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Title:
SURFACTANT-FREE WATER-FREE FOAMABLE COMPOSITIONS, BREAKABLE FOAMS AND GELS AND THEIR USES
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
A substantially surface active agent free composition which includes a hydrophobic solvent, and/or a petrolatum, a paraffin wax and/or a fatty alcohol, a fatty acid and/or a wax and/or shea butter, with and without a propellant. A substantially surface active agent free composition, further comprising, a tetracycline antibiotic, or a vitamin D derivative, or one or more other active agents. A method of treatment using a substantially surface active agent free composition.


Inventors:
TAMARKIN, Dov (537 Har Hila Street, Ness Ziona, 71908, IL)
GAZAL, Elana (6/3 Sharabi Saadia Street, Rehovot, 76537, IL)
PAPIASHVILI, Irakliy (41/11 Eli Cohen Street, Askelon, IL)
HAZOT, Yohan (Rahavat Ilan 22b/1, Givat Shmuel, IL)
SCHUZ, David (P.O. Box 4038, Ness Ziona, 74140, IL)
KEYNAN, Rita (3 Shauli Street, Rehovot, IL)
Application Number:
IB2010/002612
Publication Date:
04/07/2011
Filing Date:
10/01/2010
Assignee:
FOAMIX LTD. (PO Box 4038, Ness Ziona, 74140, IL)
TAMARKIN, Dov (537 Har Hila Street, Ness Ziona, 71908, IL)
GAZAL, Elana (6/3 Sharabi Saadia Street, Rehovot, 76537, IL)
PAPIASHVILI, Irakliy (41/11 Eli Cohen Street, Askelon, IL)
HAZOT, Yohan (Rahavat Ilan 22b/1, Givat Shmuel, IL)
SCHUZ, David (P.O. Box 4038, Ness Ziona, 74140, IL)
KEYNAN, Rita (3 Shauli Street, Rehovot, IL)
International Classes:
A61K9/12
View Patent Images:
Domestic Patent References:
WO2009090558A2N/A2009-07-23
Foreign References:
200802061592008-08-28
200803111672008-12-18
200702377242007-10-11
200801884452008-08-07
201002211942010-09-02
201100029692011-01-06
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A substantially surfactant free foamable composition comprising: a) about 60% to about 95% by weight of a hydrophobic solvent, or about 1% to about 80%) by weight petrolatum and about 15% to about 94% by weight hydrophobic solvent, wherein if combined the total amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60%> by weight;

b) an oleaginous foamer complex comprising:

(1) about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty alcohol; and

(2) about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty acid and/or a wax and/or shea

butter;

c) a liquefied or compressed gas propellant;

wherein the percent by weight is based on weight foamable composition; wherein the ratio of composition other than propellant to propellant is from about 100:3 to about 100:30; and wherein upon dispensing the foamable carrier composition forms a breakable foam that breaks easily upon application of shear force.

2. The composition of claim 1, further comprising at least one active agent.

3. The composition of claim 2, wherein the active agent is selected form the group

consisting of an active herbal extract (comprising an active substance), an acaricides, an age spot and keratose removing agent, an allergen, an alpha hydroxyl acid, an analgesic agent, an antiacne agent, an antiallergic agent, an antiaging agent, an antiapoptotic agent, an antibacterial agent, an antibiotic, an antiburn agent, an anticancer agent, an

antidandruff agent, an antidepressant, an antidermatitis agent, an antiedemic anent, an antifungal agent, an antihistamine, an antihelminth agent, an antihyperkeratolyte agent, an anti-infective agent, an antiinflammatory agent, an antiirritant, an antilipemic agent, an antimicrobial agent, an antimycotic agent, an antioxidant, an antiparasitic agent, an anti- photodamaging agent, an anti-photoaging agent, an antiproliferative agent, an antipruritic agent, an antipsoriatic agent, an antirosacea agent, an antiseborrheic agent, an antiseptic agent, an antiswelling agent, an antiviral agent, an anti-wart agent, an anti-wrinkle agent, an antiyeast agents, an astringent, a beta-hydroxy acid, benzoyl peroxide, a topical cardiovascular agent, a chemotherapeutic agent, a corticosteroid, an immunogenic substance, a dicarboxylic acid, a disinfectant, a fungicide, a hair growth regulator, a haptene, a hormone, a hydroxy acid, an immunosuppressant, an immunoregulating agent, an immunomodulator, immunostimulant, an insecticide, an insect repellent, a keratolytic agent, a lactam, a local anesthetic agent, a lubricating agent, a masking agent, a metals, a metal oxide, a mitocide, a neuropeptide, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, an oxidizing agent, a pediculicide, a peptide, a protein, a photodynamic therapy agent, a radical scavenger, a refatting agent, a retinoid, a sanative, a scabicide, a self tanning agent, a skin protective agent, a skin whitening agent, a steroid, a steroid hormone, a vasoconstrictor, a vasodilator, a vitamin, a vitamin A, a vitamin A derivative, a vitamin B, a vitamin B derivative, a vitamin C, a vitamin C derivative, a vitamin D, a vitamin D derivative, a vitamin D analog, a vitamin F, a vitamin F derivative, a vitamin K, a vitamin K derivative, a wound healing agent and a wart remover, an androgen, an anti- hyperkeratosis agent, an estrogen, an a pesticide, a progesterone, a sedative, and a vaso active agent.

4. The composition of claim 2, wherein the active agent is a tetracycline antibiotic.

5. The composition of claim 4, wherein the active agent is minocycline or doxycycline.

6. The composition of claim 5, wherein the active agent is minocycline.

7. The composition of claim 6 for use in treatment of a disorder the minocycline

composition having at least one property or activity selected from a list consisting of regenerative, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-photodamaging anti-radiation damage and anti-photo aging.

8. The composition of claim 6 for use in preventing, protecting from or treating UV- induced skin damage.

9. The composition of claim 6, for use in preventing, protecting from or treating a disorder that results in apoptosis wherein the minocycline decreases apoptosis and/or increases cell viability.

10. The composition of claim 6, for use in decreasing apoptosis and/or increasing cell

viability.

11. The composition of claim 6, comprising substantially surfactant- free oleaginous

formulations for use in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in skin pathologies accompanied by apoptotic cell death including rosacea and impetigo.

12. The composition of claim 6, wherein the composition is non-irritant and suitable for

ophthalmic use or other sensitive targets.

13. The composition of claim 6, wherein minocycline has antibacterial activity against one of the species selected from the group consisting of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,

Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA,) Propionbacterium acnes, Acinetobacter, Bacteroides, Haemophilus, Nocardia, M. leprae.

14. The composition of claim 1, wherein the foamer complex is a synergistic composition of at least one fatty alcohol and at least one wax or, at least one fatty alcohol and at least one fatty acid or at least one fatty alcohol, at least one fatty acid and at least one wax.

15. The composition of claim 1, wherein the fatty acid is stearic acid.

16. The composition of claim 1, wherein the fatty alcohol has a carbon chain length of 14 to 22 carbons.

17. The composition of claim 1, wherein the wax is a liquid wax, a solid wax, an animal wax, a vegetable wax, a mineral wax, a natural wax or a synthetic wax, a fatty acid which is a therapeutically active wax, beeswax, hydrogenated castor oil or paraffin wax or mixtures thereof.

18. The composition of claim 1, wherein wax is a combination of at least beeswax and

hydrogenated caster oil and the ratio of beeswax to hydrogenated castor oil is about or at least 1 : 1 or is between about 1 : 1 and about 5: 1.

19. The composition of claim 1, wherein the ratio of fatty alcohol to wax is between about 4: 1 to about 1 :4.

20. The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition is surfactant free.

21. The composition of claim 1 , wherein the composition prevents the degradation of the active ingredient upon application on the target site of treatment.

22. The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition is substantially free of water.

23. The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition is free of short chain alcohols.

24. The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition is a single phase.

25. The composition of claim 1, wherein the hydrophobic solvent is an oil.

26. The composition of claim 1, wherein the hydrophobic solvent is selected from the group consisting of a diglyceride, a PPG alkyl ether, a therapeutic oil, acetylated lanolin alcohol, alexandria laurel tree oil, alkyl benzoate, alkyl octanoate, almond oil, an essential oil, an unsaturated or polyunsaturated oil, apricot stone oil, arachidyl behenate, arachidyl propionate, avocado oil, barley oil, basil oil, beeswax, benzyl laurate, benzyl myristate, benzyl palmitate, bis (octyldodecyl stearoyl) dimer dilinoleate, borage seed oil, butyl myristate, butyl stearate, C12-C15 alkyl benzoate, C12-C15 alkyl octanoate, calendula oil, camphor oil, canelle nut tree oil, canola oil, capric/caprylic triglycerides,

caprylic/capric triglyceride castor oil, caprylyl methicone, cardamom oil, carrot oil, castor oil, cetearyl ethylhexanoate, cetearyl isononanoate, cetearyl octanoate, cetyl acetate, cetyl dimethicone, cetyl ethylhexanoate, cetyl lactate, cetyl myristate, cetyl octanoate, cetyl palmitate, cetyl ricinoleate, citronella oil, clary sage oil, clove oil, cocoglycerides, coconut oil, cod-liver oil, corn oil, cotton oil, cottonseed oil, cyclohexasiloxane, cyclomethicone, Cyclomethicone 5-NF (cyclopentasiloxane), cyclotetrasiloxane, cypress oil, decyl oleate, diethyleneglycol diethylhexanoate, diethyleneglycol diisononanoate, diethyleneglycol dioctanoate, diethylhexanoate, diethylhexyl adipate, diethylhexyl malate, diethylhexyl succinate, diisopropyl adipate, diisopropyl dimerate, diisopropyl sebacate, diisosteary dimer dilinoleate, diisostearyl fumerate, dimethicone, dimethyl polysiloxane, dioctyl malate, dioctyl sebacate, disopropyl adipate, dodecyl oleate, Dow Corning 244 Fluid (cyclotetrasiloxane), Dow corning 246 Fluid (d6+d5)

(cyclohexasiloxane & cyclopentasiloxane), epoxy-modified silicone oil, essential oils, ester derivatives of lanolic acid, ester oils, ethylhexyl cocoate, ethylhexyl ethylhexanoate, ethylhexyl hydroxystarate, ethylhexyl isononanoate, ethylhexyl palmitate, ethylhexyl palmytate, ethylhexyl pelargonate, ethylhexyl stearate, evening primrose oil, fatty acid- modified silicone oil, flaxseed oil, fluoro group-modified silicone oil, frankincense oil, gelled mineral oil, ginger oil, glycereth triacetate, glycerol triheptanoate, glyceryl oleate, glyceryl trioctanoate, glyceryl triundecanoate, grape seed oil, grapefruit oil, groundnut oil, hard fat , hazelnut oil, heavy mineral oil, hempseed oil, herring oil, hexadecyl stearate, hexyl laurate, hydrocarbon oils , hydrogenated castor oil , hyssop oil, isoamyl laurate, isocetearyl octanoate, isocetyl isocetyl behenate, isocetyl lanolate, isocetyl palmitate, isocetyl salicylate, isocetyl stearate, isocetyl stearoyl stearate, isodecyl ethylhexanoate, isodecyl isononanoate, isodecyl oleate, isododecane, isohexadecane isododecane, isohexadecanol, isohexyl decanoate, isononyl isononanoate, isononyl octanoate, isoparaffm, isopropyl isostearate, isopropyl lanolate, isopropyl laurate, isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, isopropyl stearate, isosteary citrate, isosteary salicylate, isosteary tartarate, isostearyl behenate, isostearyl erucate, isostearyl glycolate, isostearyl isononanoate, isostearyl isostearate, isostearyl lactate, isostearyl linoleate, isostearyl linolenate, isostearyl malate, isostearyl neopentanoate, isostearyl palmitate, isotridecyl isononanoate, jasmine oil, jojoba oil, lauryl lactate, lavender oil, lemon oil, light mineral oil, liquid paraffin, liquid triglycerides, lucerne oil, maize germ oil, maleated soybean oil, mandarin oil, manuka oil, marjoram oil, marrow oil, MCT oil, methylphenylpolysiloxane, millet oil, mineral oil, myristyl lactate, myristyl myristate, myristyl neopentanoate, myristyl propionate, myrrh oil, neopentylglycol dicaprate, neopentylglycol dicaprylate/dicaprate, neroli oil, nutmeg oil, octyl palmitate, octyl stearate, octyldodecanol, octyldodecyl behenate, octyldodecyl hydroxystearate, octyldodecyl myristate, octyldodecyl stearoyl stearate, oils from animal origin, oils of plant origin, oleyl erucate, oleyl lactate, oleyl oleate, olive oil, or dimethiconol, palm oil, passionflower oil, peanut oil, PEG/PPG 18/18 dimethicone, pentaerythrityl tetrastearate, petitgrain oil, petrolatum, phenyl trimethicone, phenyltrimethicone,

poly(dimethylsiloxane)-(diphenyl-siloxane) copolymer, polyalkyl siloxane, polyalkylaryl siloxane, polyalphaolefm, polyaryl siloxane, polyaryl siloxanes, polyether group- modified silicone oil cyclomethicone, polyether siloxane copolymer, polyether siloxane copolymers, polyisobutylene, polyolefm, poppy oil, PPG alkyl ethers, PPG- 10 cetyl ether, PPG- 10 oleyl ether, PPG-11 stearyl ether, PPG- 12 butyl ether, PPG- 14 butyl ether, PPG- 15 butyl ether, PPG- 15 stearyl ether, PPG- 16 butyl ether, PPG- 17 butyl ether, PPG- 18 butyl ether, PPG-2 butyl ether, PPG-2 methyl ether, PPG-20 butyl ether, PPG-20 oleyl ether, PPG-22 butyl ether, PPG-23 oleyl ether, PPG-24 butyl ether, PPG-26 butyl ether, PPG-28 cetyl ether, PPG-3 methyl ether, PPG-3 myristyl ether, PPG-30 butyl ether, PPG- 30 cetyl ether, PPG-30 isocetyl ether, PPG-30 oleyl ether, PPG-33 butyl ether, PPG-37 oleyl ether, PPG-4 butyl ether, PPG-4 lauryl ether, PPG-4 myristyl ether, PPG-40 butyl ether, PPG-5 butyl ether, PPG-50 cetyl ether, PPG-50 oleyl ether, PPG-52 butyl ether, PPG-53 butyl ether, PPG-7 lauryl ether, PPG-9 butyl ether, PPG-9-13 butyl ether, propyl myristate, propylene glycol dicaprate, propylene glycol dicaprylate, propylene glycol myristyl ether acetate, propylene glycol ricinoleate, rapeseed oil, rosehip oil, rye oil, safflower oil, sage oil, salmon oil, sesame oil, shea butter, silicone oils, soya oil, soybean oil, stearyl caprate, stearyl dimethicone, stearyl heptanoate, stearyl propionate, sunflower oil, sweet almond oil, synthetic isoalkane, sysymbrium oil, syzigium aromaticum oil, tangerine oil, tea tree oil, therapeutic oils, tocopheryl acetate, tocopheryl linoleate, tridecyl ethylhexanoate, tridecyl isononanoate, triisocetyl citrate, unsaturated or polyunsaturated oils, vanilla oil, verbena oil, walnut oil, wheat germ glycerides, wheat germ oil, white petrolatum and mixtures thereof.

27. The composition of claim 3, wherein the Vitamin D derivative is calcitriol or calcipotriol or the corticosteroid is mometasone furoate.

28. The composition of claim 1 , wherein the composition is essentially free of polyols.

29. The composition of claim 2, for intradermal delivery of the active agent into the skin with minimal or negligible transdermal delivery.

30. The composition of claim 1 , wherein the composition has some preservative efficacy.

31. The composition of claim 2, for use in eye infections.

32. The composition of claim 2, wherein the composition is physically and chemically stable for at least two months.

33. The composition of claim 2, wherein more than 90% of the active agent does not break down over a period of at least six months at room temperature.

34. A method of treating or alleviating or preventing a dermatological or mucosal disorder, comprising: applying a substantially surfactant free foamable composition comprising to a surface having a dermatological or mucosal disorder in need of treatment, said composition comprising: a) about 60% to about 95% by weight of a hydrophobic solvent or about 1%> to about 80%) by weight petrolatum and about 15%> to about 94%> by weight hydrophobic solvent wherein if combined the total amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60%> by weight;

b) an oleaginous foamer complex comprising:

(1) about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty alcohol; and

(2) about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty acid and/or a wax and/or shea

butter;

c) at least one active agent

d) liquefied or compressed gas propellant;

wherein the percent by weight is based on weight foamable composition; wherein the ratio of composition other than propellant to propellant is from about 100:3 to about 100:30; and wherein upon dispensing the foamable carrier composition forms a breakable foam that breaks easily upon application of shear force.

35. The method of claim 34, wherein the active agent is selected form the group consisting of an active herbal extract (comprising an active substance), an acaricides, an age spot and keratose removing agent, an allergen, an alpha hydroxyl acid, an analgesic agent, an antiacne agent, an antiallergic agent, an antiaging agent, an antiapoptotic agent, an antibacterial agent, an antibiotic, an antiburn agent, an anticancer agent, an antidandruff agent, an antidepressant, an antidermatitis agent, an antiedemic anent, an antifungal agent, an antihistamine, an antihelminth agent, an antihyperkeratolyte agent, an anti-infective agent, an antiinflammatory agent, an antiirritant, an antilipemic agent, an antimicrobial agent, an antimycotic agent, an antioxidant, an antiparasitic agent, anti-photodamaging, anti-photoaging an antiproliferative agent, an antipruritic agent, an antipsoriatic agent, an antirosacea agent, an antiseborrheic agent, an antiseptic agent, an antiswelling agent, an antiviral agent, an anti-wart agent, an anti-wrinkle agent, an antiyeast agents, an astringent, a beta-hydroxy acid, benzoyl peroxide, a topical cardiovascular agent, a chemotherapeutic agent, a corticosteroid, an immunogenic substance, a dicarboxylic acid, a disinfectant, a fungicide, a hair growth regulator, a haptene, a hormone, a hydroxy acid, an immunosuppressant, an immunoregulating agent, an immunomodulator, an insecticide, an insect repellent, a keratolytic agent, a lactam, a local anesthetic agent, a lubricating agent, a masking agent, a metals, a metal oxide, a mitocide, a neuropeptide, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, an oxidizing agent, a pediculicide, a peptide, a protein, a photodynamic therapy agent, a radical scavenger, a refatting agent, a retinoid, a sanative, a scabicide, a self tanning agent, a skin protective agent, a skin whitening agent, a steroid, a steroid hormone, a vasoconstrictor, a vasodilator, a vitamin, a vitamin A, a vitamin A derivative, a vitamin B, a vitamin B derivative, a vitamin C, a vitamin C derivative, a vitamin D, a vitamin D derivative, a vitamin D analog, a vitamin F, a vitamin F derivative, a vitamin K, a vitamin K derivative, a wound healing agent and a wart remover, an androgen, an anti-hyperkeratosis agent, an estrogen, an

immunostimulant, a pesticide, a progesterone, a sedative, and a vaso active agent.

36. The method of claim 34, wherein the active agent is a tetracycline antibiotic.

37. The method of claim 34, wherein the active agent is minocycline or doxycycline.

38. The method of claim 34, wherein the foamer complex is a synergistic composition of at least one fatty alcohol and at least one wax or, at least one fatty alcohol and at least one fatty acid or at least one fatty alcohol, at least one fatty acid and at least one wax.

39. The method of claim 34, wherein the fatty acid is stearic acid.

40. The method of claim 34, wherein the fatty alcohol has a carbon chain length of 14 to 22 carbons.

41. The method of claim 34, wherein the wax is a liquid wax, a solid wax, an animal wax, a vegetable wax, a mineral wax, a natural wax or a synthetic wax, a fatty acid which is a therapeutically active wax, beeswax, hydrogenated castor oil, or paraffin wax or mixtures thereof.

42. The method of claim 34, wherein the composition is surfactant free.

43. The method of claim 34, wherein the composition prevents the degradation of the active ingredient upon application on the target site of treatment.

