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Title:
TOPICAL COMPOSITION COMPRISING TRANSFORMED BACTERIA EXPRESSING A COMPOUND OF INTEREST
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Compositions comprised of a population of transformed bacteria formulated for topical application to a subject are described. The population of transformed bacteria are created from a non-pathogenic bacteria and transformed to express a compound of interest for a therapeutic or a cosmetic purpose. In one embodiment, the composition is for protection of the skin from ultraviolet rays.


Inventors:
QVIT-RAZ, Noga (2 Coleman Pl, Unit AMenlo Park, CA, 94025, US)
ALTMAN, Tahel (862 Coleman Avenue, Apt. JMenlo Park, CA, 94025, US)
Application Number:
US2013/054026
Publication Date:
02/13/2014
Filing Date:
08/07/2013
Assignee:
TOPGENIX, INC. (2 Coleman Pl, Unit AMenlo Park, CA, 94025, US)
International Classes:
A61P17/00; A61K36/02
View Patent Images:
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MAHONEY, Jacqueline, F. et al. (McDermott Will & Emery LLP, 500 North Capitol Street NWWashington, DC, 20001, US)
Claims:
IT IS CLAIMED:

1 . A composition, comprising:

a population of non-pathogenic bacteria transformed to express a compound of interest, the composition formulated for topical application to a subject.

2. The composition of claim 1 , wherein the population of non-pathogenic bacteria is a population of live bacteria that express the compound of interest.

3. The composition of claim 2, wherein the population of non-pathogenic bacteria is attenuated bacteria or killed bacteria that express the compound of interest prior to or after attenuation or prior to killing.

4. The composition of claim 3, wherein the population of non-pathogenic bacteria comprises fragments of the transformed, non-pathogenic bacteria.

5. The composition of claim 1 , wherein the transformed bacteria are formulated into the composition to provide at least about 102 bacteria per cm2.

6. The composition of claim 1, wherein the compound can absorb or reflect ultraviolet light.

7. The composition of claim 6, whrein the compound can absorb or reflect ultraviolet A (320-400 nm), ultraviolet B (315-280 nm), or both.

8. The composition of claim 6, wherein the compound of interest expressed by the transformed bacteria is selected from the group consisting of Mycosporine Amino Acid-like molecules (MAA; glycosylated or covalently bound to oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide-linked MAAs, Intracellular or extracellular), gadusol, deoxygadusol, 4-Deoxygadusol (S2), shinorine, porphyra-334, palythine, palythene, asterina-330, palythinol, mycosporine-glycine, mycosporine serinol, mycosporine-taurine, mycosporine-glycine-valine, mycosporine-2-glycine,

mycosporine-glycine-glutamic acid, mycosporine-glutamic acid-glycine, mycosporine- methylamine-serine, mycosporine- methylamine-threonine, usujirene, dehydroxylusujirene, playthenic acid-337, playthenic acid-335, palythine-serine, palythine-threonine, palythine- threonine- sulphate, playthine-serine-sulphate, euhalothece, mycosporine-alanine (2-(e)-2,3- dihydroxipro-1 -enylimino-mycosporine-alanine), and scytonemin.

9. The composition of claim 1 , wherein the compound of interest is one for treating psoriasis.

10. The composition of claim 9, wherein the compound is selected from the group consisting of Retinoid, Vitamin A, derivatives of Vitamin A, beta-carotene, Vitamin D, derivatives of Vitamin D, anti-inflammatory cytokines.

1 1. The composition of claim 1 , wherein the compound of interest is an anti-oxidant.

12. The composition of claim 1 1 , wherein the compound is selected from the group consisting of resveratrol, vitamin E, vitamin C, -epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and retinyl palmitate (retinoids), lutein, tamarind, flavonoids, pycnogenol, lycopene.

13. The composition of claim 1 , wherein the compound of interest provides a cosmetic effect.

14. The composition of claim 13, wherein the compound is selected from the group consisting of coenzyme Q10, tyrosinases, collagen, laminin, ceramids, linoleic acid, tretinoin, tazarotene and collagen.

15. The composition of claim 13 or claim 14, wherein the cosmetic effect is anti-aging.

16. The composition of claim 13, wherein the cosmetic effect is moisturizing.

17. The composition of claim 1 , wherein the compound of interest is one that treats eczema.

18. The composition of claim 17, wherein the compound is selected from the group consisting of cortisone, tacrolimus and ciclosporin.

19. The composition of claim 1 , wherein the compound of interest is one for preventing or inhibiting body odor.

20. The composition of any preceding claim, wherein the population of transformed bacterial are formulated for topical application to the face.

21. The composition of any preceding claim, wherein the population of transformed bacteria is created from a population of non-pathogenic bacteria resident on the skin in humans.

22. The composition of any preceding claim, wherein the population of transformed bacteria is created from nonpathogenic bacterial members selected from those in the group consisting of Acinetobacter, Actinomycetales, Anaerococcus, Bacillales, Bifidobacterium, Enhydrobacter, Enterococcus, Finegoldia, Carnobacterium, Coryneobacterium, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leunconostoc, Macrooccus, Micrococcineae, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Peptoniphilus, Propionibacterium, Salinicoccus, Sphingomonas, Strepococcus, Tetragenoccus, and Weissella.

23. The composition of claim 22, wherein the transformed bacteria is not

Propionibacterium acnes, a pathogenic strain of Coryneobacterium, S. aureus, or S.

epidermidis.

24. The composition of any preceding claim, wherein the population of transformed bacteria is created from a bacteria selected from those in the group consisting of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Bifidobacterium lognum, Bifidobacterium reuteri, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium breve,

Bifidobacterium animalis, Propionibacterium acidipropionici, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Propionibacterium thoenii, and Propionibacterium jensenii.

25. The composition of any preceding claim, wherein the population of transformed nonpathogenic bacterial members is created from those in a phylum selected from the group consisting of gamma-proteobacteria, alpha-proteobacteria, and bacteriodetes.

26. The composition of any one of claims 22-24, wherein the population of transformed bacteria is created from a population of non-pathogenic skin bacteria.

27. The composition of any preceding claim, wherein the population of transformed bacteria are formulated in the composition for topical application as a cream, lotion, emulsion, ointment, or liquid.

28. The composition of claim 27, wherein the population of transformed bacteria are formulated into the composition to provide at least about 102 bacteria per cm2.

29. A method of treatment, comprising:

topically administering a composition according to any one of claims 1 -28.

30. A method for delivering a compound to the skin for a therapeutic or cosmetic purpose, comprising:

applying to the skin a composition comprising a population of a nonpathogenic bacteria transformed to express the compound of interest, the population of bacteria comprised of a bacterial strain in the skin microbiome.

31. The method of claim 30, wherein the population of non-pathogenic bacteria are live bacteria that express the compound of interest.

32. The method of claim 30, wherein the population of non-pathogenic bacteria is attenuated bacteria or killed bacteria that express the compound of interest prior to or after attenuation or prior to killing.

33. The method of claim 32, wherein the population of non-pathogenic bacteria comprises fragments of the transformed, non-pathogenic bacteria.

34. A composition, comprising:

a population of non-pathogenic bacteria from the skin microbiome, at least a portion of the population of bacteria transformed to express a compound of interest, the composition formulated for topical application to a subject.

35. The composition of claim 34, wherein the population of non-pathogenic bacteria is a population of live bacteria that express the compound of interest.

36. The composition of claim 34, wherein the population of non-pathogenic bacteria is attenuated bacteria or killed bacteria that express the compound of interest prior to or after attenuation or prior to killing.

37. The composition of claim 36, wherein the population of non-pathogenic bacteria comprises fragments of the transformed, non-pathogenic bacteria.

Description:
TOPICAL COMPOSITION COMPRISING TRANSFORMED BACTERIA EXPRESSING A

COMPOUND OF INTEREST

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No.

61/680,620, filed August 7, 2012, and of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/836,594, filed June 18, 2013, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] The subject matter described herein relates to the field of dermatology, and more particularly, to compositions and methods of treatment that comprise transformed bacteria that express a molecule or compound for a topical therapeutic, cosmetic or dermatological purpose.

BACKGROUND

[0003] There are a spectrum of dermatological disorders and conditions that are commonly treated with a topically applied agent. In some treatments, the agent offers a therapeutic purpose, for example for treating or ameliorating psoriasis, eczema or dermatitis. In other treatments, the agent offers a cosmetic or protective effect, such as a skin lightening agent or depigmenting agent or a sun protective agent. Topical application of agents for cosmetics and medical purposes has certain limitations. For example, the applied agent can be swept off easily from the skin or the formulation in which the agent is applied can include chemicals that may interfere with the balance of the natural skin microbiota. Creams and ointments can be messy, greasy, cumbersome, and patients can only treat a limited number of lesions on a limited area, and only on certain anatomic sites. As a result, nearly 35% of prescriptions for topical preparations remained behind the pharmacy counter, the patient opting to not pick up the topical prescription. In contrast, prescriptions for systemic agents fared much better, with reports that only 14% went unredeemed (Storm, A. et al., J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 59:27-33 (2008)).

[0004] There are also disadvantages with topical treatments in terms of the patient understanding of how often and how much to apply. In the case of sunscreens, as just one example, people typically apply sunscreens less than half as thickly as and less often than recommended, thus compromising their protection substantially (Stern, R.S., N Engl J. Med, 350:1526-1534 (2004)).

[0005] There remains a need for more effective topical treatment compositions, for medical, cosmetic and preventative purposes. By way of example, the need for more effective UV protection is recognized around the world, as it is the main cause for the increasing incidence of skin cancers and photoaging. By way of another example, topical treatment of psoriasis and eczema, and other skin disorders, with an effective, long-term therapy is needed.

[0006] Healthy human epidermis is colonized by thousands of bacterial species, including bacterial members from mainly five orders harboring about 60% of the total skin microbiome in all people. A healthy human epidermis is colonized with trillions of bacterial cells, creating, on average, approximately 108 bacteria per square centimeter. The skin microflora has evolved into commensal relationship with the host, as they exploit the unique attributes of the skin and keep the skin ecosystem in a healthy balance (Grice A. E., Science, 324: 1 190-1 192 (2009). A therapy that uses skin bacteria for different dermatological needs would be able to maintain the natural ecosystem of the skin, and also enhance those natural skin bacteria to address specific dermatological needs.

[0007] The use of probiotic micro-organisms for improving the skin's immune function under stress conditions, leading to immune suppression, specifically for normalizing the skin's immune activity and reducing the tendency to develop hyper-reactions under such conditions is described in the art, for example in EP Patent No. 1322318. Cosmetic use of probiotic microorganisms as an active agent useful for treating and/or preventing impairing radiance of the skin complexion has also been described (US2012/0301452). Use of solely probiotics, is one approach for topical skin treatments, yet there remains a need for a longer term and/or more potent approach.

[0008] Transformed bacteria are being used intensively in modern biotechnology for the production of recombinant proteins and various molecules for food, pharmaceutical, and biocatalysis applications. Bacteria able to produce and secrete proteins encoded by heterologous genes are used extensively for the industrial production of pharmaceutical proteins such as human and animal growth hormones, insulin, interferons, cytokines etc. Organisms other than E. coli thus far used or proposed for industrial production include cultured mammalian and insect cells, yeasts and fungi, and various bacteria species, including a number of Bacillus spp. Among the bacteria already widely used for industrial purposes are the lactic acid bacteria, which are employed as starter cultures for fermented foodstuffs, and as flavor enhancers, and preservatives. These properties depend on the ability of these organisms to produce certain enzymes, lactic acid and harmless antimicrobial polypeptides, such as nisin (see, for example. U.S. Patent No. 6,221 ,648).

[0009] The foregoing examples of the related art and limitations related therewith are intended to be illustrative and not exclusive. Other limitations of the related art will become apparent to those of skill in the art upon a reading of the specification and a study of the drawings. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0010] FIGS. 1A-1 C are maps of an exemplary plasmid or vector for transforming a bacterium for expression of a compound of interest.

BRIEF SUMMARY

[0011] The following aspects and embodiments thereof described and illustrated below are meant to be exemplary and illustrative, not limiting in scope.

[0012] In one aspect, a composition comprising a population of transformed bacteria formulated for topical application to a subject is provided, where the population of transformed bacteria is created from a non-pathogenic bacteria transformed to express a compound of interest.

[0013] In one embodiment, the population of non-pathogenic bacteria comprises a bacteria that occurs naturally on the human skin; that is, the bacteria in the population are from the human skin microbiome. In another embodiment, the population of non-pathogenic bacteria is a population of live bacteria that express the compound of interest, and in one embodiment, that chronically express the compound of interest. In another embodiment, the population of non-pathogenic bacteria is a population of attenuated bacteria or killed (dead) bacteria, intact or fragments thereof, where the bacteria prior to attenuation or killing expressed the compound of interest.

[0014] In one embodiment, the compound of interest is one that can absorb or reflect ultraviolet light. In another embodiment, the compound can absorb or reflect ultraviolet A (320- 400 nm), ultraviolet B (315-280 nm), or both.

[0015] In yet another embodiment, the compound of interest expressed by the transformed bacteria is selected from the group consisting of: mycosporine, gadusols, oxo- mycosporines, imino-mycosporines and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), scytonemin, melanines, UV-screening/observing amino acids-like molecules, flavonoids, betalanines, UV- screening/observing pigments (e.g. carotenoids/ cartenoproteins, xanthopylls and porphyrin- based/heme-porphyrin based), UV-screening/observing co-factors (e.g. tetrahydrobiopterin), phenylpropanoids, polyphenol (e.g. tannins), pycnogenol, tyrosinases (and its substrates and products), alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), polysaccharides (e.g. glycosaminoglycans, (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides), skin related cofactors, vitamin E, polymers, and additional skin related natural compounds, such as: collagen, keratin, elastin, linoleic acid, laminin, tretinoin, tazarotene, sargaquinoic acid, sargachromenol, fucoxanthin, retinoid, anti-inflammatory cytokines (as II-2), cortisone, tacrolimus, ciclosporin, resveratrol, gallocatechol, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, retinoid, vitamin A, vitamin A derivatives, beta-carotene, vitamin D, vitamin A derivatives, moisture compounds; cortisone, tacrolimus and ciclosporin, DNA repair enzymes; photolyase, endonuclease and glycosylase.

[0016] In yet another embodiment, the population of transformed bacteria is formulated into the composition to provide at least about 102 bacteria per cm2, or at least about 103, 104, 105, or 106 bacteria per cm2.

[0017] In another embodiment, the composition comprises a second population of transformed bacteria formulated for topical application to a subject, wherein the second population of transformed bacteria is either or both (i) created from a non-pathogenic bacteria that is different from the first population of transformed bacteria in the composition or (ii) transformed to express a compound of interest that is different from the first compound of interest expressed by the first population of transformed bacteria in the composition. In other embodiments, the composition comprises at least one population of transformed bacteria, at least two populations of transformed bacteria, or two or more populations of transformed bacteria.

