I enjoy being in an athletic setting        6.459   .002
The location was close to home              6.290   .002
My eventual goal is to teach                1.066   .346
I can always find a job in the sport
  management field                          6.977   .001
I desire a good salary                      1.473   .231
There is no other career that I would
  desire more                               2.592   .077
The work hours and work schedule are
  desirable                                  .275   .760
I desire to have the opportunity to
  move anywhere and find a job               .685   .505
I would enjoy the social status of a
  sport management job                      1.846   .160
A career in sport management allows more
  variety that other occupations             .765   .467
A career in sport management allows
  for advancement                           1.709   .183
Sport management would allow movement
  among many settings in which to work      1.265   .284
I desire to know about the sport business   3.890   .022
I am able to continue working in a job      1.119   .329
Friendliness of dependent faculty/staff     1.377   .254
Availability of evening classes              .120   .887
Time required to complete program            .785   .457
Opportunity for an assistantship or
  graduate assistantship                    1.092   .337

Choice Factors (Dependent Variable)           Turkey

I will have the opportunity to
  influence others
I enjoy athletics
I enjoy being in an athletic setting        G1>G3;G2>G3
The location was close to home              G2>G1;G2>G3
My eventual goal is to teach
I can always find a job in the sport
  management field                          G3>G1;G3>G2
I desire a good salary
There is no other career that I would
  desire more
The work hours and work schedule are
  desirable
I desire to have the opportunity to
  move anywhere and find a job
I would enjoy the social status of a
  sport management job
A career in sport management allows more
  variety that other occupations
A career in sport management allows
  for advancement
Sport management would allow movement
  among many settings in which to work
I desire to know about the sport business   G1>G3
I am able to continue working in a job
Friendliness of dependent faculty/staff
Availability of evening classes
Time required to complete program
Opportunity for an assistantship or
  graduate assistantship

Subjects were asked to respond to each factor using the following
scale: strongly agree (5); agree (4); uncertain/ neutral (3);
disagree (2); strongly disagree (1).
Gale Copyright:
Copyright 2006 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.