44. The method of claim 37 wherein the composition is substantially free of water.

45. The method of claim 34, wherein the composition is free of short chain alcohols.

46. The method of claim 34, wherein the composition is a single phase.

47. The method of claim 34, wherein the hydrophobic solvent is an oil.

48. The method of claim 34, wherein the hydrophobic solvent is selected from the group

consisting of a diglyceride, a PPG alkyl ether, a therapeutic oil, acetylated lanolin alcohol, alexandria laurel tree oil, alkyl benzoate, alkyl octanoate, almond oil, an essential oil, an unsaturated or polyunsaturated oil, apricot stone oil, arachidyl behenate, arachidyl propionate, avocado oil, barley oil, basil oil, beeswax, benzyl laurate, benzyl myristate, benzyl palmitate, bis (octyldodecyl stearoyl) dimer dilinoleate, borage seed oil, butyl myristate, butyl stearate, C12-C15 alkyl benzoate, C12-C15 alkyl octanoate, calendula oil, camphor oil, canelle nut tree oil, canola oil, capric/caprylic triglycerides,

caprylic/capric triglyceride castor oil, caprylyl methicone, cardamom oil, carrot oil, castor oil, cetearyl ethylhexanoate, cetearyl isononanoate, cetearyl octanoate, cetyl acetate, cetyl dimethicone, cetyl ethylhexanoate, cetyl lactate, cetyl myristate, cetyl octanoate, cetyl palmitate, cetyl ricinoleate, citronella oil, clary sage oil, clove oil, cocoglycerides, coconut oil, cod-liver oil, corn oil, cotton oil, cottonseed oil, cyclohexasiloxane, cyclomethicone, Cyclomethicone 5-NF (cyclopentasiloxane), cyclotetrasiloxane, cypress oil, decyl oleate, diethyleneglycol diethylhexanoate, diethyleneglycol diisononanoate, diethyleneglycol dioctanoate, diethylhexanoate, diethylhexyl adipate, diethylhexyl malate, diethylhexyl succinate, diisopropyl adipate, diisopropyl dimerate, diisopropyl sebacate, diisosteary dimer dilinoleate, diisostearyl fumerate, dimethicone, dimethyl polysiloxane, dioctyl malate, dioctyl sebacate, disopropyl adipate, dodecyl oleate, Dow Corning 244 Fluid (cyclotetrasiloxane), Dow corning 246 Fluid (d6+d5)

(cyclohexasiloxane & cyclopentasiloxane), epoxy-modified silicone oil, essential oils, ester derivatives of lanolic acid, ester oils, ethylhexyl cocoate, ethylhexyl ethylhexanoate, ethylhexyl hydroxystarate, ethylhexyl isononanoate, ethylhexyl palmitate, ethylhexyl palmytate, ethylhexyl pelargonate, ethylhexyl stearate, evening primrose oil, fatty acid- modified silicone oil, flaxseed oil, fluoro group-modified silicone oil, frankincense oil, gelled mineral oil, ginger oil, glycereth triacetate, glycerol triheptanoate, glyceryl oleate, glyceryl trioctanoate, glyceryl triundecanoate, grape seed oil, grapefruit oil, groundnut oil, hard fat , hazelnut oil, heavy mineral oil, hempseed oil, herring oil, hexadecyl stearate, hexyl laurate, hydrocarbon oils , hydrogenated castor oil , hyssop oil, isoamyl laurate, isocetearyl octanoate, isocetyl isocetyl behenate, isocetyl lanolate, isocetyl palmitate, isocetyl salicylate, isocetyl stearate, isocetyl stearoyl stearate, isodecyl ethylhexanoate, isodecyl isononanoate, isodecyl oleate, isododecane, isohexadecane isododecane, isohexadecanol, isohexyl decanoate, isononyl isononanoate, isononyl octanoate, isoparaffm, isopropyl isostearate, isopropyl lanolate, isopropyl laurate, isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, isopropyl stearate, isosteary citrate, isosteary salicylate, isosteary tartarate, isostearyl behenate, isostearyl erucate, isostearyl glycolate, isostearyl isononanoate, isostearyl isostearate, isostearyl lactate, isostearyl linoleate, isostearyl linolenate, isostearyl malate, isostearyl neopentanoate, isostearyl palmitate, isotridecyl isononanoate, jasmine oil, jojoba oil, lauryl lactate, lavender oil, lemon oil, light mineral oil, liquid paraffin, liquid triglycerides, lucerne oil, maize germ oil, maleated soybean oil, mandarin oil, manuka oil, marjoram oil, marrow oil, MCT oil, methylphenylpolysiloxane, millet oil, mineral oil, myristyl lactate, myristyl myristate, myristyl neopentanoate, myristyl propionate, myrrh oil, neopentylglycol dicaprate, neopentylglycol dicaprylate/dicaprate, neroli oil, nutmeg oil, octyl palmitate, octyl stearate, octyldodecanol, octyldodecyl behenate, octyldodecyl hydroxystearate, octyldodecyl myristate, octyldodecyl stearoyl stearate, oils from animal origin, oils of plant origin, oleyl erucate, oleyl lactate, oleyl oleate, olive oil, or dimethiconol, palm oil, passionflower oil, peanut oil, PEG/PPG 18/18 dimethicone, pentaerythrityl tetrastearate, petitgrain oil, petrolatum, phenyl trimethicone, phenyltrimethicone,

poly(dimethylsiloxane)-(diphenyl-siloxane) copolymer, polyalkyl siloxane, polyalkylaryl siloxane, polyalphaolefm, polyaryl siloxane, polyaryl siloxanes, polyether group- modified silicone oil cyclomethicone, polyether siloxane copolymer, polyether siloxane copolymers, polyisobutylene, polyolefm, poppy oil, PPG alkyl ethers, PPG- 10 cetyl ether, PPG- 10 oleyl ether, PPG-11 stearyl ether, PPG- 12 butyl ether, PPG- 14 butyl ether, PPG- 15 butyl ether, PPG- 15 stearyl ether, PPG- 16 butyl ether, PPG- 17 butyl ether, PPG- 18 butyl ether, PPG-2 butyl ether, PPG-2 methyl ether, PPG-20 butyl ether, PPG-20 oleyl ether, PPG-22 butyl ether, PPG-23 oleyl ether, PPG-24 butyl ether, PPG-26 butyl ether, PPG-28 cetyl ether, PPG-3 methyl ether, PPG-3 myristyl ether, PPG-30 butyl ether, PPG- 30 cetyl ether, PPG-30 isocetyl ether, PPG-30 oleyl ether, PPG-33 butyl ether, PPG-37 oleyl ether, PPG-4 butyl ether, PPG-4 lauryl ether, PPG-4 myristyl ether, PPG-40 butyl ether, PPG-5 butyl ether, PPG-50 cetyl ether, PPG-50 oleyl ether, PPG-52 butyl ether, PPG-53 butyl ether, PPG-7 lauryl ether, PPG-9 butyl ether, PPG-9-13 butyl ether, propyl myristate, propylene glycol dicaprate, propylene glycol dicaprylate, propylene glycol myristyl ether acetate, propylene glycol ricinoleate, rapeseed oil, rosehip oil, rye oil, saffiower oil, sage oil, salmon oil, sesame oil, shea butter, silicone oils, soya oil, soybean oil, stearyl caprate, stearyl dimethicone, stearyl heptanoate, stearyl propionate, sunflower oil, sweet almond oil, synthetic isoalkane, sysymbrium oil, syzigium aromaticum oil, tangerine oil, tea tree oil, therapeutic oils, tocopheryl acetate, tocopheryl linoleate, tridecyl ethylhexanoate, tridecyl isononanoate, triisocetyl citrate, unsaturated or polyunsaturated oils, vanilla oil, verbena oil, walnut oil, wheat germ glycerides, wheat germ oil, white petrolatum and mixtures thereof.

49. The method of claim 35, wherein the active agent is a Vitamin D derivative which can be a calcitriol or calcipotriol or the corticosteroid is mometasone furoate .

50. The method of claim 34, wherein the composition is essentially free of polyols.

51. The method of claim 34, for intradermal delivery of the active agent into the skin with minimal or negligible transdermal delivery.

52. The method of claim 34, wherein the composition has some preservative efficacy.

53. The method of claim 34, for use in eye infections.

54. The method of claim 34, wherein the composition is physically and chemically stable for at least two months.

55. The composition of claim 34, wherein more than 90% of the active agent does not break down over a period of at least six months at room temperature. The method according to claim 56, wherein the disorder or disease is selected from a group(s) consisting of: bacterial infection, a benign tumor, a bullous disease, a burn, a chlamydia infection, a condition which respond to hormone therapy, a cut, a dermatitis, a dermatophyte infection, a dermatose, a disorder of a body cavity, a disorder of

cornification, a disorder of the nose, a disorder of the penile urethra or ear canal, a disorder of the rectum, a disorder of the respiratory system, a disorder of the vagina, a disorder which responds to hormone replacement therapy, a disorder which responds to transdermal nicotine administration, a disorders of hair follicles, a disorders of sebaceous glands, a disorders of sweating, a fungal infection, a gonorrhea infection, a gynecological disorders that respond to hormonal therapy, a malignant tumor, a non-dermatological disorder which responds to topical or transdermal delivery of an active agent, a parasitic infection, a pelvic inflammation, a pigmentation disorder, a scaling papular diseases, a sexual dysfunction disorder, a sexually transmitted disease, a vaginal disorder, a viral infection, a vulvar disorder, a vulvovaginal infection, a wound, a yeast infection, abscess, acne, acne conglobata, acne fulminans, acne scars, acne vulgaris, actinic keratosis, acute and chronic salpingitis, acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, acute lymphangitis, acute pelvic inflammatory disease, acute soft tissue injury, albinism, allergic contact dermatitis, alopecia, alopecia areata, alopecia totalis, alopecia universalis, an allergy, an anal abscess or fistula, an anal and rectal disease, an anal disorder, an anal fissure, an anal wart, an ear disorder, an hormonal disorder, an inflammatory reaction, an intra- vaginal or rectal sexually-transmitted and non-sexually-transmitted infectious disease, anal cancer, anal excoriation, anal fissures, anal itch, anal pruritus, anal soreness, anal warts, angiomas, arthritis, athlete's foot, atopic dermatitis, back pain, bacterial skin infections, bacterial vaginosis, baldness, basal cell carcinoma, benign tumors, blisters, bromhidrosis, bullous diseases, bullous pemphigoid, burn, calluses, calluses candidiasis, cancer of the cervix, cancer of the vagina, cancer of the vulva, candidal vaginitis, candidiasis, carbuncles, cellulitis, cervical cancer, cervicitis, chancroid, chemical burns, chicken pox, chloasma, cholesteatoma, cholinergic urticaria, chronic dermatitis, chronic effects of sunlight, cold sores, cold urticaria, comedones, constipation, contact dermatitis, corns, creeping eruption, Crohn's disease, cutaneous abscess, cutaneous larva migrans, cutaneous myiasis, dark spots, delusional parasitosis, Dercum disease, dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, dermatofibroma, dermatological inflammation, dermatological pain, dermatophytoses, dermographism, diaper rash, drug eruptions and reactions, drug-induced

hyperpigmentation, dyshidrotic eczema, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dysplastic nevi, ecthyma, ectodermal dysplasia, ectopic pregnancy, eczema, endometriosis, endometritis, epidermal necrolysis, epidermoid cyst, erysipelas, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, erythrasma, exfoliative dermatitis, fallopian tube cancer and gestational trophoblastic disease, fecal incontinence, female orgasmic disorder, folliculitis, fungal nail infections, fungal skin infections, furuncles, gangrene, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, genital cancer, genital herpes, genital ulcer, genital warts, granuloma annulare, granuloma inguinale, gynecological neoplasms including endometrial cancer, head lice, hemorrhoids, hepatitis B, herpes, herpes simplex, hidradenitis suppurativa, hirsutism, HIV/ AIDS, hives, human papillomavirus (HPV), hyperhidrosis, hyperpigmentation melasma, hypertrichosis, hypohidrosis, hypopigmentation, ichthyosis, impetigo, inflammatory acne, inflammatory reactions, ingrown nails, intertrigo, irritant contact dermatitis, ischemic necrosis, itching, jock itch, joint pain, Kaposi's sarcoma, keloid, keratinous cyst, keratoacanthoma, keratosis pilaris, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, lichen simplex chronicus, linear immunoglobulin A disease, lipomas, localized pain in general, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, lymphogranloma venereum, male pattern baldness, malignant melanoma, malignant tumors, mastocytosis, measles, melanoma, midcycle pain, midcycle pain due to ovulation, miliaria, mittelschmerz, moles, molluscum contagiosum, MRSA, mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC), muscle pain, necrotizing fasciitis, necrotizing myositis, necrotizing subcutaneous infection, necrotizing subcutaneous infections, nodular papulopustular acne, nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), noninflammatory acne, nummular dermatitis, oophoritis, oral herpes, osteoarthritis, osteoarthritis, ovarian cancer, ovarian cysts and masses, paget's disease of the nipples, panniculitis, papules, parapsoriasis paronychia, parasitic infections, parasitic skin infections, paronychial infection, pediculosis, pelvic congestion syndrome, pelvic inflammatory disease, pelvic pain, pemphigus, perianal pruritus, perianal thrush, perioral dermatitis, photo-allergy, photo-damage, photo-irritation, photosensitivity, pigmentation disorders, pimples, pityriasis Lichenoides, pityriasis rosea, pityriasis rubra pilaris, poison ivy, poison oak, polyps of the colon and rectum, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, postinflammatory hypopigmentation, post-operative or post-surgical skin conditions, premenstrual syndrome, pressure sores, pressure ulcers, pressure urticaria, pruritis, pruritus ani, pseudofolliculitis barbae, psoriasis, PUPPP, purpura, pustules, pyogenic granuloma, rash, reactions to sunlight, rectal abscess, rectal fistula, rheumatic pain, ringworm, rosacea, roseola, rubella, salpingitis, scabies, scalded skin syndrome, scaling papular diseases, scarring, scleroderma, sebaceous cyst, seborrheic dermatitis, seborrheic keratoses, seborrheic keratosis, sexual arousal disorder, shingles, skin aging, skin cancer, skin neoplasia, skin neoplasms, skin rash, skin tags, skin ulcers, sports injuries, squamous cell carcinoma, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, stasis dermatitis, Stevens- Johnson syndrome, sun spots, sunburn, thermal burns, tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis, tinea versicolor, toxic epidermal necrolysis, trauma or injury to the skin, trichomonas vaginalis, trichomoniasis, vaginal cancer, vaginal dryness, vaginismus, varicella zoster virus, viral skin infections, vitamin D deficiency, vitiligo, vulvar cancer, vulvar disorders, vulvar dystrophy, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), vulvar pain, vulvodynia, warts, water hives, wrinkles, xerosis, yeast skin infections, zoster.

Description:
SURFACTANT-FREE WATER-FREE FOAMABLE COMPOSITIONS, BREAKABLE

FOAMS AND GELS AND THEIR USES

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of priority under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) to United States Provisional Application No. 61/248,144 filed October 2, 2009 and entitled

"Surfactant-Free Water-Free Foamable Compositions, Breakable Foams and Their Uses; United States Provisional Application No. 61/322,148 filed April 8, 2010 and entitled "Surfactant-Free Water-Free Foamable Compositions, Breakable Foams and Their Uses; United States Provisional Application No. 61/349,911 filed May 31, 2010 and entitled "Surfactant-Free Water-Free Foamable Compositions, Breakable Foams and Their Uses; United States Provisional

Application No. 61/385,385 filed September 22, 2010 and entitled "Surfactant-Free Water-Free Foamable Compositions, Breakable Foams and Gels and Their Uses; United States Provisional Application No. 61/331,126 filed May 4, 2010 and entitled "Compositions, Gels and Foams with Rheology Modulators and Uses Thereof; and United States Provisional Application No.

61/380,568 filed September 7, 2010 and entitled "Surfactant-Free Water-Free Foamable

Compositions and Breakable Foams and Their Uses; all of which are herein incorporated in their entirety by reference.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Foam compositions with high amounts of hydrophobic solvents are little known in the art.

[0003] Foams and, in particular, oleaginous single -phase foams are complicated systems which do not form under all circumstances. Slight shifts in foam composition, such as by the addition of active ingredients or the removal of any of the essential ingredients, may destabilize the foam.

[0004] The prior art teaches oleaginous foam compositions require significant amounts of surface active agents to form a foam. These compositions require various standard surfactants, as essential components.

[0005] Surfactants are known as essential ingredients in foam compositions because of their amphiphilic properties and because they are considered essential in forming a foam. However, many surfactants are known to be irritating when left on the skin, as they can extract lipids from the skin, thereby damaging skin barrier and exposing the skin to contact with pro-inflammatory factors. (See for example: Effendy, I. and Maibach, H.I. "Surfactants and Experimental Irritant Contact Dermatitis. " Contact Dermatol., 33 (1995), 217-225). Many surfactants can also react with unstable active agents and lead to their rapid degradation.

[0006] Briefly, the term surfactant has been often loosely used in the art to include substances which do not function effectively as stand alone surfactants to reduce surface tension between two substances or phases. Reduction of surface tension can be significant in foam technology in relation to the ability to create small stable bubbles. In the context herein, the term "standard surfactant" or "customary surfactant" refers to customary non-ionic, anionic, cationic, zwitterionic, amphoteric and amphiphilic surfactants. Many standard surfactants are derivatives of fatty alcohols or fatty acids, such as ethers or esters formed from such fatty alcohols or fatty acids with hydrophilic moieties, such as polyethyleneglycol (PEG). However, a native (non derivatized) fatty alcohol or fatty acid, as well as waxes are not regarded as a standard surfactant.

[0007] In the context herein the term "foam adjuvant" includes only native fatty alcohols and fatty acids. These are amphiphatic, and essentially hydrophobic with a minor hydrophilic region. For the purposes of forming an emulsion these foam adjuvants, unlike "standard" or "customary surfactants", are not effective as stand-alone surfactants in foamable emulsion compositions, because of their very weak emulsifying capacity on their own. Fatty alcohols and fatty acids have been loosely described as co-surfactants in foamable emulsion compositions, because they assist customary surfactants to boost foam quality, help evolve the foaming properties and because they stabilize the foam in part because of their property as thickeners.

SUMMARY

[0008] The present application relates to oleaginous foamable formulations and foams and their uses comprising hydrophobic solvents. In addition, it relates to formulations with an active agent. Surprisingly, the application also relates to foamable formulations and foam without surfactants; and/or without surfactants and polymeric agents. In one or more embodiments the hydrophobic solvents are provided as part of a drug carrier. For example certain drugs require hydrophobic solvents in order to solubilize them. In one or more other embodiments, the hydrophobic solvents are provided to facilitate or enhance the transdermal penetration or delivery of a drug. In one or more additional cases, the hydrophobic solvents are provided to have an occlusive effect at the target site, for example where the site of treatment is a damaged skin and the occlusive effect of hydrophobic solvents is desirable. The application further describes semi solid gel compositions that liquefy on application of mild shear force such as gentle rubbing.

[0009] It is known in the art that foams can easily be formulated based on high amounts of water, in combination with surface active agents, foam adjuvants and polymeric agents. As described in the literature, hydrophobic solvents can have a de-foaming effect which makes the formulation of foams based on hydrophobic solvents challenging, especially in compositions that do not contain water. To overcome this challenge, the prior art requires the use of substantial levels of surfactants that act as foaming agents. Surface active agents are known to be irritating, especially ionic surface active agents and repeated use can cause dry skin and so it is desirable to reduce their use in pharmaceutical compositions intended to treat skin or mucosa. The prior art further teaches the incorporation of foam adjuvants, such as fatty alcohols and fatty acids, as foam stabilizing agents and also the incorporation of polymeric agents (e.g. gelling agents) as foam stabilizers, which can prolong the collapse time of a foam. Waxes may also be introduced into these surfactant-based formulations but as will be appreciated, waxes, which are solids at ambient temperature, can easily precipitate.

[0010] The technical problems to be overcome in formulating carriers and pharmaceutical compositions with hydrophobic solvent (a) without surfactants; and/or (b) without polymeric agents and/or (c) without water and/or (e) without short chain alcohols and/or (f) without polyols; are multifold and include finding a suitable substitute for surfactant which provides foam generating properties; finding a suitable replacement that preferably does not need to have a foam adjuvant present with the surfactant (substitute), which if present would inter alia help to boost the foam and as an aid to the surfactant and preferably does not need to have a polymeric agent present with the surfactant (substitute), which if present would inter alia help prolong stability of the foam.