[0018] In one embodiment, the second population of non-pathogenic bacteria is from the human skin microbiome. In another embodiment, the second population of non-pathogenic bacteria is a population of live bacteria that express the compound of interest, and in one embodiment, chronically express the compound of interest. In another embodiment, the second population of non-pathogenic bacteria is a population of attenuated bacteria or killed (dead) bacteria, intact or fragments thereof, where the bacteria prior to attenuation or killing expressed the compound of interest.

[0019] In still another embodiment, the compound of interest is one for treating psoriasis. Exemplary compounds include, but are not limited to, a compound selected from the group consisting of retinoid, vitamin A, beta-carotene, vitamin D, anti-inflammatory cytokines.

[0020] In one embodiment, the compound of interest is an anti-oxidant.

[0021] In yet another embodiment, the compound is selected from the group consisting of resveratrol, vitamin E, vitamin C, -epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and retinyl palmitate (retinoids), lutein, tamarind, flavonoids, pycnogenol, lycopene.

[0022] In another embodiment, the compound of interest provides a cosmetic effect.

For example, the compound may be selected from the group consisting of coenzyme Q10, tyrosinases, collagen, laminin, ceramids, linoleic acid, tretinoin, tazarotene and collagen. In still another embodiment, the cosmetic effect is anti-aging.

[0023] In still another embodiment, the compound of interest is one that treats eczema.

Exemplary compounds of interest include a compound is selected from the group consisting of cortisone, tacrolimus and ciclosporin. [0024] In other embodiments, the composition comprising the population of transformed bacterial is formulated for topical application to the face. In another embodiment, the composition is formulation for topical application to the skin, excluding mucosal surfaces of the human body.

[0025] In another embodiment, the population of transformed bacteria is created from a population of non-pathogenic bacteria resident on the skin in humans. That is, the population of non-pathogenic bacteria comprise a bacteria typically resident on skin in healthy, non- diseased human beings.

[0026] The population of transformed bacteria is created, in some embodiments, from nonpathogenic bacterial members selected from those in the group consisting of Actinomycetales, Anaerococcus, Bacillales, Bifidobacterium, Enhydrobacter, Finegoldia, Carnobacterium, Coryneobacterium, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leunconostoc, Macrooccus, Micrococcineae, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Peptoniphilus, Propionibacterium, Salinicoccus, Sphingomonas, Strepococcus, Tetragenoccus, and Weissella.

[0027] In other embodiments, the transformed bacteria in the population of transformed bacterial are not Propionibacterium acnes, a pathogenic strain of Coryneobacterium, S. aureus, or S. epidermidis.

[0028] In still another embodiment, the population of transformed bacteria is created from a bacteria selected from those in the group consisting of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Bifidobacterium lognum, Bifidobacterium reuteri, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium animalis, Propionibacterium acidipropionici, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Propionibacterium thoenii, and Propionibacterium jensenii.

[0029] In yet another embodiment, the population of transformed bacteria is created from a bacteria selected from those in a phylum selected from the group consisting of gamma- proteobacteria, alpha-proteobacteria, and bacteriodetes.

[0030] The topical composition that comprises the population of transformed bacteria can be, in various embodiments, a cream, lotion, emulsion, gel, ointment, liquid or spray. In one embodiment, the topical composition is formulated to provide at least about 102 bacteria per cm2.

[0031] In another aspect, a method of treatment is provided, wherein a composition as described herein is topically applied to the skin of a subject, preferably a human subject, for disease preventative, or for a therapeutic or cosmetic purpose. In embodiment, topically applying excludes topically applying to a mucosal surface (nasal, vaginal, rectal, oral surfaces) of a human body. [0032] In addition to the exemplary aspects and embodiments described above, further aspects and embodiments will become apparent by reference to the drawings and by study of the following descriptions.

[0033] Additional embodiments of the present methods and compositions, and the like, will be apparent from the following description, drawings, examples, and claims. As can be appreciated from the foregoing and following description, each and every feature described herein, and each and every combination of two or more of such features, is included within the scope of the present disclosure provided that the features included in such a combination are not mutually inconsistent. In addition, any feature or combination of features may be specifically excluded from any embodiment of the present invention. Additional aspects and advantages of the present invention are set forth in the following description and claims, particularly when considered in conjunction with the accompanying examples and drawings.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

I. Definitions

[0034] Various aspects now will be described more fully hereinafter. Such aspects may, however, be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein; rather, these embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete, and will fully convey its scope to those skilled in the art.

[0035] Where a range of values is provided, it is intended that each intervening value between the upper and lower limit of that range and any other stated or intervening value in that stated range is encompassed within the disclosure. For example, if a range of 1 μηη to 8 μηη is stated, it is intended that 2 μηη, 3 μηη, 4 μηη, 5 μηη, 6 μηη, and 7 μηη are also explicitly disclosed, as well as the range of values greater than or equal to 1 μηη and the range of values less than or equal to 8 μηη.

[0036] As used in this specification, the singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to an "excipient" includes a single excipient as well as two or more of the same or different excipients.

[0037] "Amphophilic" refers to a molecule combining hydrophilic and lipophilic

(hydrophobic) properties.

[0038] "Diluents" may be included in the formulations to dissolve, disperse or otherwise incorporate another component in the formulation. Examples of diluents include, but are not limited to, water, buffered aqueous solutions, organic hydrophilic diluents, such as monovalent alcohols, and low molecular weight glycols and polyols (e.g. propylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, glycerol, butylene glycol). [0039] A "gel" is a colloid in which the dispersed phase has combined with the continuous phase to produce a semisolid material, such as jelly.

[0040] "Hydrophilic" as used herein refers to substances that have strongly polar groups that readily interact with water.

[0041] "Hydrophobic" as used herein refers to substances that lack an affinity for water; tending to repel and not absorb water as well as not dissolve in or mix with water.

[0042] "Lipid soluble" as used herein refers to substances that have a solubility of greater than or equal to 5 g/100 ml_ in a hydrophobic liquid, such as castor oil.

[0043] "Lipophilic" refers to compounds having an affinity for lipids. Examples of lipophilic substances include but are not limited to naturally occurring and synthetic oils, fats, fatty acids, lecithins, triglycerides and combinations thereof.

[0044] An "oil" is a composition containing at least 95% wt of a lipophilic substance.

[0045] "Skin" intends to denote all of the epidermis of an individual, in particular a human being, and in some embodiments to intend, where specified, particular regions of the skin, such as the face, neck, arms, legs, abdomen, hands, back, buttocks, or feet.

[0046] "Water soluble" as used herein refers to substances that have a solubility of greater than or equal to 5 g/100 mL water.

II. Topical Composition

[0047] The composition described herein is comprised of a population of transformed bacteria formulated for topical application to a subject. Described in section A below are exemplary non-pathogenic bacteria suitable for creating the population of transformed bacteria. In section B, compounds of interest to be expressed by the population of transformed bacteria are described, and in section C techniques for creating the transformed bacterial population are set forth. In section D, topical compositions comprising the population of transformed bacteria are disclosed.

A. Exemplary Bacteria

[0048] The population of bacteria in the compositions described herein and for use in the described methods is created from a non-pathogenic bacterium that has been genetically modified to express, produce and/or secrete a compound of interest. In this section, exemplary non-pathogenic bacteria are described. In one embodiment, the bacteria in the population are non-pathogenic and non-invasive microorganisms, and can be in certain embodiments a gram- positive food grade bacterial strain. In another embodiment, the populations of transformed bacteria are prepared from a bacterium that occurs naturally in the skin microbiome. [0049] Human skin is populated with microorganisms that reside on the skin, referred to as the skin microbiome. The bacterial microorganisms resident on the skin (in a healthy (non- diseased) human) are usually non-pathogenic and commensal (not harmful to the host) and/or mutualistic (offer a benefit). The bacteria commonly resident on the human skin are set forth in below, and are indicated by phylogenetic levels, described with their phylogenetic lineage, down to the genus level (Grice, E. A, ei a/., Science, 324(5931 ):1 190-1 192 (2009); Costello, E.K., et al. Science, 326(5960): 1694-1697 (2009), Grice E. A. and J. A. Segre, Nature Reviews Microbiology, 9:244-253 (201 1 )).

[0050] The bacteria forming the population of bacteria in the composition, and that are transformed to express one or more compounds of interest, can be a collection of the same bacteria or a mixture of different bacteria, at different phylogenetic levels. In one embodiment, the populations of bacteria for transformation are a group of individuals of one bacterial species in an area that is separate from other groups of bacteria, apart from rare migration events. In practice, the size and nature of the area (e.g., size and location of area on skin, such as chin, forehead) is defined, often arbitrarily, for a desired purpose. In another embodiment, the bacteria for transformation to prepare the composition are a community of bacteria, intending a collection of populations of different bacteria species that occur together in space and time. In one embodiment, the community of bacteria includes all species (that is, across all trophic levels and/or phylogenetic levels), or, alternatively, includes all trophically similar species (for example, all the plants in a rainforest). In another embodiment, the bacteria for transformation to prepare the composition are a metapopulation, intending a group of populations that are perceived to exist as a series of local populations that are linked by migration between them. In another embodiment, the bacteria for transformation to prepare the composition are a metacommunity, intending an assemblage of trophically similar individuals and species, each of which is perceived to exist as a series of local communities, linked by the dispersal of potentially interacting species (Green, J.L et al., Science, 320(5879): 1039-43 (2008)).

[0051] Bacteria resident on the skin of healthy humans include bacterial species typically resident on the face of humans, such as Actinobacteria, including bacterial in the genus corynebacterium and in the genus propionibacterium. In other embodiments, bacteria resident on the skin of healthy human subjects include bacterial species typically resident on skin other than the face, including for example bacteria in the genus bacteroidetes and proteobacteria. Other bacteria in the skin microbiome include those listed herein below.

[0052] In one embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus Propionibacterium, including but not limited to, Propionibacterium acidifaciens, Propionibacterium acidipropionici, Propionibacterium acidipropionici strain 4900, Propionibacterium acnes, Propionibacterium australiense, Propionibacterium avidum, Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. Freudenreichii, P. freudenreichii ssp. freudenreichii strain 20271 , Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. Shermanii, P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii strain 4902, P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii strain 4902, Propionibacterium granulosum, Propionibacterium innocuum, jensenii, P. jensenii strain 20278, Propionibacterium lymphophilum, Propionibacterium microaerophilum, Propionibacterium propionicum, Propionibacterium thoenii, and P. thoenii strain 20277.

[0053] In another embodiment, the bacteria are a population of bacteria classified as

"generally regarded as safe" (GRAS) in the Propionibacterium genus, including but not limited to Propionibacterium acidipropionici, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. Freudenreichii, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, Propionibacterium jensenii, and Propionibacterium thoenii. In one embodiment, the bacteria is not Propionibacterium acnes.

[0054] In one embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus Corynebacterium, including but not limited to, C. accolens, C. afermentan, C. amycolatum, C. argentoratense, C. aquaticum, C. auris, C. bovis, C. diphtheria, C. equi (now Rhodococcus equi), C. flavescens, C. glucuronolyticum, C. glutamicum, C. granulosum, C. haemolyticum, C. halofytica, C. jeikeium (group JK), C. macginleyi, C. matruchotii, C. minutissimum, C. parvum (Propionibacterium acnes), C. propinquum, C. pseudodiphtheriticum (C. hofmannii), C. pseudotuberculosis, (C. ovis), C. pyogenes, C. urealyticum (group D2), C. renale, C. spec, C. striatum, C. tenuis, C. ulcerans, C. urealyticum, and C. xerosis. Bacterial with lipophilic and nonlipophilic groups are contemplated, and the nonlipophilic bacteria may include fermentative corynebacteria and nonfermentative corynebacteria.

[0055] In another embodiment, the bacteria are a population of bacteria classified as

"generally regarded as safe" (GRAS) in the Corynebacterium genus, including but not limited to Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium casei, Corynebacterium flavescens, and Corynebacterium variabile.

[0056] In one embodiment, the bacteria is not C. diphtheria C. amicolatum, C. striatum,

C. jeikeium, C. urealyticum, and C. xerosis, C. pseudotuberculosis, C. tenuis, C. striatum, or C. minutissimum, as these may be pathogenic.

[0057] In one embodiment, the bacteria are from the suborder Micrococcineae, including but not limited to the GRAS bacteria species Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Arthrobacter bergerei, Arthrobacter globiformis, Arthrobacter nicotianae, Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria varians, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus lylae, Microbacterium gubbeenense, Brevibacterium aurantiacum, Brevibacterium casei, Brevibacterium linens, Brachybacterium alimentarium, and Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. [0058] In one embodiment, the bacteria are from the order Actinomycetales, including but not limited to the GRAS bacteria species Streptomyces griseus subsp. Griseus. In one embodiment, the bacteria Streptomyces griseus will not express tyrosinase.

[0059] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus Staphylococcus, including but not limited to, Staphylococcus agnetis, S. arlettae, S. auricularis, S. capitis, S. caprae, S. carnosus, Staphylococcus caseolyticus, S. chromogenes, S. cohnii, S. condiment, S. delphini, S. devriesei, S. equorum, S. felis, S. fleurettii, S. gallinarum, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. hyicus, S. intermedius, S. kloosii, S. leei, S. lentus, S. lugdunensis, S. lutrae, S. massiliensis, S. microti, S. muscae, S. nepalensis, S. pasteuri, S. pettenkoferi, S. piscifermentans, S. pseudintermedius, S. pseudolugdunensis, S. pulvereri, S. rostra, S. saccharolyticus, S. saprophyticus, S. schleiferi, S. sciuri, S. simiae, S. simulans, S. stepanovicii, S. succinus, S. vitulinus, S. warneri, and S. xylosus.

[0060] In another embodiment, the bacteria are a population of bacteria classified as

"generally regarded as safe" (GRAS) in the order of Staphylococcus, including but not limited to, Staphylococcus carnosus subsp. Carnosus, Staphylococcus carnosus subsp. Utilis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus condimenti, Staphylococcus equorum subsp. Equorum, Staphylococcus equorum subsp. Linens, Staphylococcus fleurettii, Staphylococcus piscifermentans, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococrus sduri subsp. Sduri, Staphylococcus succinus subsp succinus, Staphylococcus succinus subsp. Casei, Staphylococcus vitulinus, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococrus xylosus.

[0061] In one embodiment, the bacteria is not S. aureus or S. epidermidis.