[0011] It was surprisingly discovered in the present invention, that surface active agents can be advantageously eliminated and replaced by foam adjuvants and waxes in the context of hydrophobic solvent based-foams. Waxes possess several advantages over other foaming agents such as excellent skin compatibility, almost no chemical reactivity which ensures active ingredients stability and efficient skin occlusion which helps reducing skin water loss and can enhance skin penetration of active agents. Albeit waxes introduce their own additional problems into formulating foamable compositions and foams, including their tendency to solidify and precipitate out from a formulation and to block canister valves, against which the formulations need to be designed so that the formulations are not negatively disturbed upon adding an effective amount of propellant and that the formulations are shakable and are homogenous and can readily reform at least upon mild or reasonable shaking prior to use.

[0012] Incorporated in or added to the above is the aspect of how to provide formulations in which unstable active ingredients, such as tetracyclines, which readily degrade can nevertheless remain sufficiently chemically stable for prolonged periods of time such that allowing for a reasonable or acceptable amount of breakdown (for example as may be accepted by a regulatory drug authority) they remain capable of providing a therapeutic effect or prevention or remission of a disorder or disease (hereinafter "chemically stable"). A further challenge is providing and delivering a composition in which the active agent is homogenous. Additionally the formulations should avoid the use of substances, which can be irritating if applied to a sensitive target or can cause depletion or drying or soreness on repeated use.

[0013] Incorporated in or added to the above is the aspect of how to provide physically stable formulations which are at least short term stable upon release from the pressurized container and not break as a result of exposure to skin temperature. Foams which are structurally stable on the skin for at least one minute are termed "short term stable" carriers or foams. In another aspect of physically stability the foamable formulation including propellant remains homogenous and does not separate to any significant extent for at least one minute after being shaken (hereinafter "physically stable").

[0014] A feature of a product for cosmetic or medical use is long term stability. Propellants, which are a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, tend to impair the stability. The foamable compositions herein are surprisingly stable, even in the absence of customary surfactants. Following accelerated stability studies, they demonstrate desirable texture; they form fine bubble structures that do not break immediately upon contact with a surface, spread easily on the treated area and absorb quickly. In one or more embodiments the foam composition has an acceptable shelf-life of at least six months. In one or more embodiments the foam composition has an acceptable shelf-life of at least one year, In one or more embodiments the foam

composition has an acceptable shelf- life of at least 15 months, or at least 18 months or at least 21 months or at least two years at ambient temperature.

[0015] In one or more embodiments there is provided a composition which is a single phase.

[0016] In one or more embodiments there is provided a composition which prevents the degradation of the active ingredient upon application on the target site of treatment. [0017] Thanks to the absence of surfactants in the compositions, the oleaginous formulations and foams of the present invention, containing different concentrations of minocycline hydrochloride, demonstrated no signs of irritation as demonstrated using an in vitro irritation HET-CAM test. In one or more embodiments the drug carrier is formulated for use on sensitive targets such as the eye. In one or more embodiments the active pharmaceutical ingredients are formulated for use on sensitive target areas such as sensitive or damaged skin areas, wounds, burns, mucosal membranes, and body cavities. Hydrophobic solvents that are suitable, for example, for eye treatment or for use in wounds or burns. In one or more embodiments the drug carrier and the respective pharmaceutical composition with an active agent are both formulated for use on sensitive targets such as the eye. In one or more embodiments the composition is intended for use in treatment or prevention of eye infections.

[0018] Unexpectedly, it has been discovered that quality oleaginous formulations and foams can be achieved without the presence of significant amounts of standard surfactants. Thus, in one or more embodiments, there is provided a substantially surfactant free oleaginous formulation or foam. In one or more embodiments, there is provided an essentially surfactant free oleaginous formulation or foam. In one or more preferred embodiments the oleaginous formulations and foams are free of surfactants. Further, unexpectedly, it has been discovered that quality oleaginous formulations and foams can be achieved without the presence of significant amounts of standard polymeric agents (e.g. gelling agents). Thus, in one or more embodiments, there is provided a substantially surfactant-free and substantially polymeric agent-free oleaginous formulation or foam. In one or more preferred embodiments the oleaginous formulations and foams are free of standard surfactants and polymers. Moreover, it has been further discovered that these formulations and foams can be achieved over a large range of hydrophobic solvent content. There is thus provided easy to use, chemically and physically stable and non-irritating topical foam formulations, and pharmaceutical compositions thereof, containing a stable or stabilized active pharmaceutical or cosmetic agent having a therapeutic or beneficial effect, intended for treatment of dermal and mucosal tissues free or substantially free of standard surfactants and/or polymeric agents.

[0019] In one or more embodiments there is provided a safe and effective foamable carrier composition and foam comprising a hydrophobic solvent, an oleaginous foamer complex (also termed "foamer complex"), comprising a first member, comprising about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty alcohol; and a second member, comprising about 0.1 % to about 20%> by weight of (i) a fatty acid; and/or (ii) a wax; and a liquefied or compressed gas propellant. In one or more embodiments the foamer agent comprises a paraffin wax alone or in combination with the first member and/or the second member. In certain embodiments, the concentration of the propellant is about 3% to about 30% by weight of the total composition.

[0020] In other certain embodiments, the concentration of the propellant is about 1% to about 3%) by weight of the total composition; or about 3% to about 25%; or about 7% to about 17%; or about 10% to about 14%. Where a bag in can or can in can system is used where part of the propellant is in the formulation and part separate from the formulation, the amount in the formulation may be as little as about 1% by weight of the total composition. In additional embodiments there is provided a safe and effective foamable pharmaceutical or cosmetic composition and foam comprising at least one active agent. In additional embodiments there is provided a safe and effective foamable pharmaceutical or cosmetic composition and foam comprising an effective amount of a pharmaceutical or cosmetic active agent, a hydrophobic solvent, a foamer complex and a liquefied or compressed gas propellant.

[0021] The percent by weight is based on weight foamable composition; where the ratio of composition other than propellant to propellant is from about 100: 1 to about 100:30; or from about 100:3 to about 100:30; or from about 100:4 to about 100:25; or from about 100:7 to about 100: 17; or from about 100: 10 to about 100: 14 or from any one of the lower ratios to any one of the higher ratios.

[0022] In one or more embodiments there is provided a composition comprising a propellant having a vapor pressure between about 10 psi and about 130 psi . In one or more embodiments there is provided a composition comprising a propellant which is hydrocarbon propellant or a hydrofluorocarbon or another environmentally acceptable propellant.

[0023] The composition does not contain a surfactant; and the foaming effect is achieved by the addition of the foamer complex, as specified herein. The hydrophobic solvent is present in a substantial amount. In one or more embodiments the hydrophobic solvent is at a concentration between about 60% to about 95% by weight, or about 70% to about 90% by weight. In alternative embodiments the formulation, is formulated without propellant and delivered as a gel, ointment or rub. In one or more embodiments the composition comprises a concentration between about 1% to about 80% by weight petrolatum and about 15% to about 94% by weight hydrophobic solvent, wherein the total amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60% by weight. In one or more alternative embodiments the formulation comprises 0% to about 80%) by weight petrolatum and about 15% to about 95% by weight hydrophobic solvent, provided that if present the combined amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60% by weight.

[0024] In one or more alternative embodiments the formulation comprises 0% to about 91% petrolatum and about 4% to about 95% hydrophobic solvent, provided that if present the combined amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60% by weight. In one or more alternative embodiments the formulation comprises 0% to about 95% petrolatum and about 0%) to about 95% hydrophobic solvent, provided that if present the combined amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60% by weight.

[0025] In certain embodiments the petrolatum is about 1% to about 20% and the hydrophobic solvent is about 75% to about 94% provided that the combined amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60% by weight. In certain embodiments the petrolatum is about 21 ) to about 40%) and the hydrophobic solvent is about 55% to about 74% provided that the combined amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60% by weight. In certain embodiments the petrolatum is about 41% to about 60% and the hydrophobic solvent is about 35% to about 54% provided that the combined amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60% by weight. In certain embodiments the petrolatum is about 61% to about 70%) and the hydrophobic solvent is about 25% to about 34% provided that the combined amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60% by weight. In certain embodiments the petrolatum is about 61% to about 80% and the hydrophobic solvent is about 15% to about 34% provided that the combined amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60% by weight.

[0026] In certain embodiments the petrolatum is about 81% to about 95% and the

hydrophobic solvent is about 0.1% to about 14% , provided that the combined amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60% by weight. According to additional embodiments where a petrolatum is present the formulation comprises about 1% to about 80% petrolatum and about 15% to about 94% hydrophobic solvent, provided that the combined amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60% by weight. In further embodiments petrolatum may be in excess of about 80% (see for example formulation A8 in Table 9, which produced foam of excellent quality. In one or more embodiments, there is provided a foamable formulation comprising petrolatum in excess of about 80%, optionally a liquid oil, a fatty alcohol, and a wax, wherein the formulation generates quality breakable foam. In one or more embodiments, there is provided a foamable formulation comprising petrolatum in excess of about 80%, optionally a liquid oil, a fatty alcohol and/or a fatty acid, and/or a wax, wherein the formulation generates quality breakable foam. In one or more other embodiments, there is provided a foamable formulation comprising petrolatum in excess of about 80%, a liquid oil, and at least one of a fatty alcohol and/or a fatty acid, and/or a wax, wherein the formulation generates quality breakable foam.

[0027] As will be appreciated from the above illustrative examples as the amount of petrolatum is increased the amount of hydrophobic solvent is reduced. Accordingly, different amounts of petrolatum other than the amounts specified can be contemplated with a parallel increase or decrease in solvent as appropriate. In one or more embodiments when mineral oil is combined with different oils, high amounts of petrolatum and shea butter quality foam can be obtained with fatty alcohol(s) as the foamer complex. In one or more embodiments, there is provided a foamable formulation comprising petrolatum, mineral oil, fatty alcohol(s) and optionally shea butter, wherein the formulation generates quality breakable foam.

[0028] Upon dispensing the foamable carrier composition forms a breakable foam that is stable, yet breaks easily upon application of shear force. In one or more embodiments the composition is used for intradermal delivery of the active agent into the skin with minimal or negligible transdermal delivery. In one or more alternative embodiments a formulation is provided to achieve intra mucosal delivery. In certain embodiments the composition provides for transdermal delivery. In one or more embodiments the composition can be used for prevention of a disease or disorder. The composition or foam is applied to a target surface or area in or on which prevention is sought. The composition or foam is applied to a target surface or area having a dermatological or mucosal disorder in need of treatment. In other embodiments the composition or foam is used to treat or ameliorate a dermatological or mucosal disease or disorder. In still further embodiments it may be used to provide a period of remission from the dermatological or mucosal disease or disorder.

[0029] According to an embodiment the one or more active agents is selected from the group consisting of adipic acid, an acaricide, an active herbal extract, an age spot and keratose removing agent, an allergen, an alpha hydroxyl acid, an analgesic agent, an androgen, an anesthetic, an anti wrinkle agent, an antiacne agent, an antiaging agent, an antiallergic agent, an antiandrogen agent, an antiapoptotic agent, an antibacterial agent , an antibiotic, an antibiotic agent, an antiburn agent, an anticancer agent, an antidandruff agent, an antidepressant, an antidermatitis agent, an antiedemic anent, an antifungal agent, an antihelminth agent, an antihistamine, an anti-hyperkeratosis agent, an anti-infective agent, an antiinflammatory agent, an antiirritant, an antilipemic agent, an antimicrobial agent, an antimycotic agent, an antioxidant, an antiparasitic agent, an anti-photoaging agent , an anti-photodamaging agent, an antiproliferative agent, an antipruritic agent, an antipsoriatic agent, an antirosacea agent, an antiseborrheic agent, an antiseptic agent, an antiswelling agent, an antiviral agent, an anti-wart agent, an anti-wrinkle agent, an anti-yeast agent, an astringent, azelaic acid, benzoyl chloride, benzoyl peroxide, a beta- hydroxy acid, calcitriol, calcium hypochlorite, carbon, a cardiovascular agent, a

chemotherapeutic agent, a corticosteroid, a dicarboxylic acid, a dihydrotestosterone inhibitor, a disinfectant, doxycycline, an estrogen, a fungicide, fumaric acid, glycolic acid, a hair growth regulator, a haptene, a herbal extract (comprising an active substance), a hormonal agent, a hormone, a hydroxy acid, an immunogenic substance, an immunomodulator, an

immunoregulating agent, an immunostimulant, an immunosuppressant, an immunosuppressive agent, an insect repellent, an insecticide, iron oxide, a keratolytic agent, lactic acid, a lactam, lidocaine, a local anesthetic agent, a lubricating agent, a masking agent, a metal, a metal oxide, minocycline, a mitocide, mometasone fuorate, a neuropeptide, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, an organo-beryllium compound, an organo-metallic compound, an oxidizing agent, and organo-boron compound, a pediculicide, a peptide, a pesticide, a photodynamic therapy agent, a progesterone, a prostaglandin, a protein, a radical scavenger, a refatting agent, a retinoid, a sadative agent, a scabicide, sebacic acid, a sedative, a sedative agent, a self tanning agent, silicone oxide, silver, a silver compound, a skin protective agent, a skin whitening agent, a steroid, a steroid hormone, a steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, talc, titanium dioxide, a tellurium compound, a testosterone inhibitor, a tetracycline antibiotic, urea, a urea derivative, a vasoactive agent, a vasoconstrictor, a vasodilator, a vitamin, a vitamin A, a vitamin A derivative, a vitamin B, a vitamin B derivative, a vitamin C, a vitamin C derivative, a vitamin D, a vitamin D analog, a vitamin D derivative, a vitamin E , a vitamin E derivative, a vitamin F, a vitamin F derivative, a vitamin K, a vitamin K derivative, a wart remover, a wound healing agent, zinc oxide, zirconium oxide.

[0030] In certain embodiments the active agent is a tetracycline antibiotic. In one or more embodiments the tetracycline is tetracycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, doxycycline, lymecycline, meclocycline, methacycline, minocycline, rolitetracycline, chlorotetracycline or tigecycline. In certain embodiments the tetracycline is a mixture of two or more tetracyclines. In one or more embodiments the tetracycline is tetracycline, minocycline or doxycyline or a salt thereof. In one or more embodiments the tetracycline is a hydrophobic tetracyline, selected from minocycline and doxycycline. In one or more embodiments the tetracycline is present in a free base form, a hydrate form, a salt form or a complex form. In one or more embodiments the tetracycline is not soluble or is partially soluble and all or part thereof is suspended in the composition. In certain embodiments the tetracycline is minocycline. In certain embodiments the tetracycline is doxycycline. In one or more embodiments the properties or uses discovered for minocycline can be applied to any tetracycline antibiotic. In certain embodiments the active agent is selected from a group consisting of mometasone furoate, calcitriol and calciptriol. In certain embodiments the active agent is a vitamin D derivative or analog. In certain embodiments the Vitamin D derivative is calcitriol or calcipotriol or the corticosteroid is mometasone furoate.

[0031] According to a further embodiment the active agent is chemically stable for at least two months and where the active agent is compatible with the other ingredients. According to a further embodiment the active agent is chemically stable for at least three months and where the active agent is compatible with the other ingredients. According to a further embodiment the active agent is chemically stable for at least six months; or for at least nine months, or for at least twelve months; or for at least fifteen months; or for at least eighteen months; or for at least twenty one months; or for at least twenty four months.

[0032] As is known to one skilled in the art, in some instances a specific active agent may have more than one activity, function or effect.

[0033] In certain embodiments, the inclusion of two or more therapeutic agents in the foamable pharmaceutical composition is desirable.

[0034] In an embodiment the fatty alcohol is a therapeutically active fatty alcohol. The fatty alcohol can be a straight chain fatty alcohol, a saturated fatty alcohol, an unsaturated fatty alcohol, a hydroxyl substituted fatty alcohol or a branched fatty alcohol. In one or more embodiments the fatty alcohol has a carbon chain length of 14 to 22 carbons.

[0035] In an embodiment, the foamable composition comprises a fatty acid. The fatty acid can be a straight chain fatty acid, a saturated fatty acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, a hydroxyl fatty acid or a branched fatty acid. In an embodiment the fatty acid is a therapeutically active fatty acid. In one or more embodiments the fatty acid is stearic acid.

[0036] In an embodiment, the foamable composition comprises a wax. The wax can be a liquid wax, a solid wax, an animal wax, a vegetable wax, a mineral wax, a natural wax or a synthetic wax. In an embodiment the fatty acid is a therapeutically active wax.

[0037] In an embodiment the wax is selected from a list comprising paraffin wax, beeswax, hydrogenated castor oil or mixtures thereof. In one or more embodiments there is provided a composition comprising a paraffin wax. In one or more embodiments the paraffin wax can have a melting point from about 37 °C. In one or more embodiments the paraffin wax comprises of alkane chains of between about C20H42 to C4ot½. In one or more embodiments the alkane chains are substantially straight chain. In some embodiments branched or unsaturated molecules can be present. Branched chains are sometimes referred to as isoparaffms. In one or more embodiments the paraffin wax can be selected from the group consisting of paraffin wax 58-62°C, paraffin wax 51-53°C, and paraffin wax 42-44°C, or mixtures thereof. In one or more other embodiments other melting point ranges can be selected such as 125°F to 135°F; 127°F to 130°F; 130°F to 135°F; 135°F to 145°F ; 140°F to 145°F; 150°F to 155°F; 150°F to 165°F; 160°F to 165°F; or such as 43-46°C; 46-53°C; 48-50°C; 52-54°C; 53-55°C; 54-57°C; 54-58°C; 58-60°C; 59-61°C; 60-62°C; 62-66°C; 65-68°C; or any other similar or relative range(s) or mixtures thereof. In one or more embodiments the wax comprises a polyolefm. In an embodiment the wax is fully refined. In an embodiment it is suitable for cosmetic use. In an embodiment it is suitable for pharmaceutical use. In an embodiment the paraffin wax is soft In one or more embodiments the wax is a mixture of two or more waxes. In certain embodiments the mixture of waxes comprises hydrogenated caster oil and beeswax. In certain embodiments the ratio of beeswax to hydrogenated castor oil is about or at least 1 : 1. In one or more embodiments the ratio is between about 1 : 1 : to about 1 : 10, or between about 1 : 1 to about 1 :6, or between about 1 : 1 to about 1 :5.

[0038] In one or more embodiments the ratio of fatty alcohol to wax is between about 4:1 to about 1 :4.

[0039] In an embodiment, the foamable composition is physically and chemically stable for at least two and preferably at least three months. In an embodiment, the foamable composition containing a vitamin D derivative or analog is physically and chemically stable for at least three months. In an embodiment, the foamable composition containing calcitriol is physically and chemically stable for at least three months. In an embodiment, the foamable composition containing a corticosteroid is physically and chemically stable for at least three months. In an embodiment, the foamable composition containing mometasone furoate is physically and chemically stable for at least three months. In an embodiment, the foamable composition containing a tetracycline is physically and chemically stable for at least three months. In an embodiment, the foamable composition containing minocyline is physically and chemically stable for at least six months.

[0040] In one or more embodiments the drug carrier is formulated substantially free of short chain alcohols, such as, ethanol, propanol or butanol. In one or more embodiments the drug carrier is formulated essentially free of short chain alcohols. In one or more specific embodiments the drug carrier is formulated essentially free of fatty alcohols. In one or more specific embodiments the drug carrier is formulated essentially free of derivatives of fatty alcohols or fatty acids. In one or more other specific embodiments the drug carrier is formulated essentially free of polyols. In one or more other specific embodiments the drug carrier is formulated substantially free of surfactants and/or short chain alcohols and/or polyols. In one or more other specific embodiments the drug carrier is formulated essentially free of surfactants and/or short chain alcohols and/or polyols. In one or more embodiments there is provided a composition which is essentially waterless. In one or more embodiments there is provided a surfactant free composition that is also free of short chain alcohols and/or polyol-free. In one or more embodiments there is provided a substantially polymer free composition. In other embodiments it is essentially polymer free. In still further embodiments the composition is free of polymeric agent. In one or more embodiments a polymeric agent has a Molecular weight of at least about 1000 Daltons.