[0062] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus Streptococcus, including but not limited to, Streptococcus acidominimus, Streptococcus adjacens, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus alactolyticus, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus australis, Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus caballi, Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus caprinus, Streptococcus castoreus, Streptococcus cecorum, Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus constellatus subsp. Constellatus, Streptococcus constellatus subsp. Pharyngis, Streptococcus cremoris, Streptococcus criceti, Streptococcus cristatus, Streptococcus danieliae, Streptococcus defectives, Streptococcus dentapri, Streptococcus dentirousetti, Streptococcus didelphis, Streptococcus difficilis, Streptococcus durans, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. Dysgalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. Equisimilis, Streptococcus entericus, Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus equi subsp. Equi, Streptococcus equi subsp. Ruminatorum, Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, Streptococcus equines, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus faecium, Streptococcus ferus, Streptococcus gallinaceus, Streptococcus gallolyticus, Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. Gallolyticus, Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. Macedonicus, Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. Pasteurianus, Streptococcus garvieae, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus halichoeri, Streptococcus hansenii, Streptococcus henryi, Streptococcus hyointestinalis, Streptococcus hyovaginalis, Streptococcus ictaluri, Streptococcus infantarius, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. Coli, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. Infantarius, Streptococcus infantis, Streptococcus iniae, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus intestinalis, Streptococcus lactarius, Streptococcus lactis, Streptococcus lactis subsp. Cremoris, Streptococcus lactis subsp. Diacetilactis, Streptococcus lactis subsp. Lactis, Streptococcus lutetiensis, Streptococcus macacae, Streptococcus macedonicus, Streptococcus marimammalium, Streptococcus massiliensis, Streptococcus merionis, Streptococcus minor, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus morbillorum, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oligofermentans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus orisratti, Streptococcus ovis, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus parauberis, Streptococcus parvulus, Streptococcus pasteurianus, Streptococcus peroris, Streptococcus phocae, Streptococcus plantarum, Streptococcus pleomorphus, Streptococcus pluranimalium, Streptococcus plurextorum, Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus porci, Streptococcus porcinus, Streptococcus porcorum, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudoporcinus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus raffinolactis, Streptococcus ratti, Streptococcus rupicaprae, Streptococcus saccharolyticus, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. Salivarius, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. Thermophilus, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus shiloi, Streptococcus sinensis, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Streptococcus thoraltensis, Streptococcus tigurinus, Streptococcus troglodytae, Streptococcus troglodytidis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus urinalis, Streptococcus vestibularis, and Streptococcus waius.

[0063] In another embodiment, the bacteria are a population of bacteria classified as

"generally regarded as safe" (GRAS) in the genus Streptococcus, including but not limited to, Streptococcus thermophilus strain Th4, Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. Macedonicus, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. Salivarius, and Streptococrus salivarius subsp. Thermophilus.

[0064] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus Lactobacillus, including but not limited to, Lactococcus garvieae, Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. hordniae, Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis, Lactococcus piscium, Lactococcus plantarum, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus agilis, Lactobacillus algidus, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus amylolyticus, Lactobacillus amylophilus, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus animalis, Lactobacillus aviarius, Lactobacillus aviarius subsp. araffinosus, Lactobacillus aviarius subsp. aviarius, Lactobacillus bavaricus, Lactobacillus bifermentans, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus carnis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus casei subsp. alactosus, Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei subsp. tolerans, Lactobacillus catenaformis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus collinoides, Lactobacillus confusus, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis, Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus curvatus subsp. curvatus, Lactobacillus curvatus subsp. melibiosus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus divergens, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus formicalis, Lactobacillus fructivorans, Lactobacillus fructosus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus graminis, Lactobacillus halotolerans, Lactobacillus hamsteri, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus heterohiochii, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus homohiochii, Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus intestinalis, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus kandleri, Lactobacillus kefiri, Lactobacillus kefuranofaciens, Lactobacillus kefirgranum, Lactobacillus kunkeei, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus leichmannii, Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus malefermentans, Lactobacillus mali, Lactobacillus maltaromicus, Lactobacillus manihotivorans, Lactobacillus minor, Lactobacillus minutus, Lactobacillus mucosae, Lactobacillus murinus, Lactobacillus nagelii, Lactobacillus oris, Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, Lactobacillus parakefiri, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus perolens, Lactobacillus piscicola, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain 5 E5a, Lactobacillus rimae, Lactobacillus rogosae, Lactobacillus ruminis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus sakei subsp. camosus, Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salicinius, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus sharpeae, Lactobacillus suebicus, Lactobacillus trichodes, Lactobacillus uli, Lactobacillus vaccinostercus, Lactobacillus vaginalis, Lactobacillus viridescens, Lactobacillus vitulinus, Lactobacillus xylosus, Lactobacillus yamanashiensis, Lactobacillus yamanashiensis subsp. mali, Lactobacillus yamanashiensis subsp. Yamanashiensis and Lactobacillus zeae.

[0065] In another embodiment, the bacteria are a population of bacteria classified as

"generally regarded as safe" (GRAS) in the genus Lactobacillus, including but not limited to, Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP 28, Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 , Lactobacillus subsp. lactis strain NP7, Lactobacillus reuteri strain NCIMB 30242, Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, Lactobacillus reuteri strain DSM 17938, Lactobacillus reuteri strain NCIMB 30242, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain HN001 , Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain HN001 produced in a milk-based medium, Lactobacillus reuteri strain DSM 17938, Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus strain GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, Lactobacillus acidifarinae, Lactobacillus acidipisds, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus alimenmrius, Lactobacillus amylolyticus, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus cacaonum, Lactobacillus casei subsp. Casei, Lactobacillus collinoides, Lactobacillus composti, Lactobacillus co-ryniformis subsp. Coryniformis, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus crustorum, Lactobacillus curvatus subps. Curvatus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Delbrueckii, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Lactis, Lactobacillus dextrinicus, Lactobacillus diolivorans, Lactobacillus fabifermentans, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus fructivorans, Lactobacillus frumenti, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus ghanensis, Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus harbinensis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus homohiochii, Lactobacillus hordei, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus kefiri, Lactobacillus kefiranofadens subsp. Kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus kefiranofadens subsp. Kefirgranum, Lactobacillus kimchii, Lactobacillus kisonensis, Lactobacillus mail, Lactobacillus manihotivorans, Lactobacillus mindensis, Lactobacillus mucosae, Lactobacillus nagelii, Lactobacillus namurensis, Lactobacillus nantensis, Lactobacillus nodensis, Lactobacillus oeni, Lactobacillus otakiensis, Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus parabrevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. Paracasei, Lactobacillus parakefiri, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus perolens, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. Plantarum, Lactobacillus pobuzihii, Lactobacillus ponds, Lactobacillus rapi, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus sakei subsp carnosus, Lactobacillus sakei subsp. Sakei, Lactobacillus sali varius subsp. Salivarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus satsumensis, Lactobacillus secaliphilus, Lactobacillus senmaizukei, Lactobacillus siliginis, Lactobacillus spicheri, Lactobacillus suebicus, Lactobacillus sunkii, Lactobacillus tucceti, Lactobacillus vacdnosterrus, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, and Lactobacillus yamanashiensis.

[0066] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus Lactococcus, including but not limited to, Lactococcus Schleifer, Lactococcus chungangensis, Lactococcus fujiensis, Lactococcus garvieae, Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Cremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Hordniae, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Tructae, Lactococcus piscium, Lactococcus plantarum, and Lactococcus raffinolacti.

[0067] In another embodiment, the bacteria are a population of bacteria classified as

"generally regarded as safe" (GRAS) in the genus Lactococcus, including but not limited to, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Cremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Lactococcus raffinolactis.

[0068] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus Enterococcus, including but not limited to, the GRAS bacteria species Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium.

[0069] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus Tetragenococcus, including but not limited to, Tetragenococcus halophilus and Tetragenococcus koreensis.

[0070] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus Weissella, including but not limited to, the GRAS bacteria species Weissella koreensis, Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella thailandensis, Weissella confusa, Weissella beninensis, Weissella cibaria, Weissella fabaria, Weissella ghanensis, and Weissella hellenica.

[0071] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus Leuconostoc, including but not limited to, the GRAS bacteria species Leuconostoc carnosum, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc fallax, Leuconostoc holzapfelii, Leuconostoc inhae, Leuconostoc kimchii, Leuconostoc lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. Cremoris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. Dextranicum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. Mesenteroides, Leuconostoc palmae, and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides.

[0072] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus Oenococcus, including but not limited to, Oenococcus oeni.

[0073] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus Salinicoccus, including but not limited to, Salinicoccus Ventosa, Salinicoccus albus, Salinicoccus alkaliphilus, Salinicoccus carnicancri, Salinicoccus halodurans, Salinicoccus hispanicus, Salinicoccus iranensis, Salinicoccus jeotgali, Salinicoccus kunmingensis, Salinicoccus luteus, Salinicoccus qingdaonensis, Salinicoccus roseus, Salinicoccus salsiraiae, Salinicoccus sesuvii, and Salinicoccus siamensis.

[0074] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus of Macrococcus, including but not limited to, Macrococcus caseolyticus.

[0075] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the order Bacillales, including but not limited to, the GRAS bacteria species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus coagulans, and Bacillus subbtilis.

[0076] In another embodiment, the bacteria in the population are not Finegoldia magna.

[0077] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus of Anaerococcus, including but not limited to, the species Anaerococcus hydrogenalis, Anaerococcus lactolyticus, Anaerococcus murdochii, Anaerococcus octavius, Anaerococcus prevotii, Anaerococcus tetradius, and Anaerococcus vaginalis. [0078] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus of Peptoniphilus, including but not limited to, the species Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus, Peptoniphilus coxii, Peptoniphilus duerdenii, Peptoniphilus gorbachii, Peptoniphilus harei, Peptoniphilus indolicus, Peptoniphilus ivorii, Peptoniphilus koenoeneniae, Peptoniphilus lacrimalis, Peptoniphilus methioninivorax, Peptoniphilus olsenii, and Peptoniphilus tyrrelliae.

[0079] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus of Enhydrobacter, including but not limited to, the species Enhydrobacter aerosaccus.

[0080] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus of Sphingomonas, including but not limited to, the species Sphingomonas abaci, Sphingomonas adhaesiva, Sphingomonas aerolata, Sphingomonas aestuarii, Sphingomonas alaskensis, Sphingomonas alpine, Sphingomonas aquatilis, Sphingomonas aromaticivorans, Sphingomonas asaccharolytica, Sphingomonas astaxanthinifaciens, Sphingomonas aurantiaca, Sphingomonas azotifigens, Sphingomonas capsulate, Sphingomonas changbaiensis, Sphingomonas chlorophenolica, Sphingomonas chungbukensis, Sphingomonas cloacae, Sphingomonas cynarae, Sphingomonas desiccabilis, Sphingomonas dokdonensis, Sphingomonas echinoides, Sphingomonas endophytica, Sphingomonas faeni, Sphingomonas fennica, Sphingomonas formosensis, Sphingomonas ginsengisoli, Sphingomonas ginsenosidimutans, Sphingomonas glacialis, Sphingomonas haloaromaticamans, Sphingomonas hankookensis, Sphingomonas herbicidovorans, Sphingomonas histidinilytica, Sphingomonas indica, Sphingomonas insulae, Sphingomonas japonica, Sphingomonas jaspsi, Sphingomonas jejuensis, Sphingomonas jinjuensis, Sphingomonas kaistensis, Sphingomonas koreensis, Sphingomonas laterariae, Sphingomonas leidyi, Sphingomonas macrogolitabida, Sphingomonas macrogoltabidus, Sphingomonas mali, Sphingomonas melonis, Sphingomonas molluscorum, Sphingomonas mucosissima, Sphingomonas natatoria, Sphingomonas oligophenolica, Sphingomonas oryziterrae, Sphingomonas panni, Sphingomonas parapaucimobilis, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Sphingomonas phyllosphaerae, Sphingomonas pituitosa, Sphingomonas polyaromaticivorans, Sphingomonas pruni, Sphingomonas pseudosanguinis, Sphingomonas rosa, Sphingomonas roseiflava, Sphingomonas rubra, Sphingomonas sanguinis, Sphingomonas sanxanigenens, Sphingomonas sediminicola, Sphingomonas soli, Sphingomonas starnbergensis, Sphingomonas stygia, Sphingomonas subarctica, Sphingomonas suberifaciens, Sphingomonas subterranean, Sphingomonas taejonensis, Sphingomonas terrae, Sphingomonas trueperi, Sphingomonas ursincola, Sphingomonas wittichii, Sphingomonas xenophaga, Sphingomonas xinjiangensis, Sphingomonas yabuuchiae, Sphingomonas yanoikuyae, and Sphingomonas yunnanensis.

[0081] In another embodiment, the bacteria are GRAS species in the gamma- proteobacteria phylum, such as Halomonas elongata, Hafnia alvei, excluding Hafnia alvei. [0082] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus of Alpha-proteobacteria phylum, including but not limited to, the GRAS species Acetobacter aceti subsp. Aceti, Acetobacter fabarum, Acetobacter lovaniensis, Acetobacter malorum, Acetobacter orientalis, Acetobacter pasteurianus subsp. Pasteurianus, Acetobacter pomorum, Acetobacter syzygii, Acetobacter tropicalis

[0083] Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus,

Gluconacetobacter entanii, Gluconacetobacter europaeus, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, Gluconacetobacter johannae, Gluconacetobacter oboediens, Gluconobacter oxydans, and Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

[0084] In another embodiment, the bacteria are Zymomonas mobilis subsp. Mobilis.

[0085] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the Bacteriodetes phylum, including but not limited to, Bacteriodes xylanisolvens strain DSM 23964.

[0086] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus of Bifidobacterium, including but not limited to, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15703, Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32, Bifidobacterium angulatum, Bifidobacterium, angulatum DSM 20098 = JCM 7096, Bifidobacterium animalis, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Animalis, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis ATCC 25527, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis AD01 1 , Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis ATCC 27673, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis B420, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BI-04, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BLC1 , Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BS 01 , Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis V9, Bifidobacterium asteroids, Bifidobacterium asteroides PRL201 1 , Bifidobacterium biavatii, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521 = JCM 1255, Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4, Bifidobacterium bifidum CECT 7366, Bifidobacterium bifidum DSM 20215, Bifidobacterium bifidum IPLA 20015, Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM 1254, Bifidobacterium bifidum LMG 13195, Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB 41 171 , Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010, Bifidobacterium bifidum S17, Bifidobacterium bombi, Bifidobacterium bourn, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium breve ACS-071-V-Sch8b, Bifidobacterium breve CECT 7263, Bifidobacterium breve DPC 6330, Bifidobacterium breve DSM 20213 = JCM 1 192, Bifidobacterium breve EX336960VC18, Bifidobacterium breve EX336960VC19, Bifidobacterium breve EX336960VC21 , Bifidobacterium breve EX533959VC21 , Bifidobacterium breve HPH0326, Bifidobacterium breve JCP7499, Bifidobacterium breve S27, Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003, Bifidobacterium callitrichos, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium catenulatum DSM 16992 = JCM 1 194, Bifidobacterium choerinum, Bifidobacterium choerinum DSM 20434, Bifidobacterium coagulans, Bifidobacterium indicum, Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense, Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense JCM 15439, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium longum 3_1_37DFAAB, Bifidobacterium longum AGR2137, Bifidobacterium longum BORI, Bifidobacterium longum D2957, Bifidobacterium longum DJO10A, Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Infantis, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis 157F, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 = JCM 1222, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Longum, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum 1-6B, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum 2-2B, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum 35B, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum 44B, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum ATCC 55813, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BBMN68, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum CECT 7347, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum CMCC P0001 , Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum F8, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum JCM 1217, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum JDM301 , Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum KACC 91563, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Suis, Bifidobacterium magnum, Bifidobacterium magnum DSM 20222, Bifidobacterium coryneforme, Bifidobacterium crudilactis, Bifidobacterium cuniculi, Bifidobacterium dentium, Bifidobacterium dentium ATCC 27678, Bifidobacterium dentium ATCC 27679, Bifidobacterium dentium Bd1 , Bifidobacterium dentium JCM 1 195, Bifidobacterium dentium JCVIHMP022, Bifidobacterium gallicum, Bifidobacterium gallicum DSM 20093, Bifidobacterium gallinarum, Bifidobacterium simiae, Bifidobacterium stellenboschense, Bifidobacterium stercoris, Bifidobacterium subtile, Bifidobacterium subtile DSM 20096, Bifidobacterium merycicum, Bifidobacterium minimum, Bifidobacterium minimum DSM 20102, Bifidobacterium mongoliense, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum D2CA, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum DSM 20438 = JCM 1200, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum AGR2145, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. Globosum, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. Pseudolongum, Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum, Bifidobacterium pullorum, Bifidobacterium pullorum ATCC 49618, Bifidobacterium reuteri, Bifidobacterium ruminantium, Bifidobacterium saeculare, Bifidobacterium saguini, Bifidobacterium scardovii, Bifidobacterium scardovii JCM 12489, Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum, Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. Porcinum, Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. Thermacidophilum, Bifidobacterium thermophilum, Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67, Bifidobacterium tsurumiense, Bifidobacterium tsurumiense DSM 17777, Bifidobacterium sp.

[0087] Bifidobacterium breve M-16V, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains

HN019, Bi-07, BI-04 and B420, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain Bf-6, Bifidobacterium longum strain BB536, and Bifidobacterium lactis strain Bb12. [0088] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus of Carnobacterium, including but not limited to, Carnobacterium alterfunditum, Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium funditum, Carnobacterium gallinarum, Carnobacterium inhibens, Carnobacterium jeotgali, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum 38b, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum ATCC 35586, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum LMA28, Carnobacterium mobile, Carnobacterium pleistocenium, Carnobacterium viridians, Carnobacterium sp., Carnobacterium sp. 'eilaticum 02121 1 ',Carnobacterium sp. 1 1-1 , Carnobacterium sp. 12266/2009, Carnobacterium sp. 13-3, Carnobacterium sp. 17-4, Carnobacterium sp. 22-6, Carnobacterium sp. 2673, Carnobacterium sp. 27L, Carnobacterium sp. 35L, Carnobacterium sp. 37-3-1 , Carnobacterium sp. 38ANAV, Carnobacterium sp. 40L, Carnobacterium sp. 7196, Carnobacterium sp. A, Carnobacterium sp. A2S10L14, Carnobacterium sp. A4, Carnobacterium sp. A726, Carnobacterium sp. aG53, Carnobacterium sp. ARCTIC-P2, Carnobacterium sp. ARCTIC-P26, Carnobacterium sp. ARCTIC-P35, Carnobacterium sp. AT12, Carnobacterium sp. AT7, Carnobacterium sp. B, Carnobacterium sp. B5, Carnobacterium sp. BA-8I, Carnobacterium sp. BBDP54, Carnobacterium sp. BBDP71 , Carnobacterium sp. BM-8, Carnobacterium sp. BM-8I, Carnobacterium sp. C-13, Carnobacterium sp. c58, Carnobacterium sp. cG53, Carnobacterium sp. CM1 , Carnobacterium sp. D35, Carnobacterium sp. D4, Carnobacterium sp. D5, Carnobacterium sp. EK-I53, Carnobacterium sp. ES-1 1 , Carnobacterium sp. FBT1-19, Carnobacterium sp. FBT1-22, Carnobacterium sp. FBT3-14, Carnobacterium sp. FBT3-9, Carnobacterium sp. FBT4-1 , Carnobacterium sp. FBT4-18, Carnobacterium sp. G1516J1 L, Carnobacterium sp. G4a-1 , Carnobacterium sp. G5a-1 , Carnobacterium sp. GCM1 , Carnobacterium sp. H126a, Carnobacterium sp. Hg4-03, Carnobacterium sp. I-Bh20-14, Carnobacterium sp. l-Bh4-26, Carnobacterium sp. KA-2, Carnobacterium sp. KA-8, Carnobacterium sp. KH1 , Carnobacterium sp. KOPRI80142, Carnobacterium sp. KOPRI80153, Carnobacterium sp. KOPRI80155, Carnobacterium sp. L02-6127, Carnobacterium sp. LIV10, Carnobacterium sp. LMG 26642, Carnobacterium sp. LV62:W1 , Carnobacterium sp. LV66, Carnobacterium sp. M7-C10, Carnobacterium sp. MARL15, Carnobacterium sp. MKJ37, Carnobacterium sp. NFU35-25, Carnobacterium sp. NJ-46, Carnobacterium sp. R-36982, Carnobacterium sp. RI234, Carnobacterium sp. S171 , Carnobacterium sp. S181 , Carnobacterium sp. Sd5t18, Carnobacterium sp. Sd5t5, Carnobacterium sp. Sd6t1 , Carnobacterium sp. Sd6t15, Carnobacterium sp. Sd6t17, Carnobacterium sp. Sd6t18, Carnobacterium sp. SR2-31-I, Carnobacterium sp. St2, Carnobacterium sp. T301 , Carnobacterium sp. UI49, Carnobacterium sp. UPAA77, Carnobacterium sp. UST050418-652, Carnobacterium sp. WFPIS001 , Carnobacterium sp. WN1359, Carnobacterium sp. WN1370, Carnobacterium sp. WN1371 , Carnobacterium sp. WN1372, Carnobacterium sp. WN1373, Carnobacterium sp. WN1374, Carnobacterium sp. Y6, Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Carnobacterium piscicola, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum strain CB1 (viable and heat- treated), and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum strain CB1.

[0089] In another embodiment, the bacteria are from the genus of Pediococcus, including but not limited to, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus acidilactici 7_4, Pediococcus acidilactici D3, Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 20284, Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M, Pediococcus argentinicus, Pediococcus cellicola, Pediococcus claussenii, Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344, Pediococcus damnosus, Pediococcus damnosus 9-6b, Pediococcus ethanolidurans, Pediococcus inopinatus, Pediococcus lolii, Pediococcus lolii NGRI 0510Q, Pediococcus parvulus, Pediococcus parvulus CIRM 750, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Pediococcus pentosaceus ATCC 25745, Pediococcus pentosaceus IE-3, Pediococcus siamensis, Pediococcus stilesii, Pediococcus sp. 14.8.17, Pediococcus sp. BGM59, Pediococcus sp. BZ-2005, Pediococcus sp. CAT-100BC, Pediococcus sp. CR-6S, Pediococcus sp. CRA51 , Pediococcus sp. EDB-LI4, Pediococcus sp. epsi2-MSE-E3-2, Pediococcus sp. epsi31-MSE-E3-2, Pediococcus sp. FUA 3137, Pediococcus sp. FUA 3140, Pediococcus sp. FUA 3226, Pediococcus sp. GS4, Pediococcus sp. IBUN 186, Pediococcus sp. IE3, Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 , Pediococcus sp. J-1 1 , Pediococcus sp. KDLLL3-1 , Pediococcus sp. L04, Pediococcus sp. LAB4012, Pediococcus sp. LactI O, Pediococcus sp. LQC 1953, Pediococcus sp. LQC 1957, Pediococcus sp. LQC 1963, Pediococcus sp. LQC 1966, Pediococcus sp. LQC 1972, Pediococcus sp. MB2C, Pediococcus sp. MB2D, Pediococcus sp. MFC1 , Pediococcus sp. MMZ60A, Pediococcus sp. MUU10, Pediococcus sp. MUU13, Pediococcus sp. MUU2, Pediococcus sp. MUU3, Pediococcus sp. MUU4, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 106004, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 106014, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 106015, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 106028, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 106032, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107178, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107186, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107193, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107213, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107218, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107221 , Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107222, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107244, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107250, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107256, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107260, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107264, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107299, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107306, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107309, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107310, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107331 , Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107343, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107346, Pediococcus sp. NBRC 107350, Pediococcus sp. NIR1 , Pediococcus sp. NIR3, Pediococcus sp. omega41-FH-E3-2, Pediococcus sp. P14, Pediococcus sp. Pom3, Pediococcus sp. Pom4, Pediococcus sp. Pom7, Pediococcus sp. Pov5, Pediococcus sp. Pov7, Pediococcus sp. Pov8, Pediococcus sp. QCH-42, Pediococcus sp. QCH-66, Pediococcus sp. QCH-67, Pediococcus sp. QMA-03G, Pediococcus sp. QMA- 06CH, Pediococcus sp. QMA-07G, Pediococcus sp. QMA-1 1 , Pediococcus sp. QMA-21 BC, Pediococcus sp. QMA-23BC, Pediococcus sp. QMA-24BC, Pediococcus sp. QMA-27BC, Pediococcus sp. Rrt8, Pediococcus sp. Rrt9, Pediococcus sp. Rrv1 , Pediococcus sp. Rrv3, Pediococcus sp. S17, Pediococcus sp. S18, Pediococcus sp. SD2, Pediococcus sp. Shahsavar, Pediococcus sp. sigal , Pediococcus sp. T1 R1 C23, Pediococcus sp. T1 R4C24, Pediococcus sp. Te6, Pediococcus sp. YCO-02, Pediococcus sp. YCO-04, Pediococcus sp. YCO-09, Pediococcus sp. YCO-10, Pediococcus sp. YCO-1 1 , Pediococcus sp. YCO-12, Pediococcus sp. YCO-13, Pediococcus sp. YCO-16, Pediococcus sp. YCO-17, Pediococcus sp. YCO-18, Pediococcus sp. YCO-23, Pediococcus sp. YCO-25, Pediococcus sp. YCO-26, Pediococcus sp. YCO-28, Pediococcus sp. YXC-17, Pediococcus sp. Z-17, Pediococcus acidilactici strain NP3, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus parvulus, and Pediococcus pentosaceus.

[0090] In one embodiment, any bacteria, listed herein or otherwise known that is pathogenic and/or is an opportunistic pathogenic species is excluded. In another embodiment, the bacteria selected for transformation and to be included in the composition is any one of the bacterial genus listed herein or any one of the specific bacterial species listed herein, or any collection of first and second bacteria listed herein.

[0091] In one embodiment, the bacterial for use in the composition is any bacteria capable of existing on skin, in particular human skin, and more particularly bacteria that reside on human skin and are GRAS bacteria, excluding pathogenic and/or opportunistic bacteria.

[0092] In one embodiment, the composition comprises a population of transformed bacteria and a population of bacteria not transformed to express a compound of interest, e.g., the composition is comprised of a transformed bacteria population and a naturally occurring or probiotic bacteria. Compositions comprising more than one population of bacteria, wherein each population is a collection of individual transformed bacteria for expression of different compounds of interest, as each individual cell able to express more than one compound of interest or each individual cell express one compound, and the collection of different individuals expressing different molecules of interest express different compounds of interest, or wherein one population is transformed and one population is not transformed, are also contemplated. In one embodiment, the composition comprises first and second populations of transformed bacteria formulated for topical application to a subject. In one embodiment, the second population of transformed bacteria is either or both (i) created from a non-pathogenic bacteria that is different from the first population of transformed bacteria in the composition or (ii) transformed to express a compound of interest that is different from the first compound of interest expressed by the first population of transformed bacteria in the composition.

[0093] The bacteria may be included in a composition in a live, attenuated, semi-active or inactivated, or dead form. According to one particular embodiment, these bacteria are used in a live form, and are capable of chronically expressing the compound of interest upon topical application of the composition in which they are formulated. They may also be included in the form of cell component fractions or in the form of metabolites. The bacterial species(s), molecule(s) of interest or fraction(s) may also be introduced in the form of a lyophilized powder, of a culture supernatant, of harvested compound, and/or where appropriate, in a concentrated form.

[0094] According to one variation, the compositions may also contain a divalent inorganic cation. The compositions may be in any of the galenical forms usually available for the method of administration selected. The active molecule synthesized by the bacteria (which in one embodiment are skin bacteria) could be could either stay in the bacteria or secreted outside to the skin.

[0095] Limiting factors can control the bacterial growth. Such limiting factors can exist naturally on the skin and in one embodiment may be included in the composition that is to be applied topically to a subject to be treated. One or more limiting factors may be included in the formulation. In another embodiment the limiting factors are added to complementary products such as soaps, body wash, shampoo, lotion to enrich and nourish the composition, and to keep it active or alive. Examples for limiting factors include amino acids, biotin, nicotinamide and thiamine, pantothenate, riboflavin, folic acid, keratin, lipids, lactate, and melanins. A preferred limiting factor may be the amino acid L-alanin. Bacterial growth can be controlled by the mechanism of origin of replication to limit bacterial cycles. Bacterial cycles can be limited to 50 cycles, or bacterial cycles can be limited to 2-40 cycles. Limitation of bacterial growth can also be achieved by physical environmental factors as pH and temperature.

B. Exemplary Compounds of Interest

[0096] As described above, the bacteria species selected for the composition is transformed using known recombinant techniques to express a compound of interest. Exemplary compounds of interest are listed in the table below, along with an indication of the skin disorder or condition or purpose for which the compound is used.