[0041] In one or more embodiments the composition is essentially free of two or more of water; polymeric agent; surfactant; short chain alcohol; or polyol. In one or more embodiments the composition is essentially free of three or more of water; polymeric agent; surfactant; short chain alcohol; or polyol. In one or more embodiments the composition is essentially free of four or more of water; polymeric agent; surfactant; short chain alcohol; or polyol. In one or more embodiments the composition is essentially free of water; polymeric agent; surfactant; short chain alcohol; and polyol.

[0042] In one or more other specific embodiments the drug carrier is formulated substantially free of elastomers. In one or more other specific embodiments the drug carrier is formulated essentially free of elastomers. In one or more other specific embodiments the drug carrier is formulated substantially free of silicones. In one or more other specific embodiments the drug carrier is formulated essentially free of silicones. In one or more other specific embodiments the drug carrier is formulated with less than about 30% silicone, or less than about 25% silicone, or less than about 20% silicone, or less than about 15% silicone, or less than about 10% silicone, or less than about 7.5% silicone, or less than about 5% silicone or less than about 2% silicone; or less than about 1% silicone; or less than about 0.5% silicone.

[0043] According to additional embodiments there is provided a substantially surfactant free foamable composition comprising:

a) about 60% to about 95% by weight of a hydrophobic solvent, or about 1% to about 80% by weight petrolatum and about 15% to about 94% by weight hydrophobic solvent, wherein if combined the total amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60% by weight;

b) an oleaginous foamer complex comprising:

(1) about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty alcohol; and

(2) about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty acid and/or a wax and/or shea

butter;

c) a liquefied or compressed gas propellant;

wherein the percent by weight is based on weight foamable composition; wherein the ratio of composition other than propellant to propellant is from about 100:3 to about 100:30; and wherein upon dispensing the foamable carrier composition forms a breakable foam that breaks easily upon application of shear force.

[0044] According to additional embodiments there is provided a substantially surfactant free composition comprising:

a) about 60%> to about 95% by weight of a hydrophobic solvent or aboutl%> to about 80%> by weight petrolatum and about 15% to about 94% by weight hydrophobic solvent wherein if combined the total amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60% by weight;

b) an oleaginous foamer complex comprising:

(1) about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty alcohol; and

(2) about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty acid and/or a wax and/or shea

butter; or

c) an active agent,

wherein the active agent is compatible with and chemically stable in the composition.

[0045] In one or more embodiments the active agent is considered chemically stable when more than about 90% of the active agent does not break down after a period of two months in the formulation at room temperature. In one or more embodiments the period is six months. In one or more embodiments more than about 88% of the active agent does not break down. In one or more embodiments the active agent is chemically stable in the composition at 40 °C.

[0046] According to additional embodiments there is provided a method of producing a foamable composition, including: 1. providing a foamable therapeutic composition including a therapeutic agent at a therapeutically effective concentration, a hydrophobic solvent, for example, at a concentration of about 60% to about 95% by weight, a foamer complex (including at least two of a fatty alcohol, a fatty acid and a wax);

2. introducing the foamable composition in an aerosol packaging assembly, comprising of a container, suitable for containing a pressurized product and a valve, capable of extruding a foam; and

3. introducing to the aerosol packaging assembly a liquefied or compressed gas propellant at a concentration sufficient to enable the composition to foam and/or to expel the composition from the canister.

[0047] According to further embodiments there is provided a method of preventing, treating ameliorating or eliminating a or alleviating a disease or a disorder by selecting and releasing on to a convenient surface having or anticipated to have a dermatological or mucosal disorder or disease in need of treatment a safe and effective pharmaceutical or cosmetic a substantially surfactant free foamable composition comprising an effective amount of a pharmaceutical or cosmetic agent, a hydrophobic solvent, a foamer complex and a liquefied or compressed gas propellant at a concentration of about 3% to about 30% by weight of the total composition;

directing the released foam on to a target on a patient in need; applying a shear force to and spreading the foam over the target surface such that after a simple rub the foam is no longer visible to the naked eye as it is absorbed rapidly on to the target surface. In one or more embodiments the active agent is a placebo.

[0048] According to further embodiments there is provided a method of treating

or alleviating or preventing a dermatological or mucosal disorder, comprising: applying a substantially surfactant free foamable composition comprising to a surface having a

dermatological or mucosal disorder in need of treatment, said composition comprising:

a) about 60%> to about 95% by weight of a hydrophobic solvent or about 1% to about 80% by weight petrolatum and about 15% to about 94% by weight hydrophobic solvent wherein if combined the total amount of hydrophobic solvent and petrolatum is at least about 60%) by weight;

b) an oleaginous foamer complex comprising:

(1) about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty alcohol; and (2) about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty acid and/or a wax and/or shea butter;

c) at least one active agent

d) liquefied or compressed gas propellant;

wherein the percent by weight is based on weight foamable composition; wherein the ratio of composition other than propellant to propellant is from about 100:3 to about 100:30; and wherein upon dispensing the foamable carrier composition forms a breakable foam that breaks easily upon application of shear force.

[0049] In one or more embodiments there is provided use of a substantially surfactant free foamable composition for preventing or treating or alleviating a dermatological or mucosal disorder wherein the disorder or disease is selected from the group(s) consisting of

a bacterial infection, a benign tumor, a bullous disease, a burn, a chlamydia infection, a condition which respond to hormone therapy, a cut, a dermatitis, a dermatophyte infection, a dermatose, a disorder of a body cavity, a disorder of cornification, a disorder of the nose, a disorder of the penile urethra or ear canal, a disorder of the rectum, a disorder of the respiratory system, a disorder of the vagina, a disorder which responds to hormone replacement therapy, a disorder which responds to transdermal nicotine administration, a disorders of hair follicles, a disorders of sebaceous glands, a disorders of sweating, a fungal infection, a gonorrhea infection, a

gynecological disorders that respond to hormonal therapy, a malignant tumor, a non- dermatological disorder which responds to topical or transdermal delivery of an active agent, a parasitic infection, a pelvic inflammation, a pigmentation disorder, a scaling papular diseases, a sexual dysfunction disorder, a sexually transmitted disease, a vaginal disorder, a viral infection, a vulvar disorder, a vulvovaginal infection, a wound, a yeast infection, abscess, acne, acne conglobata, acne fulminans, acne scars, acne vulgaris, actinic keratosis, acute and chronic salpingitis, acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, acute lymphangitis, acute pelvic inflammatory disease, acute soft tissue injury, albinism, allergic contact dermatitis, alopecia, alopecia areata, alopecia totalis, alopecia universalis, an allergy, an anal abscess or fistula, an anal and rectal disease, an anal disorder, an anal fissure, an anal wart, an ear disorder, an hormonal disorder, an inflammatory reaction, an intra-vaginal or rectal sexually-transmitted and non-sexually- transmitted infectious disease, anal cancer, anal excoriation, anal fissures, anal itch, anal pruritus, anal soreness, anal warts, angiomas, arthritis, athlete's foot, atopic dermatitis, back pain, bacterial skin infections, bacterial vaginosis, baldness, basal cell carcinoma, benign tumors, blisters, bromhidrosis, bullous diseases, bullous pemphigoid, burn, calluses, calluses candidiasis, cancer of the cervix, cancer of the vagina, cancer of the vulva, candidal vaginitis, candidiasis, carbuncles, cellulitis, cervical cancer, cervicitis, chancroid, chemical burns, chicken pox, chloasma, cholesteatoma, cholinergic urticaria, chronic dermatitis, chronic effects of sunlight, cold sores, cold urticaria, comedones, constipation, contact dermatitis, corns, creeping eruption, Crohn's disease, cutaneous abscess, cutaneous larva migrans, cutaneous myiasis, dark spots, delusional parasitosis, Dercum disease, dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, dermatofibroma, dermatological inflammation, dermatological pain, dermatophytoses, dermographism, diaper rash, drug eruptions and reactions, drug-induced hyperpigmentation, dyshidrotic eczema, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dysplastic nevi, ecthyma, ectodermal dysplasia, ectopic pregnancy, eczema, endometriosis, endometritis, epidermal necrolysis, epidermoid cyst, erysipelas, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, erythrasma, exfoliative dermatitis, fallopian tube cancer and gestational trophoblastic disease, fecal incontinence, female orgasmic disorder, folliculitis, fungal nail infections, fungal skin infections, furuncles, gangrene, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, genital cancer, genital herpes, genital ulcer, genital warts, granuloma annulare, granuloma inguinale, gynecological neoplasms including endometrial cancer, head lice, hemorrhoids, hepatitis B, herpes, herpes simplex, hidradenitis suppurativa, hirsutism, HIV/ AIDS, hives, human papillomavirus (HPV), hyperhidrosis, hyperpigmentation melasma, hypertrichosis, hypohidrosis, hypopigmentation, ichthyosis, impetigo, inflammatory acne, inflammatory reactions, ingrown nails, intertrigo, irritant contact dermatitis, ischemic necrosis, itching, jock itch, joint pain, Kaposi's sarcoma, keloid, keratinous cyst, keratoacanthoma, keratosis pilaris, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, lichen simplex chronicus, linear immunoglobulin A disease, lipomas, localized pain in general, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, lymphogranloma venereum, male pattern baldness, malignant melanoma, malignant tumors, mastocytosis, measles, melanoma, midcycle pain, midcycle pain due to ovulation, miliaria, mittelschmerz, moles, molluscum contagiosum, MRSA, mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC), muscle pain, necrotizing fasciitis, necrotizing myositis, necrotizing subcutaneous infection, necrotizing subcutaneous infections, nodular papulopustular acne, nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), non-inflammatory acne, nummular dermatitis, oophoritis, oral herpes, osteoarthritis, osteoarthritis, ovarian cancer, ovarian cysts and masses, paget's disease of the nipples, panniculitis, papules, parapsoriasis paronychia, parasitic infections, parasitic skin infections, paronychial infection, pediculosis, pelvic congestion syndrome, pelvic inflammatory disease, pelvic pain, pemphigus, perianal pruritus, perianal thrush, perioral dermatitis, photo-allergy, photo-damage, photo-irritation, photosensitivity, pigmentation disorders, pimples, pityriasis Lichenoides, pityriasis rosea, pityriasis rubra pilaris, poison ivy, poison oak, polyps of the colon and rectum, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, postinflammatory hypopigmentation, post-operative or post-surgical skin conditions,

premenstrual syndrome, pressure sores, pressure ulcers, pressure urticaria, pruritis, pruritus ani, pseudofolliculitis barbae, psoriasis, PUPPP, purpura, pustules, pyogenic granuloma, rash, reactions to sunlight, rectal abscess, rectal fistula, rheumatic pain, ringworm, rosacea, roseola, rubella, salpingitis, scabies, scalded skin syndrome, scaling papular diseases, scarring, scleroderma, sebaceous cyst, seborrheic dermatitis, seborrheic keratoses, seborrheic keratosis, sexual arousal disorder, shingles, skin aging, skin cancer, skin neoplasia, skin neoplasms, skin rash, skin tags, skin ulcers, sports injuries, squamous cell carcinoma, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, stasis dermatitis, Stevens- Johnson syndrome, sun spots, sunburn, thermal burns, tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis, tinea versicolor, toxic epidermal necrolysis, trauma or injury to the skin, trichomonas vaginalis, trichomoniasis, vaginal cancer, vaginal dryness, vaginismus, varicella zoster virus, viral skin infections, vitamin D deficiency, vitiligo, vulvar cancer, vulvar disorders, vulvar dystrophy, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), vulvar pain, vulvodynia, warts, water hives, wrinkles, xerosis, yeast skin infections, zoster

[0050] According to one or more further embodiments the foamable composition, for treatment of a disorder, is able to reduce skin photodamage or radiation damage and photoaging, and more generally to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in skin pathologies which are known to be accompanied by apoptotic cell death. In one or more embodiments, there is provided a composition for use in preventing or ameliorating or treating photodamage or radiation damage or photoaging or reducing oxidative stress or inflammation in skin pathologies which are known to be accompanied by apoptic cell death or any two or more thereof.

[0051] According to one or more further embodiments the foamable composition comprising minocycline, for treatment of a disorder, has properties or activities selected from a list including regenerative, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-photodamaging, anti-radiation damage and anti-photoaging. In one or more embodiments, there is provided a composition for use in preventing or ameliorating or treating a disorder, the minocycline composition having at least one property or activity selected from a list including regenerative, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-photodamaging anti-radiation damage and anti-photoaging.

[0052] According to one or more further embodiments the foamable composition comprising minocycline for treatment of a disorder, has protective and/or therapeutic properties or activities in the case of UVB-induced skin damage. In one or more embodiments, there is provided a composition comprising minocycline for use in preventing protecting from or ameliorating or treating UVB-induced skin damage. [0053] According to one or more further embodiments the foamable composition for treatment of a disorder that results in apoptosis comprising minocycline which decreases apoptosis and/or increases cell viability. In one or more embodiments, there is provided a composition comprising minocycline for use in preventing, protecting from or ameliorating or treating a disorder with symptoms including increased apoptosis and/or decreased cell viability, where the formulation acts to decrease apoptosis and/or increase cell viability. In one or more embodiments there is provided a composition for use in decreasing apoptosis and/or increasing cell viability.

[0054] According to one or more further embodiments the disorder treated by the foamable composition comprising minocycline for use in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in skin pathologies which are known to be accompanied by apoptotic cell death including rosacea and impetigo. In one or more embodiments, there is provided a composition for use in preventing or ameliorating or treating disorders by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in skin pathologies which are known to be accompanied by apoptotic cell death including rosacea and impetigo.

[0055] According to one of more further embodiments the foamable composition comprising minocycline is non-irritant and suitable for ophthalmic use and/or other sensitive targets such as for use internal and/or external wounds or burns or in skin, body cavities and mucosal membrane. In one or more embodiments, there is provided a composition, comprising minocycline, which is non-irritant, for use in preventing or ameliorating or treating a disorder and is suitable for ophthalmic use and can be applied on other sensitive targets such as for use on internal and/or external wounds or burns or in skin, body cavities and mucosal membranes.

[0056] Thus in one or more embodiments there is provided a tetracycline composition having regenerative, or anti-apoptotic, or anti-inflammatory, or anti-photodamaging, or anti-photoaging activity, or protective and/or therapeutic properties in the case of UVB-induced skin damage, or which decreases apoptosis and/or increases cell viability, or in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in skin pathologies accompanied by apoptotic cell death including rosacea and impetigo, or antibacterial activity, or any two or more thereof.

[0057] According to one or more further embodiments the foamable composition comprising minocycline has antibacterial activity. In certain embodiments the activity is against

enterobacteria and mycobacteria. In certain embodiments the minocycline has antibacterial activity for use against enterobacteria and mycobacteria. [0058] According to certain further embodiments the foamable composition comprising minocycline has antibacterial activity against at least one of the species selected from the group consisting of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus (MRS A,) Propionbacterium acnes, Acinetobacter, Bacteroides, Haemophilus, Nocardia, M. leprae. In certain embodiments the minocycline has antibacterial activity for use against at least one of the species selected from the group consisting of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA,) Propionbacterium acnes, Acinetobacter, Bacteroides,

Haemophilus, Nocardia, M. leprae.

[0059] In one or more embodiments there is provided a composition comprising a

hydrophobic solvent which is a liquid oil, selected from the group consisting of a diglyceride, a PPG alkyl ether, a therapeutic oil, acetylated lanolin alcohol, alexandria laurel tree oil, alkyl benzoate, alkyl octanoate, almond oil, an essential oil, an unsaturated or polyunsaturated oil, apricot stone oil, arachidyl behenate, arachidyl propionate, avocado oil, barley oil, basil oil, beeswax, benzyl laurate, benzyl myristate, benzyl palmitate, bis (octyldodecyl stearoyl) dimer dilinoleate, borage seed oil, butyl myristate, butyl stearate, C12-C15 alkyl benzoate, C12-C15 alkyl octanoate, calendula oil, camphor oil, canelle nut tree oil, canola oil, capric/caprylic triglycerides, caprylic/capric triglyceride castor oil, caprylyl methicone, cardamom oil, carrot oil, castor oil, cetearyl ethylhexanoate, cetearyl isononanoate, cetearyl octanoate, cetyl acetate, cetyl dimethicone, cetyl ethylhexanoate, cetyl lactate, cetyl myristate, cetyl octanoate, cetyl palmitate, cetyl ricinoleate, citronella oil, clary sage oil, clove oil, cocoglycerides, coconut oil, cod-liver oil, corn oil, cotton oil, cottonseed oil, cyclohexasiloxane, cyclomethicone, Cyclomethicone 5-NF (cyclopentasiloxane), cyclotetrasiloxane, cypress oil, decyl oleate, diethyleneglycol

diethylhexanoate, diethyleneglycol diisononanoate, diethyleneglycol dioctanoate,

diethylhexanoate, diethylhexyl adipate, diethylhexyl malate, diethylhexyl succinate, diisopropyl adipate, diisopropyl dimerate, diisopropyl sebacate, diisosteary dimer dilinoleate, diisostearyl fumerate, dimethicone, dimethyl polysiloxane, dioctyl malate, dioctyl sebacate, disopropyl adipate, dodecyl oleate, Dow Corning 244 Fluid (cyclotetrasiloxane), Dow corning 246 Fluid (d6+d5) (cyclohexasiloxane & cyclopentasiloxane), epoxy-modified silicone oil, essential oils, ester derivatives of lanolic acid, ester oils, ethylhexyl cocoate, ethylhexyl ethylhexanoate, ethylhexyl hydroxystarate, ethylhexyl isononanoate, ethylhexyl palmitate, ethylhexyl palmytate, ethylhexyl pelargonate, ethylhexyl stearate, evening primrose oil, fatty acid-modified silicone oil, flaxseed oil, fluoro group-modified silicone oil, frankincense oil, gelled mineral oil, ginger oil, glycereth triacetate, glycerol triheptanoate, glyceryl oleate, glyceryl trioctanoate, glyceryl triundecanoate, grape seed oil, grapefruit oil, groundnut oil, hard fat , hazelnut oil, heavy mineral oil, hempseed oil, herring oil, hexadecyl stearate, hexyl laurate, hydrocarbon oils , hydrogenated castor oil , hyssop oil, isoamyl laurate, isocetearyl octanoate, isocetyl isocetyl behenate, isocetyl lanolate, isocetyl palmitate, isocetyl salicylate, isocetyl stearate, isocetyl stearoyl stearate, isodecyl ethylhexanoate, isodecyl isononanoate, isodecyl oleate, isododecane, isohexadecane isododecane, isohexadecanol, isohexyl decanoate, isononyl isononanoate, isononyl octanoate, isoparaffm, isopropyl isostearate, isopropyl lanolate, isopropyl laurate, isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, isopropyl stearate, isosteary citrate, isosteary salicylate, isosteary tartarate, isostearyl behenate, isostearyl erucate, isostearyl glycolate, isostearyl isononanoate, isostearyl isostearate, isostearyl lactate, isostearyl linoleate, isostearyl linolenate, isostearyl malate, isostearyl neopentanoate, isostearyl palmitate, isotridecyl isononanoate, jasmine oil, jojoba oil, lauryl lactate, lavender oil, lemon oil, light mineral oil, liquid paraffin, liquid triglycerides, lucerne oil, maize germ oil, maleated soybean oil, mandarin oil, manuka oil, marjoram oil, marrow oil, MCT oil, methylphenylpolysiloxane, millet oil, mineral oil, myristyl lactate, myristyl myristate, myristyl neopentanoate, myristyl propionate, myrrh oil, neopentylglycol dicaprate, neopentylglycol dicaprylate/dicaprate, neroli oil, nutmeg oil, octyl palmitate, octyl stearate, octyldodecanol, octyldodecyl behenate, octyldodecyl hydroxystearate, octyldodecyl myristate, octyldodecyl stearoyl stearate, oils from animal origin, oils of plant origin, oleyl erucate, oleyl lactate, oleyl oleate, olive oil, or dimethiconol, palm oil, passionflower oil, peanut oil, PEG/PPG 18/18 dimethicone, pentaerythrityl tetrastearate, petitgrain oil, petrolatum, phenyl trimethicone, phenyltrimethicone, poly(dimethylsiloxane)-(diphenyl-siloxane) copolymer, polyalkyl siloxane, polyalkylaryl siloxane, polyalphaolefm, polyaryl siloxane, polyaryl siloxanes, polyether group- modified silicone oil cyclomethicone, polyether siloxane copolymer, polyether siloxane copolymers, polyisobutylene, polyolefm, poppy oil, PPG alkyl ethers, PPG- 10 cetyl ether, PPG- 10 oleyl ether, PPG-11 stearyl ether, PPG- 12 butyl ether, PPG- 14 butyl ether, PPG- 15 butyl ether, PPG- 15 stearyl ether, PPG- 16 butyl ether, PPG- 17 butyl ether, PPG- 18 butyl ether, PPG-2 butyl ether, PPG-2 methyl ether, PPG-20 butyl ether, PPG-20 oleyl ether, PPG-22 butyl ether, PPG-23 oleyl ether, PPG-24 butyl ether, PPG-26 butyl ether, PPG-28 cetyl ether, PPG-3 methyl ether, PPG-3 myristyl ether, PPG-30 butyl ether, PPG-30 cetyl ether, PPG-30 isocetyl ether, PPG-30 oleyl ether, PPG-33 butyl ether, PPG-37 oleyl ether, PPG-4 butyl ether, PPG-4 lauryl ether, PPG-4 myristyl ether, PPG-40 butyl ether, PPG-5 butyl ether, PPG-50 cetyl ether, PPG-50 oleyl ether, PPG-52 butyl ether, PPG-53 butyl ether, PPG-7 lauryl ether, PPG-9 butyl ether, PPG- 9-13 butyl ether, propyl myristate, propylene glycol dicaprate, propylene glycol dicaprylate, propylene glycol myristyl ether acetate, propylene glycol ricinoleate, rapeseed oil, rosehip oil, rye oil, safflower oil, sage oil, salmon oil, sesame oil, shea butter, silicone oils, soya oil, soybean oil, stearyl caprate, stearyl dimethicone, stearyl heptanoate, stearyl propionate, sunflower oil, sweet almond oil, synthetic isoalkane, sysymbrium oil, syzigium aromaticum oil, tangerine oil, tea tree oil, therapeutic oils, tocopheryl acetate, tocopheryl linoleate, tridecyl ethylhexanoate, tridecyl isononanoate, triisocetyl citrate, unsaturated or polyunsaturated oils, vanilla oil, verbena oil, walnut oil, wheat germ glycerides, wheat germ oil, white petrolatum and mixtures thereof

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Foamable composition and foam properties

[0060] In one or more embodiments, the composition is a gel that when packaged into an aerosol canister, equipped with a valve and pressurized with a liquid or pressurized gas propellant is capable of releasing a foam of quality that is breakable upon application of shear force but is not thermolabile at about or close to body temperature (about 36°C).