Purpose of Compound Active compound

alanine), scytonemin

Molecules with sequence similarity to MAAs, such as dehydroquinate synthase homolog (DHQS homolog) and ATP-grasp

Melamines, including eumelanin- (or dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) melanins), pheomelanin allomelanins, pyomelanine, dopamelanin, neuromelanin

UV-screening/observing amino acids-like molecules, such as urocanic acid

Flavonoids, Anthocyanines and anthoxantins, and Anthocyanidins

Betalanines, such as betacyanin and betaxanthins

UV-screening/observing Pigments, such as Carotenoids/ cartenoproteins, carotens, lycopene, xanthopylls, lutins, zeaxanthin, porphyrin-based/heme-porphyrin based, chlorophyll-ll

UV-screening/observing co-factors, such as tetrahydrobiopterin and phenylpropanoids

Polyphenol, Tannins, Phlorotannins, dieckol, eckol, Flavan-3-ols orflavanols, pycnogenol

sargaquinoic acid, sargachromenol, sphaerophorin (depside) pannarin (depsidone)

DNA repair enzymes, that repair damage caused by exposure to UV, like photolyase, endonuclease and DNA glycosylases

Psoriasis Retinoid, Vitamin A, beta-caroten, Vit D and it's derivatives, Anti-inflammatory

cytokines such as lnterleukin-2 (IL-2)

Dry Skin Polymers, such as polyol and glycerol; skin related natural compounds, such as collagen, keratin, elastin, linoleic acid, laminin, tretinoin, tazarotene, sargaquinoic acid, sargachromenol, fucoxanthin, retinoid

Relief of oxidative stress Tyrosinases (and its substrates and products)

caused by UV; Antioxidants, Anti-reactive alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), such as glycolic acid, lactic acid and citric acid oxygen species (Anti- ROS)/ Anti-Aging, Polysaccharides; Glycosaminoglycans, (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides; Hyaluronan moisturizing and (also called hyaluronic acid or hyaluronate or HA)

cosmetics

Skin related cofactors, such as Vitamin A, Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid, or simply ascorbate; Biopterin; Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA); Coenzyme Q10, ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q; CoQ.10; Molybdopterin

Vitamin E; alpha, beta, gamma, delta-tocopherols and alpha, beta, gamma, delta- tocotrienols

Polymers, such as Polyol and Glycerol, Skin related natural compounds, such as collagen, keratin, elastin, linoleic acid, laminin, tretinoin, tazarotene, sargaquinoic acid, sargachromenol, fucoxanthin, retinoid, anti-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-2), cortisone, tacrolimus, cyclosporine, resveratrol, gallocatechol, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate

Eczema cortisone, tacrolimus, cyclosporine

Wound healing/Diabetic anaerobic bacteria delivering oxygen

wounds / Ulcers

Intertrigo/ diaper rash talcum, starch [0097] In one embodiment, a composition for use in protection of skin from ultraviolet radiation is contemplated. That is, the composition is for use as a sunscreen, to absorb or reflect ultraviolet A radiation, typically at a wavelength of between 320-400 nm, ultraviolet B radiation, typically at a wavelength of between 315-280 nm, or both UVA and UVB absorbing and/or reflecting. The transformed bacteria in the composition express one or more of the following exemplary compounds of interest in Group 1 , Group 2, Group 3, Group 4, Group 5, Group 6, Group 7, Group 8, Group 9, Group 10, Group 1 1 and Group 12:

[0098] Group 1 - mycosporine, gadusols, oxo-mycosporines, imino-mycosporines and mycosporine-like Amino Acids (MAA; glycosylated or covalently bound to oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide-linked MAAs); and/or intracellular or extracellular gadusol, deoxygadusol, 4- Deoxygadusol (S2), shinorine, porphyra-334, palythine, palythene, asterina-330, palythinol, mycosporine-glycine, mycosporine serinol, mycosporine-taurine, mycosporine-glycine-valine, mycosporine-2-glycine, mycosporine-glycine-glutamic acid, mycosporine-glutamic acid-glycine, mycosporine-methylamine-serine, mycosporine- methylamine-threonine, usujirene, dehydroxylusujirene, playthenic acid-337, playthenic acid-335, palythine-serine, palythine- threonine, palythine-threonine- sulphate, playthine-serine-sulphate, euhalothece, mycosporine- alanine (2-(e)-2,3-dihydroxipro-1-enylimino-mycosporine-alanine);

Group 2 - Scytonemin;

Group 3 - Melanines: eumelanin- (or dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) melanins), pheomelanin allomelanins, pyomelanine, dopamelanin, neuromelanin;

Group 4 - UV-screening/observing amino acids-like molecules: urocanic acid;

Group 5 - Flavonoids: Anthocyanines and anthoxantins, Anthocyanidins;

Group 6 - Betalanines: betacyanin, betaxanthins;

Group 7 - Molecules with sequence similarity to MAAs: dehydroquinate synthase homolog (DHQS homolog), ATP-grasp;

Group 8 - UV-screening/observing pigments: Carotenoids/ cartenoproteins, carotens, lycopene, Xanthopylls, lutins, zeaxanthin, porphyrin-based/heme-porphyrin based, chlorophyll-ll;

Group 9 - UV-screening/observing co-factors, such as tetrahydrobiopterin and biopterin;

Group 10 - Phenylpropanoids;

Group 1 1 - Tannins: Phlorotannins, dieckol, eckol; and

Group 12 - Sargaquinoic acid, sargachromenol, sphaerophorin (depside), pannarin

(depsidone);

Group 13- DNA repair enzymes that repair damage caused by exposure to UV, such as photolyase, endonuclease, and DNA glycosylase. [0099] In one embodiment, the compound of interest is any one of the compounds listed in any one of Groups 1-13 alone.

[0100] In another embodiment, a composition for use in providing relief of oxidative stress is contemplated, for use as a cosmetic or anti-aging composition. The composition may provide relief form UV exposure, as an anti-oxidant composition. The transformed bacteria in the composition express one or more of the following exemplary compounds of interest in

Group 1 , Group 2, Group 3, Group 4, Group 5, Group 6 and Group 7:

Group 1 - Tyrosinases (and its substrates and products);

Group 2- Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs): Glycolic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid;

Group 3- Polysaccharides: glycosaminoglycans, (GAGs), mucopolysaccharides, hyaluronan

(also called hyaluronic acid or hyaluronate or HA);

Group 4- Skin related cofactors: Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid, or simply ascorbate, Vitamin A, Biopterin, Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA), Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone,

ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, CoQ10), Molybdopterin;

Group 5- Vitamin E: alpha, beta, gamma, delta-tocopherols, alpha, beta, gamma, delta- tocotrienols;

Group 6-Polymers: Polyol, Glycerol;

Group 7- Additional skin related natural compounds, such as collagen, keratin, elastin, linoleic acid, laminin, tretinoin, tazarotene, sargaquinoic acid, sargachromenol, fucoxanthin, retinoid, anti-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-2), cortisone, tacrolimus, ciclosporin, resveratrol, gallocatechol, gallocatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate.

[0101] In other embodiments, a composition for use in treating active dermatitis, acne, burns, insect bites, hives, dandruff and body odor is contemplated. A person of skill in the art can identify compounds of interest to be expressed in the transformed bacteria for treatment of these conditions.

[0102] Compounds having sequence similarity to the sequences of the compounds listed in the table above are also contemplated and may be regarded as identical compounds. Two sequences are said to be "substantially identical and identical" if the sequence of nucleotides or amino acid residues, respectively, in the two sequences has similarity of at least 40%, when aligned for maximum correspondence as described below. Alternatively, percent identity can be any integer from 20% to 100%. More preferred embodiments include at least: 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 91 %, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98 or 99% compared to a reference sequence (e.g., SEQ ID NO:1 ,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 18) using the programs described herein, such as BLAST using standard parameters, as described below. This definition also refers to the complement of a test sequence, when the test sequence has substantial identity to a reference sequence.

[0103] Compounds having a conserved protein domain with sequence similarity to the sequences of the domains of the proteins of the compounds listed in the table above, are also contemplated and may be regarded as identical compounds.

[0104] For sequence comparison, typically one sequence acts as a reference sequence, to which test sequences are compared. When using a sequence comparison algorithm, test and reference sequences are entered into a computer, subsequence coordinates are designated, if necessary, and sequence algorithm program parameters are designated. Default program parameters can be used, or alternative parameters can be designated. The sequence comparison algorithm then calculates the percent sequence identities for the test sequences relative to the reference sequence, based on the program parameters.

[0105] Methods of alignment of sequences for comparison are well-known in the art. As the use of the following programs (provided by the National Center for Biotechnology Information) may be used to determine homologies/identities: BLAST, gapped BLAST, BLASTN and PSI-BLAST, which may be used with default parameters. Optimal alignment of sequences for comparison can be conducted by different methods known in the art, such as, but not limited to, the algorithms of Waterman, Needleman, Pearson, or by manual alignment and visual inspection.

[0106] Because of the degeneracy of the genetic code, a large number of functionally identical nucleic acids encode any given protein. One of skill will recognize the individual codon usage to a nucleic acid, peptide, polypeptide, or protein sequence that alters, adds or deletes a single amino acid or a small percentage of amino acids in the encoded sequence to allow the coding of the compound of interest.

[0107] It will be appreciated that the composition can be used in combination with existing topical compositions intended for treatment of the same or another disorder or condition. For example, the composition described herein for use as a sunscreen may be used in combination with a known sunscreen product, including: titanium dioxide (Ti02), zinc oxide (ZnO), para-aminobenzoic acid, avobenzone, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, ensulizole, 2- phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid, homosalate, homomenthylsalicylat, meradimate, menthyl 2-minobenzoate, menthylanthranilate, octinoxate, menthyl 2-minobenzoate menthylanthranilate, octisalate, 2-ethylhexyl salicylate, octyl salicylate, octocrylene, 2- ethylhexyl-2-cyano-3,3 diphenylacrylate, oxybenzone, benzophenone-3, 2-hydroxy-4- methoxybenzophenone, sulisobenzone, benzophenone-4, drometrizoletrisiloxane, mexoryl XL, enzacamene, 4-Methylbenzylidene camphor, padimate-O, octyl dimethyl PABA, σ-ΡΑΒΑ, terephthalylidene dicamphor sulfonic acid, mexoryl SX, 3,3'-(1 ,4- phenylenedimethylidene) bis[7,7- dimethyl-2-oxobicylclo[2.2.1] hept-1-yl methanesulfonic acid), cinoxate, 2-ethoxyethyl 3-(4- methoxyphenyl) propenoate, diethanolamine-methoxycinnamate, dioxybenzone, benzophenone-8, (2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)- (2-hydroxyphenyl) methanone, triethanolamine salicylate, and trolamine salicylate.

[0108] Nucleic acid sequences coding for the compound of interest can be identified by those of skill in the art, and several examples are set forth herein as:

SEQ ID NO:1 DNA sequence for shinorine operon;

SEQ ID NO:2 DNA sequence for shinorine nostoc;

SEQ ID NO:3 AA sequence for Amino acid adenylation_ Ava_3855;

SEQ ID NO:4 AA sequence for ATP-grasp enzyme-like protein_ Ava_3856;

SEQ ID NO:5 AA sequence for O-methyltransferase, family 3_ Ava_3857;

SEQ ID NO:6 AA sequence for 3-dehydroquinate synthase_ Ava_3858;

SEQ ID NO:7 DNA Ava_3858_3_dehydroquinate synthase;

SEQ ID NO:8 DNA spacer1_4804128_4803953;

SEQ ID NO:9 DNA Ava_3857_ O-methyltransferase;

SEQ ID NO:10 DNA spacer2_48031 14_4803099;

SEQ ID NO:1 1 DNA Ava_3856_ ATP-grasp enzyme-like protein;

SEQ ID NO:12 DNA Spacer3_4804128_4803953;

SEQ ID NO: 13 DNA Ava_3855_ Amino acid adenylation;

SEQ ID NO: 16 DNA forward_primer_for shinorine_operon;

SEQ ID NO: 17 DNA reverse_primer_for shinorine_operon; and

SEQ ID NO: 18 DNA sequence for tyrosynase.

C. Recombinant Molecular Techniques

[0109] Techniques for transformation of any of the bacterial species listed herein or otherwise known in the art are understood by skilled artisans. Several techniques are briefly described herein, and factors to consider in such techniques are now discussed, including 1. Modular organization; 2. Vector types; 3. Expression and improving impression techniques; 4. Expression of insert and validation; and 5. Transformation.

1. Modular Organization

[0110] The transformed bacterial strains can be regarded as cell factory, or vehicles, producing by any method known in the art recombinant proteins (U.S. Patent No. 4,259,444, incorporated by reference herein), and would typically include cloning of the isolated nucleic acid molecule that encodes for the compound of interest into an appropriate vector. The expression vector is built in a modular organization, allowing independent design of each component in separate conditions and an easy exchange of all essential elements. In such a modular vector the essential elements typically include: replicon, promoter (constitutive or inducible with regulation system), gene of interest, marker or reporter, resistance or limiting factor, Multiple cloning site (MCS), shine-delgarno (ribosomal binding site), and terminators, as shown in several systems, as the NICE system (Mierau I and Kleerebezem M., AppI Microbiol Biotechnol. 68:705-17(2005), or based on cryptic plasmids (Shareck J. et al., Crit Rev Biotechnol. 24:155-208 (2004).

[0111] Suitable vectors can be chosen or constructed, containing appropriate regulatory sequences, including promoter sequences, terminator fragments, polyadenylation sequences, enhancer sequences, and other sequences as appropriate. Additional sequences may be added as described above which sequences include a ribosome binding site and a translation start codon.

[0112] Appropriate bacterial expression vectors are known to the person skilled in the art as described in Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual: 2nd edition, Sambrook et al., 1989, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, and there are several studies shown expression vectors for LAB strains, as by Wang T. T. and Lee B. H., Plasmids in Lactobacillus. Crit Rev Biotechnol. 17:227-72 (1997), and specifically in the food industry by Nguyen T. T. et al., J Agric Food Chem. 59:5617-24 (201 1 ).

[0113] Exemplary essential building blocks of a vector are listed in the table below, allowing modular configuration of a backbone plasmid, with different combinations, for a suitable expression of the molecule of interest:

Replicon Promoter- Promoter- Marker or Terminator inducible (inducer) constitutive reporter

Ori+repA, Bacteriocin, dnaJ PermB, cml- LacZ terminator, p15A, p353- (from usp45; High PldhL, P1 chloramphenicol, lollypop structure,

1 , p353-2, Temp), FOS, gadC- (SPL), P10 (air) alanin T1T2, Tcat194, p8014-2, GdR (low pH), grac- (SPL), P1 1 racemase gene, term667, pA1 -derived, lac (IPTG), lacA/ (SPL), P13 Abr, amp (Ap)- term908, TpepA, pAI, pAM- lacC /lacR (SPL), P14 ampicillin, amyS, TpepN, TsaiA beta-1 , (Lactose), lacA/T7 (SPL), P15 ccpA, cloxacillin,

pBG10, (Lactose), lacF, (SPL), P16 Cmr, ermL,

pBM02, lacG, lacS-GaIR (SPL), P17 ery/ern- pC194, (Lactose), lacZ, (SPL), P20 erythromycin

pCI305, NICE system, (SPL), P21 , resistance marker,

pCI528, nisA/F/R/K/P P21 (SPL), estA, genes for

pD125, (Nisin), orfX of P22 (SPL), TTFC,

pFX1/3, sakacin Pregulon, P23, P23 gentamycin, GusA

pG+, pGK12, PA170 (low pH, low (SPL), P25 (beta- pGT633, temp.), pgm, phi31 (SPL), P27 glucuronidas),

pLA106, (and oh; phi (SPL), P29 Kanamycin, LacZ,

pLAB1000, infection), Porfl , (SPL), P3 luxAB, msmR,

pLB10, Porf330, PorfX, (SPL), P30 neomycin, nisi,

pLC2, PpfkA, prtP or ptrM (SPL), P31 nsr, penicillin,

pLF1311 , (absence of (SPL), P32 PepN

pLJ1 , pLP1 , peptides), PsapA, (weak), P33 (aminopeptidase

pLP825, PsapA (sakacin A), (SPL), P34 N), pepO, ptsH,

pLPE323, PsapiP, PslpA, (SPL), P35 streptomycin,

pLUL631 , PsppIP (Sakacin P), (SPL), P38 tetracycline

pND302, PsspA, PsspQ, Ptuf (SPL), P4

pND324, (CDM), Pusp45, (SPL), P40

pOri+, rep/op phi rlt (SPL), P41

pPM4, (Mitomycin C), (SPL), P42

pPSC, repressor/operator (SPL), P43

pPSC20/22, phi rlt (Mytomycin (SPL), P44

pSH71 , C), sodA (Aeration), (SPL), P44

pSK11 L, tec-Rro12 (high (weak), P46

pVS40, temp), hyA, tre, trpE (SPL), P47

pWC1 , (absence of (SPL),

pWS97, tryptophan), xylA P48(SPL),

pWV01 , (Xylose) P5 (SPL),

pWV02, P59, P6

rep256, (SPL), P8 Replicon Promoter- Promoter- Marker or Terminator

inducible (inducer) constitutive reporter

repD+E (SPL), P9

(SPL),

Pami,

Ppgm,

Pspac,

Pveg,

PrRNA1 -a,

PrRNA1 -b,

PrRNA2-b,

PrRNA3-a,

PrRNA3-b,

PrRNA4-a,

PrRNA4-b,

PrRNA5-a,

PrRNA5-b,

Pslp

[0114] The modular organization is a construct that is capable of expression of the coding sequence by the bacterial host cell. In particular such a vector is either an expression vector or a chromosomal integration vector, such as for example described in Steidler L. et al., Nature Biotechnology, 21_(7):785-789 (2003), or by Perez-Arellano I. et al., Plasmid 46:106-16 (2001 ).

[0115] Vectors for transformation of the bacteria can be designed by skilled artisans. An example is set forth in Fig. 1 , and as a sequence in SEQ ID NO:15 and with restriction enzyme as in SEQ ID NO:14. In one embodiment, the vector contains a compatible backbone origin of replication to the bacteria strain in use, a compatible promoter for the expression of molecule of interest, and a compatible resistance gene. The plasmid can contain sequences of restriction enzymes.

2. Vector Types

[0116] The four major types of vectors are plasmids, viral vectors, cosmids, and artificial chromosomes. Common to all engineered vectors are an origin of replication, a multicloning site, and a selectable marker. Any of these are suitable for use herein.

[0117] The sequence codes for the molecule of interest can be inserted into a clone, vector, shuttle, plasmid, BAC, or can also be integrated into the bacterial genome.

[0118] The copy number of the plasmid can be between 5-500 copy numbers per cell. [0119] Exemplary plasmids and expression vectors include but are not limited to:

p252, p256, p353-2 (Leer et al. 1992) , p8014-2, pA1 , pACYC, pAJ01 , pAI-derived (Vujcic & Topisirovic 1993), pall, pAM-beta1 , 2,3,5,8 (simon and chopin 1988), pAR141 1 , pBG10, pBK, pBM02, pBR322, pBR328, pBS-slpGFP, pC194 (McKenzie et al. 1986, 1987; Horinouchi & Weisblum 1982b), PC194/PUB1 10, pC30i1 , pC30il (Skaugen 1989), pCD034-1 , pCD034-2, pCD256, pCI2000, pCI305, pCI528, pCIS3, pCL2.1 , pCT1 138, pD125, pE194, pE194/PLS1 , pEGFP-C1 , pEH, pF8801 , pFG2, pFK-series, pGK-series, pGK12, pGK13, plA, plAV1 ,5,6,7,9, pIL.CatT, plL252/3, plL253, plL7, pISA (low for e.coli), pJW563, pKRV3, pLAB1000 (Josson et al. 1990), pLB4 (Bates & Gilbert 1989, pLBS, pLE16, pLEB124, pLEB590, pLEB591 , pLEB600, pLEB604, pLEP24Mcop, pLJ1 (Takiguchi et al. 1989), pLKS, pl_TK2, pWCFS101 and pMD5057 (Bates & Gilbert, 1989; Skaugen, 1989; Leer et al., 1992; Vujcic & Topisirovic, 1993; Eguchi et al., 2000; Kaneko et al., 2000; Danielsen, 2002; Darning et al., 2003; de las Rivas et al., 2004; van Kranenburg et al., 2005), pLP1/18/30, pLP18, pLP317, pLP317cop, pLP3537, pLP3537xyl, pLP402, pLP825, pLP825 and pLPE323, pLP82H, pLPC37, pLPE23M, pLPE323, pLPE350, pLPI (Bouia et al. 1989), pLS1 , pLS1 and pE194 (Lacks et al. 1986; Horinouchi & Weisblum 1982a), plul631 , pLUL631 from L. reuteri carrying an erythromycin-resistance gene, pM3, pM4, pMD5057, pMG36e, pND324, pNZ-series, pPSC series, pSH71 (de vos, 1987), pSIP-series, pSK1 1 L, pSL2, PSN2, pSN2 (Khan & Novick 1982), pT181 (Koepsel et al. 1987), (Khan & Novick 1983),pT181 , pC194 and pE194 are not functional in B. subtilis (Gruss et al. 1987), pT181 , pE194/pLS1 , pC194/pUB110 and pSN2 (Khan, 2005), pTL, pTRK family, pTRT family, pTUAT35, pUBIIO and pC194 (McKenzie et al. 1986, 1987; Horinouchi & Weisblum 1982b), pUCL22, pULP8/9, pVS40, pWC1 , pWCFS101 , pWV02, pWV04, pWV05, RepA, system BetL.

[0120] In one embodiment, the lactose phosphotransferase system, optionally linked to the E. coli bacteriophage T7 promoter; the L. lactis nisA promoter system; vectors comprising promoters regulated by environmental conditions, such as for example the P170 promoter that is only active at low pH. Another exemplary vector is a cosmid, a hybrid plasmid (often used as a cloning vector) that contains a Lambda phage cos sequence, (cos sites + plasmid = cosmid). DNA sequences are originally from the lambda phage, and cosmids can be used to build genomic libraries. Another example is a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), which is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for transforming and cloning in bacteria, usually E. coli. Suitable vectors can be chosen or constructed, containing appropriate regulatory sequences, including promoter sequences, terminator fragments, polyadenylation sequences, enhancer sequences, marker genes and other sequences as appropriate. Appropriate bacterial expression vectors are known to the person skilled in the art as described in Nouaille S. et al., Genetics and Molecular Research, 2:102-1 1 1 (2003), and in

Maniatis, Sambrook and Fritscb. 1982, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual.

3. Expression and improving expression techniques

[0121] The term heterologous expression means that a protein, or gene of interest, is experimentally put into a cell that does not normally make (i.e., express) that protein e.g., to a cell, or nucleic acid, protein, or vector, indicates that the cell, nucleic acid, protein or vector, has been modified by the introduction of a heterologous nucleic acid or protein or the alteration of a native nucleic acid or protein, or that the cell is derived from a cell so modified. Thus, for example, recombinant cells express genes that are not found within the native (nonrecombinant) form of the cell or express native genes that are otherwise abnormally expressed, under-expressed or not expressed at all. Also, the nucleic acid is typically recombinantly produced, can have two or more sequences from unrelated genes arranged to make a new functional nucleic acid, e.g., a promoter from one source and a coding region to a molecule of interest, from another source.

[0122] The nucleic acid, generated recombinantly or synthetically, with a series of specified nucleic acid elements that permit transcription of a particular nucleic acid in a host cell is called an "expression cassette". The expression cassette can be part of a plasmid, virus, or nucleic acid fragment. Typically, the expression vector includes a nucleic acid to be transcribed operably linked to a promoter.

[0123] Moreover, expression cassettes can include a variety of components to regulate expression and localization of the compound of interest of the invention. For example, expression cassettes can include promoter elements, sequences encoding signal sequences, a coding sequence for the compounds of interest, terminators and anchor sequences.

[0124] Promoters - Expression of the heterologous compound of interest can be constitutive or inducible. The promoter to be used can be, for example, inducible lactobacillus lac promoter, LdhL, Sip, ernB, orfX, or artificially constitutive (Rud I. et al., Microbiology, 152:101 1-92 (2006).

[0125] Examples of promoters are listed in the table of the modular construction, and for example can be, but not limited to: P59 (van der Vossen et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:3142-3149 (1992)), P23 (Elliot et al., Cell 36:21 1-219 (1984)) promoters), Lactobacillus casei L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase promoter (Pouwels et al., 1993, Genetics of lactobacilli: plasmids and gene expression, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 64:85-107), Promoter of Bacillus amylase (Weickert et al., J. Bacteriol. 171 :3656-66 (1989)) or xylose (Kim et al. Gene 181 :71- 76 (1996)) promoters as well as the Lactococcus nisin promoter (Eichenbaum et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:2763-2769 (1998)) can be used to drive inducible expression. Additional promoters can be: p32 promoter which controls expression of Lactococcus lactis fructose-1 ,6- diphosphate aldolase (Van de Guchte et al., 1990, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:2606-261 1 ), T7 gene 10 promoter (Wells et al, 1993, Mol. Microbiol. 8:1 155-1 162), alpha amylase promoter sequence of Lactobacillus amylovirus (Pouwels et al., 1993, Genetics of lactobacilli; plasmids and gene expression, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 64:85-107), and promoters which control expression of: LdhL, Sip, ermB, orfX, p6 (pLA6), pLT71 , T7, p1 1 , lacTp, dltp, ccpAp, pip, and inducible lactobacillus as lac promoter, LdhL, Sip, ernB, orfX, as shown by Kim JH, and Mills DA. Plasmid. 58:275-83 (2007).

[0126] Several recombinant techniques to improve expression, or cloning and expression of elements are known, including molecular biology methods, nucleic acid and clone construction, mutagenesis, sequencing, introduction of DNA into cells, and analysis of proteins, are described in detail in Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Ausubel et al. eds., John Wiley & Sons, 1992, and in Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual: 2nd edition, Sambrook et al., 1989, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Also, it is possible to configure the number of promoters and their length, for better expression (Yagur-Kroll S. et al., Bioeng Bugs, 2010 1 :151-3 (2010).

[0127] The mechanism of replication of the replicon can be of RCR mechanism or by theta-replicating plasmids. The resistance gene can be based on, but not limited to: antibiotics, bacterium marker, heat-shock, or sugar utilization abilities, such as: thymidylate synthase (thyA), lactose phosphotransferase (lacF), phosph-beta-galactosidase (lac G), or alanine recemase (air). Terminator can be added at different positions to provide more efficient expression. A variety of signal and anchor sequences are known to direct expression of polypeptides to the membrane, extracellular space or the cell wall (e.g., by covalent attachment to peptidoglycan).

[0128] In addition to comprising the desired gene, the microorganism may also be manipulated to encode other sequence elements which facilitate production of the desired expression of the molecule of interest by the bacterium. Such sequence elements include, but are not limited to, promoter/regulatory sequences which facilitate constitutive or inducible expression of the protein or which facilitate over-expression of the protein in the bacterium. Additional sequence elements may also include those that facilitate secretion of the protein from the bacterium, accumulation of the protein within the bacterium, and/or programmed lysis of the bacterium in order to release the protein from the same. Many of the sequence elements referred to above are known to those skilled in the art (Maniatis, Sambrook and Fritsch. 1982. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual). 4. Expression of Insert and Validation

[0129] Expression of heterologous genes is widely used in biotechnology, especially in industrial food fermentation, contributing to flavor, texture and preservation.

[0130] Sequences can be inserted in the vector by de-novo sequencing or by PCR amplification, de-novo synthesized is done by the Capillary Electrophoresis method, or based on Sanger sequencing techniques (Sanger et al. (1974)), when the DNA sequence is copied with high fidelity because at each base on the DNA template, DNA polymerase incorporates only the nucleotide that is complementary to that base. Thymine (T) is complementary to adenine (A) and guanine (G) is complementary to cytosine (C) because they can form hydrogen bonds with each other.

[0131] The sequence of the cloned genes and synthetic sequences can be verified after cloning using, e.g., the chain termination method for sequencing double-stranded templates of Wallace et al., Gene 16:21-26 (1981 ).

[0132] Appropriate primers and probes for identifying the genes encoding for the compounds of interest of the invention can be derived from the sequences described in the art. For a general overview of PCR, see, Innis et al., PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications, Academic Press, San Diego (1990).

[0133] The concentration of molecule of interest expressed in the host bacteria can be varied from 0.1 mM to 100 mM. This concentration can be controlled by various parameters, such as: the concentration of bacteria, the copy number of the plasmid, the activity of the promoter, and the kinetics of the molecule of interest.

[0134] Known sequences of compounds of interest can be identified in commercially available databases, as described in more detail herein.

[0135] Exemplary sequences of molecules of interest within the vector are those with genes coding for molecules screening UV. In particular, genes coding for molecules screening UV in the range of 100-500 nm are contemplated. Sequences for molecules of interest within the vector are those with genes coding for molecules reducing oxidative stress, such as genes coding for molecules reducing oxidative stress caused by UV; anti-Oxidants, anti-reactive oxygen species (Anti-ROS). Sequences coding for the genes of interest may be scyA-F, from Cyanobacteria sp. Sun screen compounds, such as shinorine, can be obtained from corals (Stylophora pistallata), fish (Scarus schlegeli and Chlorurus sordidus), algea (Porphyra umbilicalis), microalgea and, bacteria, as from cyanobacterium Nostoc spp., (like as Nostoc flagelliforme or Nostoc sp. PCC 7524) Lyngbya spp., Anabaena spp., and Nodularia spp. Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 Anabaena sp., Anabaena variabilis, Anabaena cylindrica PCC 7122, Cyanothece sp. PCC 7424, Cyanothece sp. PCC 8802, Rivularia sp. PCC 7116, Chroococcidiopsis thermalis PCC 7203, Cylindrospermum stagnate PCC 7417, Stanieria cyanosphaera PCC 7437, Crinalium epipsammum PCC 9333, Crinalium epipsammum PCC 9333, Anabaena sp. 90 chromosome chANAOI , Gloeocapsa sp. PCC 7428, Chlorogloeopsis fritschii, Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 , Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806, Microcystis aeruginosa strain UV027, Planktothrix rubescens NIVA-CYA 98, Microcystis sp. NIVA-CYA 172/5, Nostoc sp. GSV224, or Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112.

[0136] In one embodiment, the sequence for expression of the compound of interest incorporates into the genome of the bacteria.

[0137] The copy number of the plasmid can be between 5-500 copy numbers per cell.

The promoters can be constitutive or inducible.

[0138] In one embodiment, it is possible to add to the vector DNA and amino acid elements like His-tag to allow purification of the molecule of interest. It is also possible to add an element like usp45, which allows exerting the molecule of interest out of the membrane.

[0139] In one embodiment, codon usage can be improved to better express the molecule of interest. Also GC% of the expression vector can be changed and/or reduced.

[0140] In one embodiment, the vector includes a limiting factor, or in another embodiment, a limiting factor is incorporated into the bacterial genome via homologous recombination.

5. Transformation

[0141] With regard to transformation techniques, appropriate bacterial host strains are selected for, e.g. their transformation ability, ability for heterologous protein expression. The bacterial host will be rendered competent for transformation using standard techniques, such as the rubidium chloride method or electroporation (Maniatis, Sambrook and Fritsch. 1982. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual).

[0142] Particular methods for the transformation of LAB strains are provided in the experimental part hereinafter, but are illustrative of techniques known in the art, and are not intended to be limiting.