[0061] The ability to achieve quality foam with a substantial concentration of hydrophobic solvent without a surfactant and/or without a polymer is surprising, because usually, such solvents are not prone to creating a foam. The challenge is not just to achieve a quality foam but also to attain a formulation that will satisfy a plurality of two, three, four, five, six or more of the following property specifications simultaneously.

[0062] Notably, the pressurized composition is flowable and releases a foam freely, even though it might be expected that such concentrations of a fatty alcohol and fatty acid would make the hydrophobic solvent 'gel' or 'semi-solid'.

1. Uniformity: The composition should be formulated so that it is and can remain uniform without phase separation or precipitation over time. This property is of high importance when the product is intended to be a pharmaceutical product.

2. Flowability: The composition, when placed in an aerosol container and pressurized with a propellant should be flowable such that it can be expelled through the canister valve. It should preferably also be shakable inside the container. These requirements create a formulation challenge, because non-viscous flowable and shakable compositions are prone to undergo phase separation or precipitation.

3. Quality: Upon release from the can, the composition should generate a foam of good or excellent quality having low density and small bubble size. 4. Stability/Breakability: The fine balance between stability and breakability of the foam coming out of the container is very delicate: on one hand the foam should preferably not be "quick breaking", i.e., it should be at least short term stable upon release from the pressurized container and not break as a result of exposure to skin temperature; and on the other hand, it should be "breakable", i.e., it should spread easily, break down and absorb into the skin or membrane upon application of mild shear force.

5. Skin Feeling: To ensure patient compliance the skin feeling after application should be pleasant, and greasy or waxy residues should be minimal.

6. Non-irritating: The above requirements should be achieved with the awareness that

formulation excipients, especially surfactants, can be irritating, and should preferably be eliminated from the composition or reduced as much as possible.

7. Delivery: Finally, the composition should also be designed to ensure efficient delivery of a therapeutic agent into the target site of treatment.

8. Compatibility: The components of the composition should be compatible and not react with an active agent.

[0063] Based on extensive investigations and trial and error experiments, it has been found that such properties can be achieved for formulations as described below and which are further advantageous because of the ability of hydrophobic solvents to dissolve or suspend certain active agents while providing an environment for the active agent which assists in preventing their degradation. In one or more embodiments there is provided a composition which is adapted to prevent the degradation of the active ingredient during storage in the canister and also upon application on the target site of treatment.

[0064] In one or more embodiments there is provided prior to adding propellant a solid or semi- solid composition or gel. In one or more embodiments the composition or gel is a liquid. Examples of a liquid gel include where a propellant is added to the formulation (which prior to adding the propellant is a gel) or where the gel is loose or such that when subjected to gravity will pour or become liquid. In one or more embodiments the composition is thixotropic.

Compositions

[0065] All % values are provided on a weight (w/w) basis.

[0066] In one or more embodiments where ever a phrase is used to refer to a concentration of above X% or below X% it can also include X% or of above about X% or below about X% it can also include about X%. [0067] In one or more embodiments the term "about" has its usual meaning in the context of pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations to allow for reasonable variations in amounts that can achieve the same effect. In one or more embodiments about can encompass a range of plus and minus 20%. In one or more embodiments about can encompass a range of plus and minus 10%.

[0068] In one or more embodiments there is provided a foamable carrier composition including:

1. a hydrophobic solvent

2. a foamer complex comprising:

i. a first member, comprising about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty alcohol; and

ii. a second member, comprising about 0.1% to about 20%> by weight of

1. a fatty acid; and/or

2. a wax; or

3. a liquefied or compressed gas propellant.

[0069] In one or more certain embodiments shea butter may replace the second member.

[0070] In one or more embodiments oily emollients are added to provide or improve a pleasant skin feeling, and/or lubricating effect with reduced friction. In one or more embodiments volatile silicones are added to reduce greasy feeling. In one or more embodiments waxes are added to improve rheology or stabilize foam structure. Surfactants play a role in foam formation and induce foam stability. In one or more embodiments the formulation is substantially or essentially free of surfactants. In one or more alternative embodiments a small amount of surfactant may be added preferably less than 1%. Scientific literature is not always accurate and may loosely or even inaccurately describe a substance as a surfactant. For example, fatty alcohols or fatty acids (in the absence of a base) when used in combination with classic surfactants have sometimes been referred to as surfactants, whereas at best they merely function as an aid to classic surfactant and may loosely be termed as a co-surfactant but they are not able to stabilize an emulsion and achieve a stable foam emulsion on their own without the presence of a true surfactant. (For more detail see "co-surfactant" below.) In the context of the present application such fatty acids and fatty alcohols are not surface active agents but are foam adjuvants. Similarly propoxylated lanolin oil derivatives have been loosely referred to as surfactants. In the context herein they are emollients not surfactants. In one or more embodiments the composition is essentially free of propoxylated lanolin oil derivatives. In one or more embodiments the composition is essentially free of ethoxylated lanolin oil derivatives. In further embodiments the compositions are free of such derivatives. In one or more certain embodiments the composition is free of PPG, lanolin oils, such as PPG 40 PEG 60 lanolin oil. In one or more embodiments foam adjuvants (e.g. fatty alcohols and fatty acids) and additives (such as Si02 which acts as a thickener and can provide thixotropy) are added to improve rheology or stabilize foam structure or as a protective agent. In one or more embodiments antioxidants can be used to prevent degradation /oxidation, for example, butylated hydroxytoluene, which is a fat soluble antioxidant.

[0071] In one or more embodiments the foamable composition is substantially surfactant free. In one or more other embodiments it is essentially free of any surfactants.

[0072] Upon release from an aerosol container, the foamable composition forms an expanded thermally stable breakable foam suitable for topical administration.

[0073] The foamable composition is suitable for administration to various body areas, including, but not limited to the skin, a body surface, a body cavity, a mucosal surface, e.g., the mucosa of the nose, mouth and eye, the ear, the respiratory system, the vagina or the rectum (severally and interchangeably termed herein "target site").

[0074] In one or more embodiments, the composition is waterless. By waterless is meant that the composition contains no or substantially no, free or unassociated or absorbed water. It will be understood by a person of the art that to the extent the waterless solvents and substances miscible with them of the present disclosure are hydrophilic, they can contain water in an associated or unfree or absorbed form and may absorb water from the atmosphere.

[0075] According to one or more embodiments, the foamable composition further comprises one or more cosmetic active agents or a pharmaceutical active agents (severally and

interchangeably termed herein "active agent").

[0076] In one or more embodiments the carrier comprises an active pharmaceutical or cosmetic agent which degrades in the presence of water, and in such cases the presence of water in the composition is clearly not desirable. Thus, in certain preferred embodiments, the composition is waterless. In other embodiments the active agent may tolerate the presence of a small amount of water and the waterless composition is substantially non-aqueous. The term "substantially non-aqueous" is intended to indicate that the waterless composition has water content preferably below about 2%, such as, below about 1.5%, below about 1%; or below about 0.5%. In one or more alternative embodiments, where for example, the formulation is for cosmetic purposes or where the active agent is not sensitive to water the formulation may contain low amounts of water of up to about 25%. In certain embodiments the amount of water is about or less than about 20%. In certain embodiments the amount of water is about or less than about 15%. In certain embodiments the amount of water is about or less than about 10%. In certain embodiments the amount of water is about or less than about 5%. Where water is present the formulation may be an emulsion or may form micelles or a colloid. In one or more embodiments the emulsion formulation has some resistance to centrifugation. In one or more embodiments the emulsion formulation is substantially resistant to centrifugation at about lOOOrpm for a few minutes or for about up to 10 minutes.

[0077] In one or more embodiments there is provided a foamable therapeutic composition including:

1. an active agent;

2. a hydrophobic solvent

3. a foamer complex comprising:

i. a first member, comprising about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty alcohol; and

ii. a second member, comprising about 0.1% to about 20%> by weight of

1. a fatty acid; and/or

2. a wax; or

4. a liquefied or compressed gas propellant.

[0078] In one or more embodiments, at least a portion of the therapeutic agent is suspended or dissolved evenly throughout the entire composition.

[0079] It has been discovered that formulations containing high amount of a hydrophobic solvents (such as mineral oil) are not prone to foaming. Surprisingly, it has been further discovered that the combination of a fatty alcohol and fatty acid and/or a wax has foam boosting properties and provides breakable foams of good quality in the absence of customary surfactants. It has been discovered that fatty alcohols or fatty acids with a saturated carbon chain of between 16 to 22 carbons combined have outstanding foam boosting properties. It has been further discovered that the combination of a fatty alcohol with a fatty acid and a wax has improved foaming properties. It has been discovered that different factors can influence foaming properties. Non limiting examples include: a) the ratio of fatty alcohol to fatty acid e. g. foams of excellent quality that did not collapse after 180 seconds at 36°C were obtained with a ratio of fatty alcohol: fatty acid of 1 : 1 and a total concentration of fatty alcohol together with fatty acid ranging from about 7% to about 10%; b) the ratio of beeswax to hydrogenated castor oil; e.g. foams of good quality that did not collapse after 180 seconds at 36°C were obtained with a ratio of beeswax to hydrogenated castor oil of 1 : 1 or more, c) ratio of fatty alcohol to wax e.g. foams of good quality that did not collapse after 180 seconds at 36°C were obtained with a ratio of fatty alcohol to wax of 2:3 to 3:2. d) the type and concentration of propellant e.g. AP-70 and

Tetrafluoroethane improved foam quality in comparison to A-46.

[0080] Furthermore, the oleaginous formulations of the present invention can provide foams of good quality in the presence of various active ingredients. It was found for example that compositions of the present invention comprising one or more of Doxycycline Hyclate, Betamethasone Valerate, Progesterone, Terbinafme, Metronidazole, Mometasone Furoate, Calcitriol, Calcipotriol and Naproxen can give rise to breakable foams of good to excellent quality which did not collapse for at least 2 minutes at 36°C.

[0081] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is a vitamin A or a derivative or analog thereof.

[0082] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is a vitamin E or a derivative or analog thereof.

[0083] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is a vitamin K or a derivative or analog thereof.

[0084] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is a vitamin F or a derivative or analog thereof.

[0085] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is vitamin D or a derivative or analog thereof.

[0086] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is calcipotriol.

[0087] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is calcitriol.

[0088] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is corticosteroid.

[0089] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is mometasone furoate.

[0090] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is doxycycline hyclate.

[0091] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is betamethasone valerate. [0092] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is progesterone.

[0093] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is terbinafme.

[0094] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is metronidazole.

[0095] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is naproxen.

[0096] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is one or more of doxycycline hyclate, betamethasone valerate, progesterone, terbinafme, metronidazole, mometasone furoate, calcitriol, calcipotriol and naproxen.

[0097] In one or more embodiments, the composition is essentially free of polyols.

[0098] In one or more embodiments, composition is capable of providing intradermal delivery of the active agent into the skin with minimal or negligible transdermal delivery.

[0099] In one or more embodiments, the composition has some preservative efficacy.

[0100] In one or more embodiments, the composition is for use in eye infections.

[0101] In one or more embodiments, the composition is physically and chemically stable for at least two months and wherein the active agent is compatible with and chemically stable in the composition.

[0102] In one or more embodiments, the composition is physically and chemically stable for at least three months and wherein the active agent is compatible with and chemically stable in the composition.

[0103] In one or more embodiments, the composition is physically and chemically stable for at least six months and wherein the active agent is compatible with and chemically stable in the composition.

[0104] It was further found that different waxes had a different influence pre foam

formulation (PFF) homogeneity. For example beeswax resulted PFF separation (decrease in homogeneity), whereas hydrogenated castor oil increased homogeneity. Paraffin wax 51-53 induced PFF separation in placebo formulation however homogeneity was surprisingly regained upon addition of minocycline. In one or more embodiments hydrogenated caster oil is used to prevent separation or to restore homogeneity. In one or more embodiments a tetracycline is used to prevent separation or to restore homogeneity. In one or more embodiments a paraffin is used to prevent separation or to restore homogeneity. [0105] In one or more embodiments, there is provided a substantially surfactant free composition comprising:

a) about 60% to about 95% by weight of a hydrophobic solvent;

b) an oleaginous foamer complex comprising:

(1) about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty alcohol; and

(2) about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty acid and/or a wax; or

c) an active agent,

wherein the active agent is compatible with and chemically stable in the composition.

Hydrophobic Solvent

[0106] In an embodiment, the composition of the present invention comprises at least one hydrophobic organic solvent. In one or more embodiments the hydrophobic organic solvent should be compatible with the active ingredient. Oils which are incompatible are omitted. For example, minocycline compositions will be free of pomegranate seed oil. A "hydrophobic organic solvent" (also termed "hydrophobic solvent") as used herein refers to a material having solubility in distilled water at ambient temperature of less than about 1 gm per 100 mL, more preferably less than about 0.5 gm per 100 mL, and most preferably less than about 0.1 gm per 100 mL. It is liquid at ambient temperature. The identification of a "hydrophobic solvent", as used herein, is not intended to characterize the solubilization capabilities of the solvent for any specific active agent or any other component of the foamable composition. Rather, such term is provided to aid in the identification of materials suitable for use as a hydrophobic solvent in the foamable compositions described herein.

[0107] In one or more embodiments the hydrophobic solvent is present at a concentration of about 60% to about 95% or about 65% to about 90%; or about 70% to about 90% or about 75% to about 85%.

[0108] In one or more embodiments, the composition of the present invention comprises at least one hydrophobic solvent, selected from the group consisting of an oil including a mineral oil, a hydrocarbon oil, an ester oil, a liquid triglyceride oil, an oil of plant origin, an oil from animal origin, an unsaturated or polyunsaturated oil, a diglyceride, a PPG alkyl ether and a silicone oil. [0109] As exemplified herein, members of each of the above listed groups of hydrophobic solvents have been found to be compatible with hydrophobic tetracyclines, such as minocycline and doxycycline.

[0110] Non- limiting examples of hydrocarbon oils include mineral oil, liquid paraffin, an isoparaffin, a polyalphaolefin, a polyolefm, polyisobutylene, a synthetic isoalkane,

isohexadecane and isododecane.

[0111] Non-limiting examples of ester oils include alkyl benzoate, alkyl octanoate, C12-C15 alkyl benzoate, C12-C15 alkyl octanoate, arachidyl behenate, arachidyl propionate, benzyl laurate, benzyl myristate, benzyl palmitate, bis (octyldodecyl stearoyl) dimer dilinoleate, butyl myristate, butyl stearate, cetearyl ethylhexanoate, cetearyl isononanoate, cetyl acetate, cetyl ethylhexanoate, cetyl lactate, cetyl myristate, cetyl octanoate, cetyl palmitate, cetyl ricinoleate, decyl oleate, diethyleneglycol diethylhexanoate, diethyleneglycol dioctanoate, diethyleneglycol diisononanoate, diethyleneglycol diisononanoate, diethylhexanoate, diethylhexyl adipate, diethylhexyl malate, diethylhexyl succinate, diisopropyl adipate, diisopropyl dimerate, diisopropyl sebacate, diisosteary dimer dilinoleate, diisostearyl fumerate, dioctyl malate, dioctyl sebacate, dodecyl oleate, ethylhexyl palmitate, ester derivatives of lanolic acid, ethylhexyl cocoate, ethylhexyl ethylhexanoate, ethylhexyl hydroxystarate, ethylhexyl isononanoate, ethylhexyl palmytate, ethylhexyl pelargonate, ethylhexyl stearate, hexadecyl stearate, hexyl laurate, isoamyl laurate, isocetyl isocetyl behenate, isocetyl lanolate, isocetyl palmitate, isocetyl stearate, isocetyl salicylate, isocetyl stearate, isocetyl stearoyl stearate, isocetearyl octanoate, isodecyl ethylhexanoate, isodecyl isononanoate, isodecyl oleate, isononyl isononanoate, isodecyl oleate, isohexyl decanoate, isononyl octanoate, isopropyl isostearate, isopropyl lanolate, isopropyl laurate, isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, isopropyl stearate, isostearyl behenate, isosteary citrate, isostearyl erucate, isostearyl glycolate, isostearyl isononanoate, isostearyl isostearate, isostearyl lactate, isostearyl linoleate, isostearyl linolenate, isostearyl malate, isostearyl neopentanoate, isostearyl palmitate, isosteary salicylate, isosteary tartarate, isotridecyl isononanoate, isotridecyl isononanoate, lauryl lactate, myristyl lactate, myristyl myristate, myristyl neopentanoate, myristyl propionate, octyldodecyl myristate, neopentylglycol dicaprate, octyl dodecanol, octyl stearate, octyl palmitate, octyldodecyl behenate, octyldodecyl hydroxystearate, octyldodecyl myristate, octyldodecyl stearoyl stearate, oleyl erucate, oleyl lactate, oleyl oleate, propyl myristate, propylene glycol myristyl ether acetate, propylene glycol dicaprate, propylene glycol dicaprylate, propylene glycol dicaprylate, maleated soybean oil, stearyl caprate, stearyl heptanoate, stearyl propionate, tocopheryl acetate, tocopheryl linoleate, glyceryl oleate, tridecyl ethylhexanoate, tridecyl isononanoate and triisocetyl citrate.

[0112] Non-limiting examples of liquid triglycerides and oils of plant origin include alexandria laurel tree oil, avocado oil, apricot stone oil, barley oil, borage seed oil, calendula oil, canelle nut tree oil, canola oil, caprylic/capric triglyceride castor oil, coconut oil, corn oil, cotton oil, cottonseed oil, evening primrose oil, flaxseed oil, groundnut oil, hazelnut oil, glycereth triacetate, glycerol triheptanoate, glyceryl trioctanoate, glyceryl triundecanoate, hempseed oil, jojoba oil, lucerne oil, maize germ oil, marrow oil, millet oil, neopentylglycol

dicaprylate/dicaprate, olive oil, palm oil, passionflower oil, pentaerythrityl tetrastearate, poppy oil, propylene glycol ricinoleate, rapeseed oil, rye oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, shea butter, soya oil, soybean oil, sweet almond oil, sunflower oil, sysymbrium oil, syzigium aromaticum oil, tea tree oil, walnut oil, wheat germ glycerides and wheat germ oil.

[0113] Non-limiting examples of PPG alkyl ethers include PPG-2 butyl ether, PPG-4 butyl ether, PPG-5 butyl ether, PPG-9 butyl ether, PPG- 12 butyl ether, PPG- 14 butyl ether, PPG- 15 butyl ether, PPG- 15 stearyl ether, PPG- 16 butyl ether, PPG- 17 butyl ether, PPG- 18 butyl ether, PPG-20 butyl ether, PPG-22 butyl ether, PPG-24 butyl ether, PPG-26 butyl ether, PPG-30 butyl ether, PPG-33 butyl ether, PPG-40 butyl ether, PPG-52 butyl ether, PPG-53 butyl ether, PPG-10 cetyl ether, PPG-28 cetyl ether, PPG-30 cetyl ether, PPG-50 cetyl ether, PPG-30 isocetyl ether, PPG-4 lauryl ether, PPG-7 lauryl ether, PPG-2 methyl ether, PPG-3 methyl ether, PPG-3 myristyl ether, PPG-4 myristyl ether, PPG-10 oleyl ether, PPG-20 oleyl ether, PPG-23 oleyl ether, PPG-30 oleyl ether, PPG-37 oleyl ether, PPG-40 butyl ether, PPG-50 oleyl ether and PPG- 11 stearyl ether. Preferred PPG alky ethers according to the present invention include PPG- 15 stearyl ether, PPG-2 butyl ether and PPG-9- 13 butyl ether.

[0114] Non-limiting examples of oils from animal origin include herring oil, cod-liver oil and salmon oil.

[0115] The hydrophobic solvent may be an emollient, i.e., a hydrophobic liquid having a softening or soothing effect especially to the skin. In some embodiments the liquid oil may contain a solid or semi solid hydrophobic matter at room temperature.

[0116] Essential oil, which is usually a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants usually conveying characteristic fragrances. Non limiting examples include lavender, peppermint, and eucalyptus. A therapeutic oil is a hydrophobic liquid which is said to have a therapeutic effect or to have associated with it certain healing properties. Therapeutic oils contain active biologically occurring molecules and, upon topical application, exert a therapeutic effect. Non limiting examples include manuka oil, rosehip oil, which contains retinoids and is known to reduce acne and post-acne scars, and tea tree oil, which possesses antimicrobial activity including antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties as well as any other therapeutically beneficial oil known in the art of herbal medication. Many essential oils are considered "therapeutic oils." Other non limiting examples of essential oils are basil, camphor, cardamom, carrot, citronella, clary sage, clove, cypress, frankincense, ginger, grapefruit, hyssop, jasmine, lavender, lemon, mandarin, marjoram, myrrh, neroli, nutmeg, petitgrain, sage, tangerine, vanilla and verbena.

[0117] Some embodiments include silicone oils. Non-limiting examples of silicone oils include a cyclomethicone, dimethicone, a polyalkyl siloxane, a polyaryl siloxane, a polyalkylaryl siloxane, a polyether siloxane copolymer, a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-(diphenyl-siloxane) copolymer, a dimethyl polysiloxane, an epoxy-modified silicone oil, a fatty acid-modified silicone oil, a fluoro group-modified silicone oil, a methylphenylpolysiloxane, phenyl

trimethicone and a polyether group-modified silicone oil. In some embodiments, the silicone oil is cyclomethicone, cyclotetrasiloxane, cyclohexasiloxane, phyenyltrimethicone, Dow corning 246 Fluid (d6+d5) (cyclohexasiloxane & cyclopentasiloxane), Dow Corning 244 Fluid

(cyclotetrasiloxane), Cyclomethicone 5-NF (cyclopentasiloxane), stearyl dimethicone, phenyltrimethicone, cetyl dimethicone, caprylyl methicone, PEG/PPG 18/18 dimethicone, or dimethiconol.

[0118] In one or more embodiments, the hydrophobic solvent may be selected from capric/caprylic triglycerides, cyclomethicone; isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, PPG-15 stearyl ether; octyldodecanol; isohexadecanol, diisopropyl adipate; cetearyl octanoate; ; MCT oil; heavy mineral oil; light mineral oil; coconut oil and soybean oil.

[0119] Mixtures of two or more hydrophobic solvents in the same foamable composition are contemplated. Furthermore, in certain embodiments, the use of mixtures of two or more hydrophobic solvents is preferred.

[0120] Yet, in certain embodiments, the hydrophobic solvent is a mixture of one or more liquid hydrophobic solvents, as listed above, together with an additional hydrophobic substance, which is not liquid (such as petrolatum). In an embodiment the resultant mixture upon including propellant is liquid at ambient temperature. In certain embodiments the main hydrophobic substance in the formulation is a petrolatum, which is a semi solid, in combination with at least one liquid hydrophobic solvent. For example petrolatum may be added to provide a degree of occlusivity so that the formulation when applied to a skin surface can operate to increase skin moisture and/or reduced transdermal water loss. In certain other embodiments a liquid hydrophobic solvent is not added. Fluidity of the composition can be achieved by utilizing liquidizing solvents (e.g. C12 C15 Alkyl benzoate) and/or liquefied propellants and/or optionally liquid adjuvants. Inclusion of higher amounts of propellant was found useful in order to improve flowability of the formulation from the canister or by using propellants having a higher vapor pressure.

[0121] In one or more embodiments the hydrophobic solvent is a natural oil, extracted from plants, such as the fruit of olives or avocado or from their seeds, such as, grape seed oil or pomegranate seed oil. Non limiting examples of suitable oils, which can also have a therapeutic effect, include almond oil, avocado oil, calendula oil, coconut oil, cocoglycerides, grape seed oil, jojoba oil, peanut oil, pomegranate seed oil, soy bean oil, and wheat germ oil. In one or more embodiments the hydrophobic solvent is a hydrocarbon based oil, such as light mineral oil or heavy mineral oil. Each oil has its own unique characteristics, as will be appreciated by a man of the art. Some are readily absorbed onto the skin, whist others are heavier or greasy and are less easily absorbed. It should be kept in mind that greasiness is a subjective feeling. With this caveat in mind pomegranate and avocado are thought to be oils with a greasier feeling. On the other hand jojoba, almond, grape seed, calendula and peanut oils are not considered greasy.

Somewhere in between are soybean, wheat germ and coconut oils. Some oils have a strong natural odor, such as pomegranate seed oil whilst others display a milder odor, such as soybean, wheat germ, avocado, and almond. Others display a subtle or almost non existent odor, such as, jojoba, coconut, grape seed, calendula and peanut oil. Sometimes odor is a reflection of the level of processing the oil has undergone with a lower or disappearing odor reflecting a higher level of oil refinement. In an embodiment oils are blended to facilitate good absorption with unctuous occlusive properties. In one or more embodiments fragrance can be added to mask distinctive odors of oils. In one or more embodiments the oil is a mixture of two or more oils.

Foamer Complex Components

[0122] The foamer complex comprises: a first member, comprising about 0.1% to about 20% by weight of a fatty alcohol; and a second member, comprising about 0.1 %> to about 20%> by weight of a fatty acid; and/or a wax. In certain embodiments the amount of the first and second members respectively comprises about 0.4% to about 18% by weight. In certain embodiments the amount of the first and second members each respectively comprises about 0.6% to about 12% by weight. In certain embodiments the amount of the first and second members each respectively comprises about 0.8% to about 10% by weight. In certain embodiments the amount of the first and second members each respectively comprises about 2% to about 7% by weight. In certain other embodiments, the concentration of each member respectively can be within any one of the following ranges (i) between about 0.1 % and about 1%, (ii) between about 1% and about 5%, (iii) between about 5% and about 10%, or (iv) between about 10% and about 20%. In one or more embodiments, each member is at a concentration at about 5% to about 10% by weight.

Fatty Alcohol

[0123] The foamer complex includes a fatty alcohol. The fatty alcohol which acts as a foam adjuvant is included in the foamable compositions as a main constituent, to evolve the foaming property of the composition and/or to stabilize the foam. In one or more embodiments, the fatty alcohol is selected from the group consisting of fatty alcohols having 15 or more carbons in their carbon chain, such as cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol (or mixtures thereof). Other examples of fatty alcohols are arachidyl alcohol (C20), behenyl alcohol (C22), tetracosanol, hexacosanol, octacosanol, triacontanol, tetratriacontanol,l-triacontanol (C30), as well as alcohols with longer carbon chains (up to C50). In one or more embodiments the fatty alcohol has a carbon chain length of 14 to 22 carbons. In one or more other embodiments, the fatty alcohol is selected from the group consisting of fatty alcohols having 14 or less carbons in their carbon chain, such as lauryl alcohol and myristyl alcohol. In an embodiment the fatty alcohol is a solid at room temperature. In an embodiment where the formulation is very viscous liquid fatty acids or fatty alcohols may for example be added, for example isostearic acid.

[0124] In one or more preferred embodiments, the fatty alcohol is cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol, behenyl alcohol and combinations thereof. Fatty alcohols, derived from beeswax and including a mixture of alcohols, a majority of which has at least 20 carbon atoms in their carbon chain, are suitable as fatty alcohols in the context herein. In certain embodiments the amount of the fatty alcohol required to support the foam system can be approximately inversely related to the length of its carbon chains. In one or more other embodiments, the fatty alcohol is selected from the group consisting of fatty alcohols having 14 or less carbons in their carbon chain, such as myristyl alcohol. Fatty alcohols are also useful in facilitating improved spreadability and absorption of the composition.

[0125] Fatty alcohols are amphiphatic, however unlike customary surfactants, they cannot usually function as stand-alone surfactants, because of their very weak emulsifying capacity. They are occasionally used as non-ionic co-emulsifiers, i.e., and are commonly used as thickeners (Surfactants in personal care products and decorative cosmetics By Linda D. Rhein, Mitchell Schlossman, Anthony O'Lenick, P., Third Edition, 2006, p. 247). Fatty alcohols are generally regarded as safe and they are not considered as irritants.

[0126] An important property of the fatty alcohols used in context of the composition disclosed herein is related to their therapeutic properties per se. Long chain saturated and mono unsaturated fatty alcohols, e.g., stearyl alcohol, erucyl alcohol, arachidyl alcohol and behenyl alcohol (docosanol) have been reported to possess antiviral, antiinfective, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties (see, U.S. Patent No. 4,874,794). Longer chain fatty alcohols, e.g., tetracosanol, hexacosanol, heptacosanol, octacosanol, triacontanol, etc., are also known for their metabolism modifying properties and tissue energizing properties.

Fatty Acid

[0127] The foamer complex further includes a fatty acid. The fatty acid which acts as a foam adjuvant is included in the foamable compositions to evolve the foaming property of the composition and/or to stabilize the foam. In one or more embodiments the fatty acid can have 16 or more carbons in its carbon chain, such as hexadecanoic acid (CI 6) heptadecanoic acid ,stearic acid (CI 8), arachidic acid (C20), behenic acid (C22), tetracosanoic acid (C24), hexacosanoic acid (C26), heptacosanoic acid (C27), octacosanoic acid (C28), triacontanoic acid, dotriacontanoic acid, tritriacontanoic acid, tetratriacontanoic acid and pentatriacontanoic acid, as well as fatty acids with longer carbon chains (up to C50), or mixtures thereof. In one or more other embodiments, the fatty acid is selected from the group consisting of fatty alcohols having 14 or less carbons in their carbon chain, such as dodecanoic acid myristic acid, myristoleic acid, and lauric acid.

[0128] Optionally, the carbon atom chain of the fatty acid may have at least one double bond; alternatively, the fatty acid can be a branched fatty acid. The carbon chain of the fatty acid also can be substituted with a hydroxyl group, such as 12-hydroxy stearic acid. In one or more preferred embodiments, the fatty acid is stearic acid.

Waxes

[0129] The oleaginous foamer complex may include a wax. The wax which acts as a foam adjuvant is included in the foamable compositions to evolve the foaming property of the composition and/or to stabilize the foam. Wax refers to beeswax or another substance with similar properties. The term wax refers to a class of substances with properties similar to beeswax, in respect of (i) plastic behavior at normal ambient temperatures, a melting point above approximately 45°C, (ii) a relatively low viscosity when melted (unlike many plastics); and (iii) hydrophobic nature. Suitable exemplary waxes which can be incorporated into the formulation include animal, vegetable, mineral or silicone based waxes which may be natural or synthetic such as, for example: beeswax, Chinese wax, lanolin (wool wax), shellac wax, bayberry wax, candelilla wax, carnauba wax, castor wax, esparto wax, japan wax, ouricury wax, rice bran wax, soy wax, hydrogenated oil such as hydrogenated castor oil, hydrogenated cottonseed oil, or hydrogenated jojoba oil, mink wax, motan wax, ouricury wax, ozokerite, PEG-6 beeswax, rezowax, spent grain wax, stearyl dimethicone, paraffin waxes, such as paraffin 42-44, 51-53, 58- 62 wax, and the like and mixtures thereof. In certain embodiments the term wax can extend to hydrogenated oils. In one or more preferred embodiments, the wax is a beeswax or hydrogenated castor oil.

[0130] Paraffin wax is unique among other hydrocarbon chains by having a CST of about 25 (e.g., 25.5), which is about in the middle of the hydrophobic range. Thus, paraffin waxes are somewhat amphipatic which may also contribute to foam stability. Notably, in comparison to longer hydrocarbons, such as polyethylene and polypropylene, paraffin wax is much more hydrophobic, thereby decreasing the surface tension of the hydrophobic solvents in the composition and facilitating foam formation and stabilization (the CST of polypropylene 31.0 and polyethylene 33.0).

[0131] Hydrogenated castor oil consists mainly of triglycerides of hydroxystearic acid and is a solid wax.

[0132] Beeswax contains a high proportion of wax esters (35 to 80%), which are linear monoesters of straight-chain fatty alcohols with even-numbered carbon chains from C24 to C36 esterified with straight-chain fatty acids such as 16:0 and 18:0 fatty acids some with hydroxyl groups in the ω-2 and ω-3 positions. The wax esters consist of C40 to C46 molecular species, Also present are free acids (about 14%) and carbohydrates (about 12%) as well as approximately 1% free wax alcohols and stearic esters of fatty acids.

[0133] In one or more embodiments, the wax is a polyolefm such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polymethylpentene , polybutene, a polyolefm elastomer, polyisobutylene , ethylene propylene rubber, ethylene propylene diene Monomer (M-class) rubber, polyethylene terephthalate, polydicyclopentadiene, linear polyolefms, branched polyolefms, cyclic polyolefins, low density polyolefins, high density polyolefins, polyolefins with a low molecular weight, polyolefins with a high molecular weight, halogenated polyolefins and the like and mixture thereof.

[0134] In one or more embodiments, the wax is polyvinyl chloride, polyvinylidene chloride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyvinyl fluoride, polytetrafiuoro ethylene, polychlorotrifiuoro ethylene, polystyrene, polybutadiene, polyisoprene, polychloroprene, polymethylpentene and the like and mixture thereof.

[0135] In an embodiment the wax is selected from the group consisting of beeswax, Chinese wax, lanolin wax, shellac wax, bayberry wax, candeliUa wax, carnauba wax, castor wax, esparto wax, japan wax, ouricury wax, rice bran wax, soy wax, a hydrogenated oil, hydrogenated castor oil, hydrogenated cottonseed oil, or hydrogenated jojoba oil, mink wax, montan wax, ozokerite, PEG-6 beeswax, rezo wax, spent grain wax, stearyl dimethicone, a paraffin wax, paraffin 58- 62°C wax , paraffin 51 -53°C wax, paraffin 42-44°C wax.

[0136] In an embodiment the wax is selected from the waxes, as described in "The Complete Technology Book on Wax and Polishes, Publisher: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc., 2006" as incorporated herein by reference.

[0137] In one or more embodiments the wax includes vegetable wax, bayberry wax, candeliUa wax, carnauba wax, flower wax, sandy wax, fat wax, cotton wax, esparto wax, fir wax, flax wax, Japan wax, ouricury wax, palm waxes, Cuban palm wax, rice-oil wax, sugar cane wax, ucuhuba wax, or cocoa butter.

[0138] In one or more embodiments the wax includes synthetic mineral wax, fischer-tropsch wax, duroxon wax, or polymekon wax.

[0139] In one or more embodiments the wax includes miscellaneous synthetic waxes, albacer wax, atlasene wax, BASF waxes, cardis waxes, ceramid, glyco Waxes, flexo wax, or oxazoline waxes.

Combination of a fatty alcohol and a fatty acid and/or a wax

[0140] In Example 11, which looks at prior art formulations with a fatty alcohol, alone, a foam of good quality is not obtained. When, however, a fatty alcohol (or a mixture of fatty alcohols) is combined with a fatty acid (or a mixture of fatty acids) and/or a wax (or a mixture of waxes), they can, surprisingly, act synergistically to produce a good quality breakable foam. These successful combinations of a fatty alcohol and a fatty acid or a fatty alcohol and a wax are referred to herein as "foamer complexes".

[0141] In one or more embodiments, the foamer complex is a synergistic combination of a fatty alcohol (or a mixture of fatty alcohols) and a fatty acid (or a mixture of fatty acids).

[0142] In one or more embodiments, the foamer complex is a synergistic combination of a fatty alcohol (or a mixture of fatty alcohols) and a wax (or a mixture of waxes).

[0143] In one or more embodiments, the foamer complex is a synergistic combination of a fatty alcohol (or a mixture of fatty alcohols), a fatty acid (or a mixture of fatty acids) and a wax (or a mixture of waxes).

[0144] In one or more embodiments the range of ratio of fatty alcohol to fatty acid/wax can be about 100: 1 to about 1 : 100; or about 90:1 to about 1 :45; or about 80: 1 to about 1 :40; or about 70: 1 to about 1 :35; or about 60: 1 to about 1 :30; or about 50:1 to about 1 :25; or about 40: 1 to about 1 :20; or about 30: 1 to about 1 : 15; or about 20: 1 to about 1 : 10; or about 15: 1 to about 1 :5; or about 10: 1 to about 1 : 1 ; or any ranges in between such as 1 :20 to 20 : 1 , or preferably from 1 : 10 to 10: 1, or 1 :4 to 4: 1, or 2:3 or 3:2.

Combination of a fatty alcohol and a fatty acid and/or shea butter

[0145] In one or more embodiments the foamer complex can be a fatty alcohol and shea butter, a fatty acid and shea butter or a combination of a fatty alcohol and a fatty acid and shea butter. Shea butter may, for example, be used instead of paraffin wax or instead of bees wax or instead of hydrogenated caster oil or to complement one or more of them. As can be appreciated from Example 22, wax and/or shea butter comprising complexes can be effective with petrolatum based compositions.

[0146] In one or more embodiments oily emollients are added to provide or improve a pleasant skin feeling, and/or lubricating effect with reduced friction. In one or more embodiments volatile silicones are added to reduce greasy feeling. In one or more embodiments various waxes are added to improve rheology or stabilize foam structure.

Propellant

[0147] The composition requires the addition of a propellant in order to generate a foam.

[0148] Suitable propellants include volatile hydrocarbons such as butane, propane, isobutene or mixtures thereof. In one or more embodiments a hydrocarbon mixture AP-70 is used. In one or more other embodiments a lower pressure hydrocarbon mixture AP-46 is used. Both contain butane, propane, isobutene although in different proportions. AP-70 is composed of about 50% w/w of propane, about 20% w/w of isobutane and about 30%> w/w of propane. AP-46 is composed of about 16%> w/w of propane, about 82% w/w of isobutane and about 2% w/w of propane. Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) propellants are also suitable as propellants in the context disclosed herein. Exemplary HFC propellants include 1,1,1,2 tetrafluorethane (Dymel 134), and 1,1,1,2,3,3,3 heptafluoropropane (Dymel 227). Dimethyl ether is also useful. In one or more embodiments use of compressed gases (e.g., air, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen) is also possible.

[0149] In one or more embodiments a combination of at least two propellants, selected from HFC, hydrocarbon propellants, dimethyl ether and compressed gases is contemplated.

[0150] Yet, in additional embodiments, the propellant is a self-foaming propellant, i.e., a volatile liquid having a boiling point of less than the temperature of the target treatment site (such as the skin). An example of a post-foaming propellant is isopentane (bp=26°C).