[0143] Transformation of Lactococcus lactis by electroporation can be performed by modifying standard methods as described in, e.g., Luchansky et al. (J. Dairy Sci. 74: 3293-3302 (1991 ). Briefly, freshly inoculated Lactobacillus spp. are cultured in MRS broth (e.g., to 0.4-0.8 at OD60o at 37° C. and 5% C02). The bacterial cells are harvested, washed and re-suspended in a cold (e.g., 4° C.) solution of sucrose and MgCI2. Competent cells are then mixed with DNA and placed in a chilled gap cuvette and electroporated. Afterward, cells are allowed to recover in pre-warmed broth (e.g., for about two hours at 37° C), prior to being plated on selective agar plate containing an antibiotic other selective agent. [0144] Optimization of electroporation in lactobacillus: To support cloning and heterologous protein expression in these vaginal lactobacillus strains, electroporation methods were developed for application to skin bacteria. Various parameters, including culture media, cell growth stages, DNA concentration, wash or electroporation buffer composition, cuvette gap size, and voltage were evaluated to determine conditions that improved transformation frequencies for the WT lactobacillus strains in our collection. E. co//'-derived plasmids were transformed into Lactobacillus strains by electroporation according to Luchansky et al. (J. Dairy Sci. 74:3293-302 (1991 )) with modifications. Briefly, freshly inoculated Lactobacillus strain were cultured in MRS broth to 0.6-0.7 at OD600 at 37° C. and 5% C02. The bacterial cells were harvested, washed and re-suspended in 952 mM sucrose and 3.5 mM MgCI2 at 4° C. Using a pre-chilled 0.2 cm gap cuvette, competent cells were added with 1~2 pg of plasmid DNA) and electroporated immediately at 2.5 kV/cm and 200 ohms. Afterward, cells were allowed to recover in pre-warmed MRS broth for two hours at 37° C, prior to being plated on selective MRS agar plate containing antibiotic, as 20 pg/ml erythromycin.

6. Harvesting

[0145] Genetic manipulations allows over production, in different cell lines, of various expressed heterologous desired protein. Over expression, recovering the biological recombinant molecule from the skin bacteria, and harvesting a desired molecule, is the essence of the biotechnology industry, and is known to the person skill in the art (Eugene Russo, Nature, 421 456-457 (2003).

[0146] The extracted molecule from the bacteria will be used for dermatological benefits, as for UV protection.

[0147] The harvesting procedure may include mechanical, as bead-beating the bacterial cells, or chemically breaking them, by using lysozyme.

[0148] Isolation of the expressed molecule can be at various cleaning levels, as from

5%-90%, and can be used by molecular and chemical techniques, e.g. HPLC, HIS-tag, and known to the person skill in the art.

[0149] The concentration of the harvested compound can be 1-50% of the biomass before extraction.

[0150] Various compounds including bacterial cells and/or particles of the bacterial cells may be dissolved or suspended in the extracts. The final extract may include lipoproteins, lipopeptides, peptidoglycans, lipooligosaccharides, lipoteichoic acids, and teichoic acids. During the lysis process, molecules in the bacterial cells, may become chemically modified .Variose parameters, as pH, starting volume and temperature, may be range to increase yield of harvesting.

D. Exemplary Topical Compositions

[0151] The transformed, non-pathogenic populations of bacteria are formulated for topical application to the skin of a subject. Without intending to be limiting, but for purposes of exemplary embodiments, it is contemplated that the formulation may be a gel, ointment, lotion, emulsion, cream, foam, mousse, liquid, spray, suspension, dispersion or aerosol. The formulation includes one or more excipients to provide the desired form and a desired viscosity, flow or other physical or chemical characteristics for effective application, coverage and adhesion to the skin.

[0152] Excipients in the formulation are selected based on the type of formulation intended. Standard excipients include gelatin, casein, lecithin, gum acacia, cholesterol, tragacanth, stearic acid, benzalkonium chloride, calcium stearate, glyceryl monostearate, cetostearyl alcohol, cetomacrogol emulsifying wax, sorbitan esters, polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivatives, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters, polyethylene glycols, polyoxyethylene stearates, colloidol silicon dioxide, phosphates, sodium dodecyl sulfate, carboxymethylcellulose calcium, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, methylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethycellulose phthalate, noncrystalline cellulose, magnesium aluminum silicate, triethanolamine, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone, sugars, and starches.

[0153] An emulsion is a preparation of one liquid distributed in small globules throughout the body of a second liquid. The dispersed liquid is the discontinuous phase, and the dispersion medium is the continuous phase. When oil is the dispersed liquid and an aqueous solution is the continuous phase, it is known as an oil-in-water emulsion, whereas when water or aqueous solution is the dispersed phase and oil or oleaginous substance is the continuous phase, it is known as a water-in-oil emulsion. The oil phase may consist at least in part of a propellant, such as an HFA propellant. Either or both of the oil phase and the aqueous phase may contain one or more surfactants, emulsifiers, emulsion stabilizers, buffers, and other excipients. Preferred excipients include surfactants, especially non-ionic surfactants; emulsifying agents, especially emulsifying waxes; and liquid non-volatile non-aqueous materials, particularly glycols such as propylene glycol. The oil phase may contain other oily pharmaceutically approved excipients. For example, materials such as hydroxylated castor oil or sesame oil may be used in the oil phase as surfactants or emulsifiers.

[0154] "Emollients" are an externally applied agent that softens or soothes skin and are generally known in the art and listed in compendia, such as the "Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients", 4th Ed., Pharmaceutical Press, 2003. These include, without limitation, almond oil, castor oil, ceratonia extract, cetostearoyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cetyl esters wax, cholesterol, cottonseed oil, cyclomethicone, ethylene glycol palmitostearate, glycerin, glycerin monostearate, glyceryl monooleate, isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, lanolin, lecithin, light mineral oil, medium-chain triglycerides, mineral oil and lanolin alcohols, petrolatum, petrolatum and lanolin alcohols, soybean oil, starch, stearyl alcohol, sunflower oil, xylitol and combinations thereof. In one embodiment, the emollients are ethylhexylstearate and ethylhexyl palmitate.

[0155] "Surfactants" are surface-active agents that lower surface tension and thereby increase the emulsifying, foaming, dispersing, spreading and wetting properties of a product. Suitable non-ionic surfactants include emulsifying wax, glyceryl monooleate, polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivatives, polysorbate, sorbitan esters, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, cyclodextrins, glycerin monostearate, poloxamer, povidone and combinations thereof. In one embodiment, the non-ionic surfactant is stearyl alcohol.

[0156] "Emulsifiers" are surface active substances which promote the suspension of one liquid in another and promote the formation of a stable mixture, or emulsion, of oil and water. Common emulsifiers are metallic soaps, certain animal and vegetable oils, and various polar compounds. Suitable emulsifiers include acacia, anionic emulsifying wax, calcium stearate, carbomers, cetostearyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cholesterol, diethanolamine, ethylene glycol palmitostearate, glycerin monostearate, glyceryl monooleate, hydroxpropyl cellulose, hypromellose, lanolin, hydrous, lanolin alcohols, lecithin, medium-chain triglycerides, methylcellulose, mineral oil and lanolin alcohols, monobasic sodium phosphate, monoethanolamine, nonionic emulsifying wax, oleic acid, poloxamer, poloxamers, polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivatives, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters, polyoxyethylene stearates, propylene glycol alginate, self-emulsifying glyceryl monostearate, sodium citrate dehydrate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sorbitan esters, stearic acid, sunflower oil, tragacanth, triethanolamine, xanthan gum and combinations thereof. In one embodiment, the emulsifier is glycerol stearate.

[0157] A "lotion" is a low- to medium-viscosity liquid formulation. A lotion can contain finely powdered substances that are in soluble in the dispersion medium through the use of suspending agents and dispersing agents. Alternatively, lotions can have as the dispersed phase liquid substances that are immiscible with the vehicle and are usually dispersed by means of emulsifying agents or other suitable stabilizers. In one embodiment, the lotion is in the form of an emulsion having a viscosity of between 100 and 1000 centistokes. The fluidity of lotions permits rapid and uniform application over a wide surface area. Lotions are typically intended to dry on the skin leaving a thin coat of their medicinal components on the skin's surface. [0158] A "cream" is a viscous liquid or semi-solid emulsion of either the "oil-in-water" or

"water-in-oil type". Creams may contain emulsifying agents and/or other stabilizing agents. In one embodiment, the formulation is in the form of a cream having a viscosity of greater than 1000 centistokes, typically in the range of 20,000-50,000 centistokes. Creams are often time preferred over ointments as they are generally easier to spread and easier to remove.

[0159] The basic difference between a cream and a lotion is the viscosity, which is dependent on the amount/use of various oils and the percentage of water used to prepare the formulations. Creams are typically thicker than lotions, may have various uses and often one uses more varied oils/butters, depending upon the desired effect upon the skin. In a cream formulation, the water-base percentage is about 60-75% and the oil-base is about 20- 30% of the total, with the other percentages being the emulsifier agent, preservatives and additives for a total of 100%.

[0160] An "ointment" is a semisolid preparation containing an ointment base and optionally one or more active agents. Examples of suitable ointment bases include hydrocarbon bases (e.g., petrolatum, white petrolatum, yellow ointment, and mineral oil); absorption bases (hydrophilic petrolatum, anhydrous lanolin, lanolin, and cold cream); water-removable bases (e.g., hydrophilic ointment), and water-soluble bases (e.g., polyethylene glycol ointments). Pastes typically differ from ointments in that they contain a larger percentage of solids. Pastes are typically more absorptive and less greasy that ointments prepared with the same components.

[0161] A "gel" is a semisolid system containing dispersions of small or large molecules in a liquid vehicle that is rendered semisolid by the action of a thickening agent or polymeric material dissolved or suspended in the liquid vehicle. The liquid may include a lipophilic component, an aqueous component or both. Some emulsions may be gels or otherwise include a gel component. Some gels, however, are not emulsions because they do not contain a homogenized blend of immiscible components. Suitable gelling agents include, but are not limited to, modified celluloses, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose and hydroxyethyl cellulose; Carbopol homopolymers and copolymers; and combinations thereof. Suitable solvents in the liquid vehicle include, but are not limited to, diglycol monoethyl ether; alklene glycols, such as propylene glycol; dimethyl isosorbide; alcohols, such as isopropyl alcohol and ethanol. The solvents are typically selected for their ability to dissolve the drug. Other additives, which improve the skin feel and/or emolliency of the formulation, may also be incorporated. Examples of such additives include, but are not limited, isopropyl myristate, ethyl acetate, C12-C15 alkyl benzoates, mineral oil, squalane, cyclomethicone, capric/caprylic triglycerides, and combinations thereof. [0162] Foams consist of an emulsion in combination with a gaseous propellant. The gaseous propellant consists primarily of hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs). Suitable propellants include HFAs such as 1 , 1 ,1 ,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFA 134a) and 1 , 1 , 1 ,2,3,3,3- heptafluoropropane (HFA 227), but mixtures and admixtures of these and other HFAs that are currently approved or may become approved for medical use are suitable. The propellants preferably are not hydrocarbon propellant gases which can produce flammable or explosive vapors during spraying. Furthermore, the compositions preferably contain no volatile alcohols, which can produce flammable or explosive vapors during use.

[0163] Buffers are used to control pH of a composition. Preferably, the buffers buffer the composition from a pH of about 4 to a pH of about 7.5, more preferably from a pH of about 4 to a pH of about 7, and most preferably from a pH of about 5 to a pH of about 7. In a preferred embodiment, the buffer is triethanolamine.

[0164] Preservatives can be used to prevent the growth of fungi and microorganisms.

Suitable antifungal and antimicrobial agents include, but are not limited to, benzoic acid, butylparaben, ethyl paraben, methyl paraben, propylparaben, sodium benzoate, sodium propionate, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, benzyl alcohol, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorobutanol, phenol, phenylethyl alcohol, and thimerosal. In one embodiment, a concentration of a preservative that is effective to prevent fungal growth is selected, without affecting the effectiveness of the composition for its intended purposed upon topical application.

[0165] Penetration enhancers are frequently used to promote transdermal delivery of drugs across the skin, in particular across the stratum corneum. Some penetration enhancers cause dermal irritation, dermal toxicity and dermal allergies. However, the more commonly used ones include urea, (carbonyldiamide), imidurea, N, N-diethylformamide, N-methyl-2- pyrrolidine, 1-dodecal-azacyclopheptane-2-one, calcium thioglycate, 2-pyyrolidine, N,N-diethyl- m-toluamide, oleic acid and its ester derivatives, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, vinyl and glycerylmonooleate, sorbitan esters, such as sorbitan monolaurate and sorbitan monooleate, other fatty acid esters such as isopropyl laurate, isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, diisopropyl adipate, propylene glycol monolaurate, propylene glycol monooleatea and non-ionic detergents such as BRIJ® 76 (stearyl poly(10 oxyethylene ether), BRIJ® 78 (stearyl poly(20)oxyethylene ether), BRIJ® 96 (oleyl poly(10)oxyethylene ether), and BRIJ® 721 (stearyl poly (21 ) oxyethylene ether) (ICI Americas Inc. Corp.).

[0166] The microorganisms may be delivered in effective amounts per unit dose, (or per cm2), of at least 102 colony forming units (cfu) to 1020 cfu per cm2, in particular between 105 cfu to 1012 cfu per cm2. In accordance with the method as described in Balskus, et al. (Science 2010) UV elements are produced to at least 0.5 mM to 1 mM for 106 cfu. Based thereon, the skilled person in the art can calculate the range of produced element at any other dose of cfu. [0167] The biological compositions may further include one or more beneficial compounds in the formulation, for example, UV protection and chemically (or biologically produced) may include added vitamin A.

[0168] The compositions can be prepared by any known or otherwise effective method for formulating or manufacturing the selected product form. In one embodiment, the composition is formulated for application to a skin epidermal surface of a subject, intending to exclude mucosal surfaces, such as nasal, vaginal, rectal, oral surfaces. In one embodiment, topical application excludes the oral cavity, as well as other mucosal surfaces of the body.

[0169] The composition can be formulated to comprise the transformed bacterial at a particular concentration to yield a desired concentration of the compound of interest. For example, the composition can comprise an amount of transformed bacterial such that the microorganisms may be delivered in effective amounts per unit dose, (or per cm2), of at least about 102 colony forming units (cfu) to about 1020 cfu per cm2, in particular between about 102 cfu to about 1020 cfu per cm2. The composition may be formulated with the transformed bacteria in a proportion of at least about 0.0001 % (expressed by dry weight), in particular in a proportion of from about 0.0001 % to about 99%, and more particularly in a proportion of from about 0.001 % to about 90% by weight, in particular from about 0.01 % to about 80% by weight, and especially from about 0.1 % to about 70% by weight, relative to the total weight of the composition. In general, a composition intended to be administered topically, may comprise, for living microorganisms, from about 10 to about 1015 cfu/g, in particular from about 105 to about 1015 cfu/g, and more particularly from about 107 to about 1012 cfu/g of microorganisms per gram of carrier, or at equivalent doses calculated for inactive or dead microorganisms or for bacterial fractions or for metabolites produced. In one embodiment, the compositions that have to be administered topically, the concentration of each bacterial strain and/or corresponding fraction and/or metabolite can be adjusted so as to correspond to doses (expressed as bacterial equivalent) ranging from about 5 x 105 to about 1015 cfu/d, and in particular from about 107 to about 1012cfu/d. A composition for topical application may generally comprise from about 102 to about 1015 cfu/g, in particular from about 105 to about 1012 cfu/g, and more particularly from about 106 to about 1012 cfu/g of bacteria. When a composition comprises compounds of interest, the contents of compounds of interest in the compositions correspond substantially to the contents capable of being produced by about 103 to about 1015 cfu, in particular about 105 to about 1012 cfu, and more particularly about 106 to about 1012 cfu of compounds of interest per gram of carrier.