[0151] Any concentration of the propellant, which affords an acceptable foam is useful in accordance with the present invention. In certain embodiments the propellant makes up between about 1% and about 30% of the foamable composition, or about 3% and 30%; or about 4% and 25%; and in certain preferred embodiments between about 5% and about 16% of the

composition. In preparing the formulations the ingredients other than propellant are combined to 100% and the propellant is added thereafter so that the ratio of formulation to propellant can range from 100: 1 to 100:30; 100:3 to 100:30; 100:4 to 100:25 or preferably or preferably 100:5 to 100: 16. Yet, in additional embodiments, the ratio of composition other than propellant to propellant is between about 100:20 and about 100:50.

[0152] In one or more embodiments the propellant can also be used to expel formulation using a bag in can system or a can in can system as will be appreciated by someone skilled in the art. In certain embodiments the part of the propellant system is in the formulation and part separate from the formulation. In this way it is possible to reduce the amount of surfactant in the formulation but still provide good expulsion from the canister, where the foamable formulation is expelled quickly but without jetting or noise.

[0153] In one or more embodiments a foam formulation is expelled from a standard pressurized canister where the propellant is part of formulation. Formulations can be expelled or helped to be expelled by using propellant which is separate from the formulation using a bag in can or can in can system. Although, these systems can be used with compressed air the pressure may not be sufficient to expel the formulation through the device and higher pressure propellant such as AP70 should be selected. In one or more embodiments, the formulation is packaged in bag in can systems or in can in can system. In one or more embodiments, the formulation is expelled from the canister using the pressure provided by the propellant mixed with the formulation. In one or more embodiments, the formulation is expelled from the canister using the pressure provided by the propellant stored in a compartment surrounding the formulation.

According to other embodiments part of the propellant system is in the formulation and part of the propellant system is separate from the formulation, which is used to expel said formulation using a bag or can in can system. In this way it is possible to reduce the amount of propellant within the formulation and avoid unwanted gaseous effects, for example in vaginal applications, but still provide good expulsion from the canister, where the foamable formulation is expelled sufficiently quickly but without jetting or noise. So by way of example, between about 1% to 3%; or between about 2% to 4%; between about 3% to 5% propellant (ratio of formulation to propellant of 100: 1 to 3; 100: 2 to 4; 100: 3 to 5; respectively) is part of the formulation and a further amount of propellant is separate form the formulation and helps expel the formulation. In one or more embodiments a similar amount of propellant is in the formulation and a pump or other mechanical means is used to provide the additional expulsion force.

Modulating Agent

[0154] In one or more embodiments the modulating agent is used in a waterless composition which is surfactant free. The term modulating agent is used to describe an agent which can improve the stability of or stabilize a carrier or a foamable composition and/or an active agent by modulating the effect of a substance or residue present in the carrier or composition. The substance or residue may, for example, be acidic or basic or buffer system (or combinations thereof) and potentially alter an artificial pH in a waterless or substantially non-aqueous environment, such as, by modulating the ionic or polar characteristics and any acidity or basesity balance of a waterless or substantially non-aqueous carrier, composition, foamable carrier or foamable composition or resultant foam or it may be a chelating or sequestering or complexing agent or it may be one or more metal ions which may act as a potential catalyst in a waterless or substantially non-aqueous environment or it may be an ionization agent or it may be an oxidizing agent. [0155] In an embodiment , the modulating or additional component is a pH adjusting agent or a buffering agent and can be any of the known buffering systems used in pharmaceutical or cosmetic formulations as would be appreciated by a man of the art. It can also be an organic acid, a carboxylic acid, a fatty acid an amino acid, an aromatic acid, an alpha or beta hydroxyl acid an organic base or a nitrogen containing compound.

[0156] In one or more further embodiments the modulating agent is used to describe an agent, which is a chelating or sequestering or complexing agent that is sufficiently soluble or functional in the waterless solvent to enable it to "mop up" or "lock" metal ions such as EDTA or other such pharmaceutically or cosmetically acceptable.

[0157] Modulating agents may be added to the compositions of the subject invention, preferably from about 0.1% to about 10%, more preferably from about 1% to about 5%, of the composition. Where the active agent itself is the modulating agent alone or in combination with another modulating agent it will be added at an effective dose which may be outside these ranges. For example azaleic acid may be at about 15% of the composition. In an embodiment sufficient modulating agent is added to achieve an artificial pH in which the active agent is preferably stable. Such artificial pH may be acidic, maybe basic or may be neutral

[0158] Further detail regarding modulating agents is found in co-pending Published U.S. Patent Application 2008/0206159, which is hereby incorporated in its entirety by reference.

[0159] The modulating agent to the foamable composition is useful for stabilizing

pharmaceutical and cosmetic active agents which are unstable in certain pH conditions. It is known, for example, that active agents, which contain ester bond in their structure tend to undergo hydrolysis of the ester bond at basic pH levels. Therefore, the addition of an agent, which avoids the formation of basic pH condition, can thus, prevent degradation of such active agents. Many steroid compounds are known to undergo rearrangement at high pH, and again, adding an acidic modulating agent helps prevent such degradation. Another example of a pH- sensitive active agent is vitamin D, which degrades at low pH levels. In such a case, the addition of a basic modulating agent, such as triethanolamine is useful to maintain acceptable stability of this active agent.

[0160] It is important to maintain skin surface pH in order to prevent susceptibility to bacterial skin infections or skin damage and disease. Thus, adding a modulating agent, which contributes to the stabilization of skin pH at the desirable level, is advantageous. [0161] In the same fashion, adding an acidic modulating agent to a foamable composition, which is intended for vaginal application is advantageous, since better protection against vaginal infection is attained in pH lower than 4.

[0162] In one or more embodiments, the modulating agent may also be a preservative or an antioxidant or an ionization agent. Any preservative, antioxidant or ionization agents suitable for pharmaceutical or cosmetic application may be used. Non-limiting examples of antioxidants are tocopherol, tocopherol succinate, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and its salts, propyl galate, butylated hydroxy toluene and butyl hydroxy anisol. Non-limiting examples of positive ionization agents are benzyl conium chloride, and cetyl pyridium chloride. Non-limiting examples of negative ionization agents are sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium lauryl lactylate and phospholipids. In one or more embodiments the modulating agent is a flavonoid for example quercitin and/or rutin.

[0163] A safe and effective amount of an anti-oxidant/radical scavenger may be added to the compositions of the subject invention, preferably from about 0.1% to about 10%, more preferably from about 1% to about 5%, of the composition.

Ophthalmic Excipients

[0164] In one or more embodiments the formulation may comprise excipients that are suitable for ophthalmic use. By virtue of their suitability for ophthalmic use they may in certain embodiments be applicable on other sensitive targets such as for use internal and/or external wounds or burns or in body cavities. Excipients selected as part of a drug carrier that can be used with the active pharmaceutical ingredients are identified by compatibility studies with active ingredients to ascertain which are compatible for use with the active pharmaceutical ingredients, for example, by examining which do not react with and/or promote break down of the active pharmaceutical ingredients. In one or more embodiments, the ophthalmic excipient includes one or more known ophthalmic excipients approved by the FDA in the US.

[0165] Oleaginous ointments are viscous preparations, which remain viscous when applied to the skin or other body surfaces; and they require extensive rubbing. Because of their viscosity, eye ointments cause blurred vision and consequent low tolerability, especially for long term treatment. Because of their high viscosity, drugs are trapped in the vehicle and cannot migrate through to their target site of action, for example, the skin or the eye.

[0166] Liquid, non viscous oleaginous medications are also disadvantageous, as they spill easily and thus, are very inconvenient to use. In eye treatment, liquid drops are difficult to apply and they require lying on the back at rest for accurate administration. Furthermore, because of their low viscosity, liquid oil vehicles cannot carry suspended drugs, which tend to precipitate and if the viscosity is not high enough, thereby impairing the uniformity of the therapeutic product.

[0167] In one or more embodiments the formulations are not highly viscous. In one or more other embodiments the formulations do not provide low viscosity. In one or more embodiments the formulations are thixotropic so that on application of shear force their viscosity decreases and they become more flowable. In one or more embodiments the formulations are foams which are breakable on shear force. In one or more embodiments the foams are based on thixotropic gel formulations. In one or more embodiments the viscosity of the formulation prior to addition of propellant is more than about lOOOcps and less than about 25,000 cps. In one or more

embodiments it is more than about 200cps and less than about 24,000cps.

Ophthalmic Active Agents

[0168] In one or more embodiments the formulation may comprise active agents that are suitable for ophthalmic use. By virtue of their suitability for ophthalmic use they may in certain embodiments be applicable on other sensitive targets such as for use internal and/or external wounds or burns or in body cavities. Active agents are selected and combined with proper excipients and eye irritation studies including the HET CAM test can be preformed to ascertain, those which are non irritant.

[0169] It was surprisingly found that substantially surfactant free oleaginous formulations containing 1% or 4% minocycline hydrochloride, demonstrated no signs of irritation. Thus in one or more embodiments, the non-irritant active agent includes a tetracycline. In one or more embodiments, the non-irritant active agent includes a minocyline.

Additional components

[0170] In an embodiment, a composition disclosed herein includes one or more additional components. Such additional components include but are not limited to anti perspirants, antistatic agents, bulking agents, cleansers, colorants, skin conditioners, deodorants, diluents, dyes, fragrances, hair conditioners, herbal extracts, humectants, keratolytic agents, modulating agents, pearlescent aids, perfuming agents, pH modifying or stabilizing agents, skin penetration or permeation enhancers, softeners, solubilizers, sunscreens, sun blocking agents, sunless tanning agents, viscosity modifiers, flavanoids and vitamins. As is known to one skilled in the art, in some instances a specific additional component may have more than one activity, function or effect. [0171] In certain embodiments, the additional component is an oil soluble preservative, or an oil soluble antioxidant, or an oil soluble radical scavenger, or an oil soluble complexing agent, or an oil soluble pigment or dye.

Definitions

[0172] All % values are provided on a weight (w/w) basis.

[0173] By the term "about" herein it is meant as indicated above and that a figure or range of figures can also vary plus or minus up to 30%. So in this embodiment if a figure of "about 1" is provided then the amount can be up to 1.3 or from 0.70. In other embodiments it can reflect a variation of plus or minus 20%. In still further embodiments it can describe a variation of plus or minus 10%. In still further embodiments it can describe a variation of plus or minus 5%. As will be appreciated by one of the art there is some reasonable flexibility in formulating compositions such that where one or more ingredients are varied successful formulations may still be made even if an amount falls slightly outside the range. Therefore, to allow for this possibility amounts are qualified by about. In one or more other embodiments the figures may be read without the prefix about.

[0174] The term "thixotropic," as used herein, means that the formulation shows a decrease in viscosity upon application of shear force. The structure of the formulation breaks down leading to a reduction in viscosity. When the formulation is standing without shear force, this decrease in viscosity is recovered over time. In one or more embodiments, the gel formulation subjected to constant shear rate shows a reduction in viscosity with time. In one or more further embodiments, after the material is allowed to rest for a period of time, the viscosity increases again

[0175] The term "waterless," as used herein, means that the composition contains no, or substantially no, free or unassociated or absorbed water. Similarly, "waterless" or "substantially waterless" carriers contain at most incidental and trace amounts of water.

[0176] By the term "single phase" herein it is meant that after addition of propellant to the composition or carrier, the liquid components of the foamable composition or carrier are fully miscible, and the solid components if any, are either dissolved or suspended in the composition. By substantially a single phase is meant that the composition or carrier after addition of propellant is primarily or essentially a single phase as explained above, but may also have present a small amount of material which is capable of forming or may form a separate phase amounting to less than about 5% of the composition or carrier after the addition of propellant, preferably less than about 3%, and more preferably less than about 1%.

[0177] The term "unstable active agent" as used herein, means an active agent which is oxidized and/or degraded within less than a day, and in some cases, in less than an hour upon exposure to air, light, skin or water under ambient conditions.

[0178] The term "co-surfactant" as used herein, means a molecule which on its own is not able to form and stabilize satisfactorily an oil in water emulsion but when used in combination with a surfactant the co-surfactant has properties, which can allow it to help surfactants to create an emulsion and can boost the stabilizing power or effect of the surfactant and can include, for example, a fatty alcohol, such as cetyl alcohol or a fatty acid such as stearic acid. Cetyl alcohol is a waxy hydrophobic substance that can be emulsified with water using a surfactant. Some substances may have more than one function and for example, fatty alcohols can in some formulations act as a co-solvent. In certain circumstances a co-surfactant can itself be converted in to a surfactant or soap by, for example, adding a base, such as, triethanolamine to a fatty acid like stearic acid.

[0179] The identification of a "polyol", as used herein, is an organic substance that contains at least two hydroxy groups in its molecular structure.

[0180] In one or more embodiments, the polyol is a diol (a compound that contains two hydroxy groups in its molecular structure). Examples of diols include propylene glycol (e.g., 1,2- propylene glycol and 1,3-propylene glycol), butanediol (e.g., 1 ,2-butanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 2,3- butanediol and 1 ,4-butanediol), butanediol (e.g., 1,3-butanediol and 1,4-butenediol), butynediol, pentanediol (e.g., pentane- 1,2-diol, pentane- 1,3 -diol, pentane- 1,4-diol, pentane- 1,5 -diol, pentane- 2,3-diol and pentane-2,4-diol), hexanediol (e.g., hexane-l,6-diol hexane-2,3-diol and hexane- 2,56-diol), octanediol (e.g., 1,8-octanediol), neopentyl glycol, 2 -methyl- 1,3 -propanediol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, dipropylene glycol and dibutylene glycol.

[0181] In one or more embodiments, the polyol is a triol (a compound that contains three hydroxy groups in its molecular structure), such as glycerin, butane- 1,2,3-triol, butane- 1,2,4-triol and hexane-l,2,6-triol.

[0182] In one or more embodiments, the polyol is a saccharide. Exemplary saccharides include, but are not limited to monosaccharide, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and sugar alcohols. [0183] A monosaccharide is a simple sugar that cannot be hydrolysed to smaller units.

Empirical formula is (CH20)n and range in size from trioses (n=3) to heptoses (n=7). Exemplary monosaccharide compounds are ribose, glucose, fructose and galactose.

[0184] Disaccharides are made up of two monosaccharides joined together, such as sucrose, maltose and lactose.

[0185] In one or more embodiments, the polyol is a sugar alcohol (also known as a polyol, polyhydric alcohol, or polyalcohol) is a hydrogenated form of saccharide, whose carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group. They are commonly used for replacing sucrose in foodstuffs, often in combination with high intensity artificial sweeteners to counter the low sweetness. Some exemplary sugar alcohols, which are suitable for use according to the present invention are mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, lactitol. (Maltitol and lactitol are not completely hydrogenated compounds - they are a monosaccharide combined with a polyhydric alcohol.) Mixtures of polyols, including (1) at least one polyol selected from a diol and a triol; and (2) a saccharide are contemplated within the scope of the present disclosure.

[0186] According to some embodiments, the composition is polyol free i.e., free of polyols. In other embodiments, the composition is substantially free and comprises less than about 5% final concentration of polyols, preferably less than 2%, more preferably less than 1%. Where a formulation includes insignificant amounts of polyols it is considered to be essentially free of them.

[0187] In an embodiment, the polyol is linked to a hydrophobic moiety. In the context of the present disclosure, a polyol linked to a hydrophobic moiety is still defined as a "polyol" as long as it still contains two or more free hydroxyl groups.

[0188] In an embodiment, the polyol is linked to a hydrophilic moiety. In the context of the present disclosure, a polyol linked to a hydrophilic moiety is still defined "polyol" as long as it still contains two or more free hydroxyl groups.

[0189] The term "water activity" as used herein, activity represents the hydroscopic nature of a substance; or the tendency of a substance that absorbs water from its surroundings.

Microorganisms require water to grow and reproduce, and such water requirements are best defined in terms of water activity of the substrate. The water activity of a solution is expressed as Aw = P/Po, where P is the water vapor pressure of the solution and Po is the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature. Every microorganism has a limiting Aw, below which it will not grow; e.g., for Streptococci, Klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Pseudomonas spp, the Aw value is 0.95. Staphylococcus aureus is most resistant and can proliferate with an Aw as low as 0.86, and fungi can survive at Aw of at least 0.7. In one or more embodiments, the concentration of the hydrophobic solvent, and/or foamer complex in the composition is selected to provide an Aw value selected from the ranges of (1) about 0.8 and about 0.9; (2) about 0.7 and about 0.8; and (3) less than about 0.7. By delivering the formulation in a pressurized package does not allow for humidity to be absorbed by the preparation, and therefore, the water free character of the composition cannot be damaged.

[0190] In an embodiment no preservative is needed because the formulation is a waterless hydrophobic solvent or oil-based formulation having an Aw (Water Activity) value of less than 0.9, less, or less than about 0.8, or less than about 0.7 or less than about 0.6 and preferably less than about 0.5 which is below the level of microbial proliferation.

[0191] In one or more embodiments, the hydrophobic carrier composition further contains an anti-infective agent, selected from the group of an antibiotic agent, an antibacterial agent, an antifungal agent, an agent that controls yeast, an antiviral agent and an antiparasitic agent. In a preferred embodiment the anti infective agent comprises a tricyclic antibiotic. Not only can combining the anti-infective effect of a hydrophobic carrier composition, with an anti-infective agent can result in a synergistic effect and consequently higher success rate of the treatment but the combination with the foamer complex achieves a formulation in which the active

pharmaceutical ingredient is chemically stable and the formulation is physically stable as demonstrated herein in the Examples. Moreover the use of hydrophobic based water free formulation can maximize the antimicrobial potential of the formulations. Storage in sealed, light and airtight canisters can assist in preserving the formulations.

[0192] The identification of a "solvent," as used herein, is not intended to characterize the solubilization capabilities of the solvent for any specific active agent or any other component of the foamable composition. Rather, such information is provided to aid in the identification of materials suitable for use as a part in the foamable carriers described herein.

Substantially Alcohol Free

[0193] Lower or short chain alcohols, having up to 5 carbon atoms in their carbon chain skeleton, such as ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol, iso-butanol, t-butanol and pentanol are considered less desirable solvents or co-solvents due to their skin-irritating effect. Thus, according to some embodiments, the composition is substantially alcohol-free i.e., free of short chain alcohols. In other embodiments, the composition comprises less than about 5% final concentration of lower alcohols, preferably less than 2%, more preferably less than 1%. Where a formulation contains insignificant amounts of short chain alcohols it is considered to be essentially free of them.

Substantially Standard Surfactant Free

[0194] Surfactants have been categorized in to various sub classes depending on their ionic characteristics, namely non-ionic surfactants, anionic, cationic, zwitterionic, amphoteric and amphiphilic surfactants. The term surfactant has been often loosely used in the art to include substances which do not function effectively as stand alone surfactants to reduce surface tension between two substances or phases. Reduction of surface tension can be significant in foam technology in relation to the ability to create small stable bubbles. For example fatty alcohols, fatty acids and certain waxes are amphiphatic, are essentially hydrophobic with a minor hydrophilic region and for the purposes of forming an emulsion they are usually regarded as an oil and thus have a "required" HLB value" for the purpose of determining what standard surfactant might be appropriate to use with the oil phase. However unlike standard or customary surfactants, these substances are not effective as stand-alone surfactants in foamable emulsion compositions, because of their very weak emulsifying capacity and further due to their weak foaming capacity on their own. They are occasionally used in a supporting role as co-emulsifiers, i.e., in combination with a standard surfactant but are commonly used as thickeners and have successfully been used as foam adjuvants to assist customary surfactants to boost foam quality and stability. For clarification in the context herein whilst the term "standard surfactant" or "customary surfactant" refers herein to customary non-ionic, anionic, cationic, zwitterionic, amphoteric and amphiphilic surfactants a fatty alcohol or a fatty acid and certain waxes are not regarded as a standard surfactant. However, in contrast, an ether or an ester formed from such fatty alcohols or fatty acids can be regarded as a customary surfactant.