[0170] In one embodiment, a composition for topical application to the skin for UV protection is contemplated. Photoaging is the alteration in the structure, function and appearance of the skin as a result of prolonged or repeated exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun. It accounts for 90% of age associated cosmetic skin problems in both men and women, and moderate to severe photoaging signs were observed in 72% of men and 47% of women under 30 years of age. Ultraviolet radiation is light in the non-visible area of the spectrum that is of shorter wavelength and higher energy; it ranges roughly from 150 nm to 400 nm. Most of the highest energy UV radiation (UVC radiation at wavelengths less than 280 nm) is absorbed by ozone and stratospheric oxygen. UVB radiation comprised of wavelengths from 280-320 nm and UVA radiation made up of wavelengths from 320-400 nm is the two significant causes of damage in organisms. UVB is particularly harmful to organisms because its absorption by DNA creates cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, which do damage to other DNA, lipids and proteins within the body. It is a common cause of skin cancer. UVA is particularly harmful to organisms because it penetrates deeper into the skin layers. The composition contemplated herein in one embodiment comprises one or more transformed bacteria to express one or more compounds of interest to protect from one or both of UVA and UVB. The composition can be applied to the skin in combination with existing sunscreens of either a chemical (e.g., aminobenzoic acid (PABA), avobenzone, cinoxate, dioxybenzone, ensulizole, homosalate, menthyl anthranilate, meradimate, octocrylene, octyl methoxycinnamate, octisalate, octyl salicylate, octocrylene, oxybenzone, padimate-O, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, sulisobenzone, and minerals: titanium dioxide, trolamine salicylate, zinc oxide) or physical nature.

[0171] The composition of transformed bacteria preferably expresses a compound that protects from UV absorption by the skin, and can be shinorine which a natural mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) small molecule, absorbing UV radiation, which being synthesized by various organisms as cyanobacteria, fungi and algae. In one embodiment, the composition comprising the population of transformed bacteria is a soap or a body wash composition that is applied to the skin.

[0172] The microorganisms may be delivered in effective amounts per unit dose, (or per cm2), of at least about 102 colony forming units (cfu) to about 1020 cfu per cm2, in particular between about 102 cfu to about 1020 cfu per cm2. In embodiments where the compound of interest is for UV protection, UV elements are produced to at least about 0.1 mM to about 100 mM for 102-1020 cfu. Based thereon, the skilled person in the art can calculate the range of produced element at any other dose of cfu. In the particular case of the compositions that have to be administered topically, the concentration of each bacterial strain and/or corresponding fraction and/or metabolite can be adjusted so as to correspond to doses (expressed as bacterial equivalent) ranging from about 5 x 105 to about 1015 cfu/d, and in particular from about 107 to about 1012cfu/d. [0173] A composition for topical application may generally comprise from about 102 to about 1015 cfu/g, in particular from about 105 to about 1012 cfu/g, and more particularly from about 106 to about 1012 cfu/g of bacteria.

[0174] In one embodiment- the transformed bacteria is applied to an animal's skin, such as pets; including dogs and cats- to prevent UV damage, improve odor, and address veterinarian dermatological needs.

III. Methods of Treatment

[0175] In another aspect, methods of treating or preventing disorders or conditions associated with the skin are contemplated. The compositions described above comprising one or more populations of transformed bacteria expressing one or more compounds of interest are applied to the skin in an amount effective to provide a therapeutically effective amount of the compound(s) of interest. As used herein, a therapeutically effective amount is an amount of the topical composition that when administered to a patient or subject, ameliorates, eliminates and/or inhibits the skin disorder or condition in the local region or vicinity of the application of the topical composition.

[0176] In one embodiment, a method of protecting the skin from damage due to sun exposure is provided. Methods of treatment for relief of oxidative stress caused by UV, methods of providing an anti-oxidant, an anti-reactive oxygen species (Anti-ROS)), method for providing skin moisturizing, method for promoting anti-aging, and methods for treating psoriasis, eczema, active dermatitis, acne, wound healing (including diabetic wounds or ulcers), intertrigo/diaper rush, burns, insects bites, hives, dandruff (scales), and methods for providing odor control or removal are contemplated.

IV. Packaging of the Composition

[0177] After formulation, the composition is packaged in a manner suitable for delivery and use by an end user.

[0178] In one embodiment, the composition is placed into an appropriate dispenser and shipped to the end user. Examples of final container may include a pump bottle, squeeze bottle, jar, tube, capsule or vial.

[0179] In some embodiments, the packaging is mindful of the nature of the transformed bacteria in the composition. For example, Lactococci grown via respiration survive markedly better after long time storage than fermenting cells (Gaudu et al., Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 82:263-269 (2002)). This long time survival is probably due to the induction of cytochromes which may protect the cells from oxidative stress. The presence of intracellular glutathione, which is also protecting against oxidative stress, can also result in an improved viability of Lactococcus lactis upon storage (Li et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 69(10):5739 (2003)). Another approach to improve the viability of Lactococci upon storage lays in the adaptation of the spray-drying process, and in the use of process aids, such as microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate, or sodium alginate, which may be used to coat the bacterial particles (EP 1789529 A2). These examples for Lactococcus are intended to be illustrative of the types of packaging approaches that a skilled artisan can identify for any of the bacteria described herein.

[0180] In another embodiment, the bacteria in the composition are lyophilized or freeze dried, for reconstitution before or after application to the skin. In one embodiment, lyophilization or freeze drying is conducted with one or more excipients, such as glycerol or other sugar alcohols, to improve the shelf life of the transformed bacteria. In one embodiment, the lyophilized composition does not include trehalose (a-D-glucopyranosyl-1 ,1-a-D- glucopyranosyde).

[0181] The packaging for the composition may be in a kit form of one or more containers. For example, a single bottle, tube, container, or capsule may be divided to two equal or unequal parts wherein one part contains the bacteria, in their packing form (freeze dried/inactive, etc.), and the other part contains an activation material, which can be a liquid or a gel. The single bottle or container can be designed so that an end user can dispense with a single force applied to the container all or a portion of the contents in the two container parts, to dispense onto the skin or other surface the transformed bacteria and the activation material. The kit may also be of the form that comprises two or more containers, one container with the population(s) of transformed bacteria and the other with a formulation for admixture with the populations of transformed bacteria. In another example, two or more containers, one container with the population of transformed bacteria, the other container with natural non pathogenic skin bacteria that are not transformed, and a third container with a formulation for admixture with the populations of transformed bacteria. In another example, the two or more containers composing the single bottle had one pump connected to two separate tubes, each draining from a different chamber. The kit may also include one or more complementary products, such as soaps, body washes or moisturizing lotions with certain pH, lotions or creams containing active compounds, bacteria and limiting factors etc. In another embodiment, the complementary product is a limiting factor that will enhance the growth, activity and/or expression of the compound of interest to provide a lasting or continuous expression of the compound. The complementary product may include any compound beneficial to the activity of the original product, and enhance its activity for lasting efficacy.

[0182] Another contemplated packaging is one wherein the population of transformed bacteria is maintained as a layer on a bandage or film that is combined with a second layer of bandage/film that will allow activation of the bacteria, and that optionally may also limit reproduction/growth factors.

[0183] In another embodiment, the final product could be stored refrigerated, with the bacteria being in their active state.

[0184] In another embodiment, the bacteria is stored in a small bead of water soluble cellulose. The beads can be mixed in any solution such as sunscreen/moisturizing/ body wash or soap.

III. Examples

[0185] The following example is illustrative in nature and is in no way intended to be limiting.

Example 1

Lactococcus lactis with the element shinorine using vector pBTOP1-shinorine1

A. Bacteria

[0186] Bacteria of the L. lactis strain are used. A stock solution of the strain is stored in

-20° C. in 50% glycerol in GM17/ M17 broth with 0.5% sugar. Bacteria are cultured in GM17 medium// M17 broth with 0.5% sugar or in MRS medium. After 16 hours of incubation, bacteria are harvested by centrifugation and 10-fold concentrated in BM9 medium at 2x109 bacteria/100 μΙ. On plate or slant, the strain will survive 2 - 3 weeks.

[0187] A stock preparation of the bacteria is prepared by inoculating 5 ml_ broth with cells from the slant. The cells are grown overnight at 30 °C. Then 3 ml_ fully grown culture is added to 1 ml 60% glycerol and stored at -80 °C.

B. Genomic Integration into the vector

[0188] pBTOP_shinorine contains the complete operon for shinorine DNA sequence

(SEQ ID NO: 1 ,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, 10,1 1 , 12, 13,14,) and is used production of the compound of interest. Shinorine's operon was integrated in the vector using two exemplary procedures: molecular cloning procedures (Balskus et a/., Science, 329:1653-1656 (2010)), and de-novo sequencing synthesizing of the plasmid sequences together with the shinorine operon.

B1 : Molecular Cloning

[0189] The sequence of shinorine, can be obtained from several sources, such as amplification from genomic Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413, de-novo sequencing according to the complete genome of Anabaena variabilis or Nostoc spp, or amplification from growth culture of Anabaena variabilis. In accordance with the method as described in Balskus, et al. (supra), the complete shinorine gene cluster is PCR amplified from genomic DNA of Anabaena variabilis, using the forward primer ava3858-start1 (with Nde\ restriction site-5'- GAGATCCCATATGAGTATCG TCCAAGCAAAG-3'; SEQ ID NO: 16) and reverse primer ava3855-stop1 (with Xho\ restriction site 5'-

GTACCTCGAGTCATGAATTATTTTCCAGACAATCTTG-3' SEQ ID NO: 17). Primers are designed for ligation into pBTOPI vector so as to encode untagged gene products. PCR reactions contained 25 μΙ_ of master mix, 2 ng of DNA template, and 17 pmoles of each primer in a total volume of 50 μΙ_. Thermocycling is carried out in a PCR machine using the following parameters: denaturation for 1 min at 95 °C, followed by 50 cycles of 30 sec at 95 °C, 1 min at 50 °C, 6 min at 70 °C, and a final extension time of 10 min at 70 °C.

[0190] Amplified fragments are digested with the restriction enzymes Ndel and Xhol for

2.5 hours at 37 °C. Digests contain 2 μΙ_ water, 6 μΙ_ of NEB Buffer 4 (10x), 6 μΙ_ of BSA (10x), 40 μΙ_ of PCR product, 3 μΙ_ of Ndel (20 U/pL), and 3 μΙ_ of Xhol (20 U/pL). Restriction digests are purified directly using agarose gel electrophoresis; gel fragments are further purified using the lllustra GFX kit. The digests are ligated into linearized pBTOPI expression vector using T4 DNA ligase. Ligations are incubated at room temperature for 2 h and contained 3 μΙ_ water, 1 μΙ_ T4 Ligase Buffer (10x), 1 μΙ_ digested vector, 3 μΙ_ digested insert DNA, and 2 μΙ_ T4 DNA Ligase (400 υ/μΙ_). 5 μΙ_ of each ligation is used to transform a single tube of the chosen bacterial strain. The identity of the resulting pBTOPI constructs (shinorine sequence) is confirmed by sequencing of purified plasmid DNA.

B2: Sequencing

[0191] The full sequence of shinorine's operon was searched using known databases as the NCBI and identified, and set forth herein as SEQ ID NO:1 ,2,3,4, 5,6, 7,8,9, 10, 1 1 ,12,13,18 which can be used as a template for de-novo sequencing, to be synthesized as an insert to the plasmid, or can be synthesized within the plasmid.

C. Transformation

[0192] A vector shinorine harboring shinorine sequence (e.g. SEQ ID NO 1 ), or any vector constructed for the purpose of blocking UV radiation to be applied on human skin is transformed into L. lactis strain, according to the following protocol, including the following steps: Preparation of the bacterial cells, transformation, plasmid extraction, growth of bacteria, Spectrophotometer measurements, and storage of transformed bacteria

[0193] Preparation of the cells: briefly, 1-10 ml L. lactis strain from a -80 °C stock grown at 30 °C for 24 hours is inoculated. The culture is diluted by 10X, grown at 30 °C, for 24 hours. The 50 mL culture is diluted by 10X and grow until OD600 is 0.2 - 0.3 (ca. 3 h.), Spin down cells for 20 min 6000 x g, at 4 °C, Wash cells with 400 μΙ_ 0.5 M sucrose, 10% glycerol (4 °C) and spin down (6000 x g), Resuspend the cells in 200 μΙ_ 0.5 M sucrose, 10% glycerol, 50 mM EDTA (4 °C), keep the suspension on ice for 15 min and spin down. Wash cells with 100 mL 0.5 M sucrose, 10% glycerol (4 °C) and spin down (6000 x g). Resuspend the cells in 4 ml 0.5 M sucrose, 10% glycerol (4 °C) Use 40 pL per sample (on ice), or keep the cells in small portions in -80 °C, let them defreeze on ice before use.

[0194] A protocol to transform the cells via electroporation: place 10-100 pL cells in a pre-chilled electroporation cuvette with 1 pL DNA (reconstituted in TE buffer), and keep the cuvette on ice. Use a Biorad Genepulser with following adjustments: 2000 V, 25F, 200 Ω. Pulse (normal reading is 4.5 - 5 msec), add 1 ml growth medium+20mg MgCI2+ 2mM CaCi2. Keep the cuvette for 5 min on ice and incubate 1 - 1.5 h at 30 °C. Plate 10 pL, 100 pi, 900 pL on M17 agar with glucose or lactose and limiting element (depends on plasmid), Incubate 1 - 2 days at 30 °C; and grow the bacteria in liquid for spectrophotometer analysis, and plasmid extraction.

[0195] The cells can also be transformed via heat shock.

[0196] Three samples (transformed bacteria (L. lactis transformed with molecule of interest inserted into vector (e.g. SEQ ID NO 15), only bacterial cells (not transformed); and bacterial strain with a designed vector without the shinorine sequence inserted are checked in a regular spectrophotometer using UV wavelengths of 270 nm, 310 nm, 330 nm, and 360 nm, every 10min for an hour up to 10 days, or 200-400 nm every 10 min for an hour up to 10 days.

[0197] While a number of exemplary aspects and embodiments have been discussed above, those of skill in the art will recognize certain modifications, permutations, additions and sub-combinations thereof. It is therefore intended that the following appended claims and claims hereafter introduced are interpreted to include all such modifications, permutations, additions and sub-combinations as are within their true spirit and scope.