[0195] Generally, surfactants are known to possess irritation potential. One way that is used to try and reduce potential irritation and drying of the skin or mucosa due to surfactants and their repeated use especially when formulations are to be left on the skin or mucosa rather than being washed off is to use essentially or primarily non ionic surfactants at preferably low

concentrations below 5%. The current breakthrough of identifying formulations which produce quality breakable foam yet omitting customary surfactants from a composition may contribute to improved tolerability of such a composition and can be an important advantage. This is especially so when a formulation is to be applied to a very sensitive target site, and particularly so on a repeated basis.

[0196] Non-limiting examples of classes of customary non-ionic surfactants include: (i) polyoxyethylene sorbitan esters (polysorbates), such as polysorbate 20, polysorbate 40, polysorbate 60 and polysorbate 80; (ii) sorbitan esters, such as sorbitan monostearate sorbitan monolaurate and sorbitan monooleate; (iii) polyoxyethylene fatty acid esters, such as, PEG-8 stearate, PEG-20 stearate, PEG-40 stearate, PEG- 100 stearate, , PEG-8 laurate, PEG- 10 laurate, PEG- 12 laurate, PEG-20 laurate, PEG-8 oleate, PEG-9 oleate, PEG- 10 oleate, PEG- 12 oleate, PEG-15 oleate and PEG-20 oleate; (iv) PEG-fatty acid diesters , such as PEG-150 distearate; (v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) ethers of fatty alcohols , such as; (vi) glycerol esters, such as glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl monolaurate, glyceryl monopalmitate and glyceryl monooleate; (vii) PEG-fatty acid mono- and di-ester mixtures; (viii) polyethylene glycol glycerol fatty acid esters; (ix) propylene glycol fatty acid esters; (x) mono- and diglycerides; (xi) sugar esters (mono-, di- and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids) and (xii) polyethylene glycol alkyl phenols.

[0197] In certain embodiments, the composition is free of customary surfactants, or

"surfactant-free" and in certain embodiments the foamable composition is substantially free of customary surfactants, or "substantially surfactant-free".

[0198] In the context herein, the term "substantially surfactant-free composition" relates to a composition that contains a total of less than about 0.4% of a surfactant selected from the group consisting of customary non-ionic, anionic, cationic, zwitterionic, amphoteric and ampholytic surfactants. Preferably, the composition comprises less than about 0.2% by weight of a standard surfactant and more preferably less than about 0.1%. Non-surfactant or surfactant-free compositions will comprise no or negligible levels of surface active agents.

[0199] In additional embodiments, the term "substantially surfactant-free" relates to a composition wherein the ratio between the foamer complex and the surfactant is between 10: 1 or 5: 1; or between 20: 1 and 10: 1 or between 100: 1 and 20: 1.

[0200] In certain embodiments, the composition is free or substantially free of an ionic surfactant. In certain embodiments, the composition is free or substantially free of a non-ionic surfactant. Substantially Polymer-Free

[0201] By the term polymeric agent it is intended to mean a compound having multiple repeated units such as cellulose polymers, acrylic polymers, block polymers and copolymers. In one or more certain embodiments the polymeric agent has a molecular weight of in excess of a 1000 Daltons. In one or more embodiments the formulations are substantially polymer free. In one or more embodiments the formulations are substantially polymer free of a polymeric agent selected from the group consisting of a bioadhesive agent, a gelling agent, a film forming agent and a phase change agent, being locust bean gum, sodium alginate, sodium caseinate, egg albumin, gelatin agar, carrageenin gum, sodium alginate, xanthan gum, quince seed extract, tragacanth gum, guar gum, cationic guars, hydroxypropyl guar gum, starch, amine-bearing polymers such as chitosan; acidic polymers obtainable from natural sources, such as alginic acid and hyaluronic acid; chemically modified starches and the like, carboxyvinyl polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid polymers, polymethacrylic acid polymers, polyvinyl acetate polymers, polyvinyl chloride polymers, polyvinylidene chloride polymers, semi-synthetic polymeric materials such as cellulose ethers, such as methylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxy propylmethyl cellulose, methylhydroxyethylcellulose, methylhydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxyethylcarboxymethylcellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose carboxymethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and cationic celluloses, carbomer (homopolymer of acrylic acid is crosslinked with an allyl ether pentaerythritol, an allyl ether of sucrose, or an allyl ether of propylene); poloxamers (synthetic block copolymer of ethylene oxide and propylene) ;

polyethylene glycol having molecular weight of 1000 or more (e.g., PEG 1,000, PEG 4,000, PEG 6,000 and PEG 10,000) and which could function as a hydro alcoholic foam booster.. By substantially polymer free it is intended to mean less than about 5%, preferably less than about 2%. By essentially polymer free it is intended to mean less than about 1%, preferably less than about 0.5%. In further embodiments they are essentially polymer free and in still further embodiments they are free of polymeric agents.

[0202] In alternative embodiments the formulations may comprise a polymeric agent in such case the polymeric agents are oil soluble polymeric agents. Non limiting examples of oil-soluble polymeric agents are: Ethyl cellulose, alkylated guar gum, trimethylsiloxy silicate, alkyl-modified silicone, polyamide-modified silicone, homopolymers and copolymers of alkyl methacrylates, alkyl acrylates, and alkyl styrenes polyisobutene, polybutyl metacrylate, polycyclohexylstyrene. [0203] According to one or more embodiments, the composition comprises less than about 0.1% by weight of a polymeric agent and more preferably less than about 0.05%. Polymer-free compositions will comprise no or negligible levels of polymeric agents.

[0204] In the art, the term polymeric agent can be used loosely to refer to any polymer.

However, in some embodiments polymers that do not have a gel building role but may act in other ways are not excluded from the compositions. In one or more embodiments a poly ether siloxane copolymer and a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-(diphenyl-siloxane) copolymer and the like, which can provide a good feeling to the composition are not excluded.

Physical characteristics of the foamable composition and foam

[0205] A foamable composition manufactured according to one or more embodiments herein is very easy to use. When applied onto the afflicted body surface of mammals, i.e., humans or animals, it is in a foam state, allowing free application without spillage. Upon further application of a mechanical force, e.g., by rubbing the composition onto the body surface, it freely spreads on the surface and is rapidly absorbed.

[0206] In one or more embodiments the foamable composition is a single phase solution. In one or more embodiments the foamable composition is substantially a single phase solution. In certain circumstances, where the active agent is insoluble and is presented as a homogenous suspension, the formulation is turbid or cloudy.

[0207] In one or more embodiments the foam composition has an acceptable shelf-life of at least one year, or at least two years at ambient temperature. A feature of a product for cosmetic or medical use is long term stability. Propellants, which are a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, tend to impair the stability. The foamable compositions herein are surprisingly stable, even in the absence of customary surfactants. Following accelerated stability studies, they demonstrate desirable texture; they form fine bubble structures that do not break immediately upon contact with a surface, spread easily on the treated area and absorb quickly.

[0208] The composition should also be free flowing, to allow it to flow through the aperture of the container, e.g., and aerosol container, and create an acceptable foam. Compositions containing a substantial amount of semi-solid hydrophobic solvents, e.g., white petrolatum, as the main ingredients of the oil phase of the emulsion, will likely exhibit high viscosity and poor flowability and can be inappropriate candidates for a foamable composition. Thus in one or more embodiments semi-solid hydrophobic solvents are a subsidiary component in the composition, for example being present at less than about 25%, less than about 20%, less than about 15% , less than about 10%, or less than about 5% by weight of the foamable composition. In other embodiments they can be present in higher amounts due to the solvent effect of the propellant diluting the formulation and enabling flowability or where the formulation is presented as a gel or ointment.

Foam Quality

[0209] Foam quality can be graded as follows:

Grade E (excellent): very rich and creamy in appearance, does not show any bubble structure or shows a very fine (small) bubble structure; does not rapidly become dull; upon spreading on the skin, the foam retains the creaminess property and does not appear watery.

Grade G (good): rich and creamy in appearance, very small bubble size, "dulls" more rapidly than an excellent foam, retains creaminess upon spreading on the skin, and does not become watery.

Grade FG (fairly good): a moderate amount of creaminess noticeable, bubble structure is noticeable; upon spreading on the skin the product dulls rapidly and becomes somewhat lower in apparent viscosity.

Grade F (fair): very little creaminess noticeable, larger bubble structure than a "fairly good" foam, upon spreading on the skin it becomes thin in appearance and watery.

Grade P (poor): no creaminess noticeable, large bubble structure, and when spread on the skin it becomes very thin and watery in appearance.

Grade VP (very poor): dry foam, large very dull bubbles, difficult to spread on the skin.

[0210] Topically administrable foams are typically of quality grade E or G, when released from the aerosol container. Smaller bubbles are indicative of a more stable foam, which does not collapse spontaneously immediately upon discharge from the container. The finer foam structure looks and feels smoother, thus increasing its usability and appeal.

Foam Density

[0211] Another property of the foam is specific gravity or density, as measured upon release from the aerosol can. Typically, foams have specific gravity of less than 0.50 g/mL or less than 0.12 g/mL, depending on their composition and on the propellant concentration. In one or more embodiments the foam density is about less than 0.3g/mL. Shakability

[0212] 'Shakability' means that the composition contains some or sufficient flow to allow the composition to be mixed or remixed on shaking. That is, it has fluid or semi fluid properties. Shakability is described further in the section on Tests. In one or more certain limited

embodiments the formulation is poorly shakable but is nevertheless flowable.

Breakability / collapse time

[0213] A further aspect of the foam is breakability. The balance between stability and breakability of the foam coming out of the container is very delicate: on one hand the foam should preferably not be "quick breaking", i.e., it should be stable upon release from the pressurized container and not break as a result of exposure to skin temperature; and on the other hand, it should be "breakable", i.e., it should spread easily, break down and absorb into the skin or membrane upon application of mild shear force. The breakable foam is thermally stable, yet breaks under shear force. Shear-force breakability of the foam is clearly advantageous over thermally-induced breakability. Thermally sensitive foams start to collapse immediately upon exposure to skin temperature and, therefore, cannot be applied on the hand and afterwards delivered to the afflicted area.

[0214] The collapse time of foam represents its tendency to be temperature-sensitive and its ability to be at least stable in the short term so as to allow a user sufficient time to comfortably handle and apply the foam to a target area without being rushed and/or concerned that it may rapidly collapse, liquefy and/or disappear. Collapse time, as an indicator of thermal sensitivity, is examined by dispensing a given quantity of foam and photographing sequentially its appearance with time during incubation at 36°C. Simple collapse time can be measured by applying a foam sample on a body surface like the fingers at normal body temperature of about 37 °C (Collapse time is further described in the Examples).

[0215] Oils may cause foam to be thermolabile and "quick breaking" in particular high concentrations of silicone oils. However, in certain embodiments herein, despite the presence of high oil content, quite unexpectedly the foam is substantially thermally stable. By "substantially thermally stable" it is meant that the foam upon application onto a warm skin or body surface at about 35-37°C does not collapse within about 30 seconds. Thus, in one or more embodiments the simple collapse time of the foam is more than about 30 seconds or more than about one minute or more than about two minutes, or more than about three minutes. In one or more limited embodiments simple collapse time can be a little shorter than 30 seconds, but not less than about 20 seconds. In one or further or alternative embodiments the collapse time is measured by introducing a sample of foam into an incubator at 36°C and the collapse time of the foam is more than 30 seconds or more than about one minute or more than about two minutes, or more than about two minutes.

PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION

[0216] The foamable oleaginous composition of the present invention can be used by itself as a topical treatment of a body surface, as many hydrophobic solvents such as emollients, unsaturated oils, essential oils or therapeutic oils that possess cosmetic or medical beneficial effects. Furthermore, it is an ideal vehicle for active pharmaceutical ingredients and active cosmetic ingredients. In the context active pharmaceutical ingredients and active cosmetic ingredients are collectively termed "active agent" or "active agents". The absence of surfactants in the composition is especially advantageous, since no surfactant-related adverse reactions are expected from such a composition. Some surfactants may act to facilitate gelling of the pre-foam formulation. The absence of such surfactants may avoid this undesirable phenomenon. In one or more embodiments the active agent is soluble in the composition of a phase thereof. In one or more other embodiments it is partially soluble or insoluble. When partially soluble or insoluble the active agent is presented as a suspension or it can be encapsulated in a carrier.

[0217] Suitable active agents include but are not limited to adipic acid, an acaricide, an active herbal extract, an age spot and keratose removing agent, an allergen, an alpha hydroxyl acid, an analgesic agent, an androgen, an anesthetic, an anti wrinkle agent, an antiacne agent, an antiaging agent, an antiallergic agent, an antiandrogen agent, an antiapoptotic agent, an antibacterial agent , an antibiotic, an antibiotic agent, an antiburn agent, an anticancer agent, an antidandruff agent, an antidepressant, an antidermatitis agent, an antiedemic anent, an antifungal agent, an antihelminth agent, an antihistamine, an anti-hyperkeratosis agent, an anti-infective agent, an antiinflammatory agent, an antiirritant, an antilipemic agent, an antimicrobial agent, an antimycotic agent, an antioxidant, an antiparasitic agent, an anti-photoaging agent , an anti-photodamaging agent, an antiproliferative agent, an antipruritic agent, an antipsoriatic agent, an antirosacea agent, an antiseborrheic agent, an antiseptic agent, an antiswelling agent, an antiviral agent, an anti-wart agent, an anti-wrinkle agent, an anti-yeast agent, an astringent, azelaic acid, benzoyl chloride, benzoyl peroxide, a beta-hydroxy acid, calcitriol, calcium hypochlorite, carbon, a cardiovascular agent, a chemotherapeutic agent, a corticosteroid, a dicarboxylic acid, a dihydrotestosterone inhibitor, a disinfectant, doxycycline, an estrogen, a fungicide, fumaric acid, glycolic acid, a hair growth regulator, a haptene, a herbal extract (comprising an active substance), a hormonal agent, a hormone, a hydroxy acid, an immunogenic substance, an immunomodulator, an immunoregulating agent, an immunostimulant, an immunosuppressant, an immunosuppressive agent, an insect repellent, an insecticide, iron oxide, a keratolytic agent, lactic acid, a lactam, lidocaine, a local anesthetic agent, a lubricating agent, a masking agent, a metal, a metal oxide, minocycline, a mitocide, mometasone fuorate, a neuropeptide, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, an organo-beryllium compound, an organo-metallic compound, an oxidizing agent, and organo-boron compound, a pediculicide, a peptide, a pesticide, a photodynamic therapy agent, a progesterone, a prostaglandin, a protein, a radical scavenger, a refatting agent, a retinoid, a sadative agent, a scabicide, sebacic acid, a sedative, a sedative agent, a self tanning agent, silicone oxide, silver, a silver compound, a skin protective agent, a skin whitening agent, a steroid, a steroid hormone, a steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, talc, titanium dioxide, a tellurium compound, a testosterone inhibitor, a tetracycline antibiotic, urea, a urea derivative, a vasoactive agent, a vasoconstrictor, a vasodilator, a vitamin, a vitamin A, a vitamin A derivative, a vitamin B, a vitamin B derivative, a vitamin C, a vitamin C derivative, a vitamin D, a vitamin D analog, a vitamin D derivative, a vitamin E , a vitamin E derivative, a vitamin F, a vitamin F derivative, a vitamin K, a vitamin K derivative, a wart remover, a wound healing agent, zinc oxide, zirconium oxide.

Encapsulation of an active agent

[0218] In one or more embodiments, the active agent is encapsulated in particles,

microparticles, nanoparticles, microcapsules, microspheres, nanocapsules, nanospheres, liposomes, niosomes, polymer matrix, silica-gel, graphite, nanocrystals or microsponges. Such particles can have various functions, such as (1) protection of the drug from degradation; (2) modification of the drug release rate from the composition; (3) control of skin penetration profile; and (4) mitigation of adverse effects, due to the controlled release of the active agent from the encapsulation particles.

Solubility of an active agent

[0219] Solubility of the active agent, for example a steroid is an important factor in the development of a stable foamable composition according to the present invention.

[0220] For definition purposes, in the context of the present invention, the descriptive terminology for solubility according to the US Pharmacopoeia (USP 23, 1995, p. 10), the

European Pharmacopoeia (EP, 5th Edition (2004), page 7) and several other textbooks used in the art of pharmaceutical sciences (see for example, Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th Edition (1993), page xiv of the Preface; and Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18 Edition (1990), page 208) is adapted:

[0221] Thus, in one or more embodiments, the active agent is "soluble", "freely soluble" or "very soluble" (as defined above) in the composition. Yet, in certain cases, the active agent is "very slightly soluble", "slightly soluble" or "sparingly soluble" in the composition.

[0222] Yet, in one or more embodiments, the active agent is insoluble i.e., "requires 10,000 parts or more of a solvent to be solubilized", in the composition.

[0223] In certain embodiments it is desirable that the active agent is maximally soluble in the composition, because solubility of the active agents is expected to increase its bioavailability.

[0224] Yet, in certain preferred additional embodiments it is desirable that the active agent is insoluble or is partially soluble and all or part thereof is suspended in the composition, because, inter alia, its degradation is enhanced when it is dissolved. In such cases, the hydrophobic solvent is selected by (1) testing the solubility of said active agent in various hydrophobic solvents, followed by (2) inclusion in the composition of such solvents that do not solubilize the active agent. In one or more embodiments the active agent is presented as a suspension.

[0225] It is known that every chemical compound has different solubility in different solvents or compositions, and therefore it is not possible to provide a general list compounds that are not soluble or partially soluble or suspended in the composition. However, any active agent, as exemplified in the lists herein, is suitable as insoluble or partially soluble or suspended, if visual or microscopic observation demonstrates crystals or particles of such active agent in the oleaginous composition.

[0226] In one or more further embodiments the active agent is micronized, which can assist in delivery into the skin, mucosal membrane and body cavity surfaces and also aid homogenous distribution within the formulation. In effect, part of the active agent is presented to a target in soluble form and part is presented in insoluble form. As the soluble part is absorbed it may help to form a gradient in which insoluble agent replaces absorbed agent. In one or more embodiments insoluble agent is suspended. In one or more embodiments the suspension is homogenous. In certain embodiments the formulation is readily re-suspended and homogenous on shaking. In certain embodiments the agent is soluble.

[0227] In one or more embodiments the active agent is used to prevent a disease or disorder. In one or more embodiments the active agent is used to treat or alleviate a disease or disorder. In one or more embodiments the active agent is used to protect a target. An example of protection includes protection from radiation or the effects thereof.

Exemplary groups of active agents

Antibiotics

[0228] In the context of the present disclosure, an antibiotic agent is a substance, that has the capacity to inhibit the growth of or to destroy bacteria and other microorganisms.

[0229] In one or more embodiments, the antibiotic agent is selected from the classes consisting beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, ansa-type antibiotics, anthraquinones, antibiotic azoles, antibiotic glycopeptides, macrolides, antibiotic nucleosides, antibiotic peptides, antibiotic polyenes, antibiotic polyethers, quinolones, antibiotic steroides, sulfonamides, tetracycline, dicarboxylic acids, antibiotic metals including antibiotic metal ions, oxidizing agents, a periodate, a hypochlorite, a permanganate, substances that release free radicals and/or active oxygen, cationic antimicrobial agents, quaternary ammonium compounds, biguanides, triguanides, bisbiguanides and analogs and polymers thereof, naturally occurring antibiotic compounds, including antibiotic plant oils and antibiotic plant extracts and any one of the following antibiotic compounds including non classified antibiotic compound analogs, derivatives, salts, ions, complexes and mixtures thereof.

Tetracyclines

[0230] According to some embodiments, the antibiotic agent is a tetracycline. The tetracyclines (also referred to herein as "tetracycline antibiotics") are a group of antibacterials, originally derived from certain Streptomyces spp., having the same tetracyclic nucleus, naphthacene, and similar properties. They are usually bacteriostatic but act by interfering with protein synthesis in susceptible organisms. Tetracycline antibiotics are susceptible to degradation by oxidation. [0231] Tetracyclines include, but are not limited to, dihydrosteffimycin,

demethyltetracycline, aclacinomycin, akrobomycin, baumycin, bromotetracycline, cetocyclin, chlortetracycline, clomocycline, daunorubicin, demeclocycline, doxorubicin, doxorubicin hydrochloride, doxycycline, lymecyclin, marcellomycin, meclocycline, meclocycline

sulfosalicylate, methacycline, minocycline, minocycline hydrochloride, musettamycin, oxytetracycline, rhodirubin, rolitetracycline, rubomycin, serirubicin, steffimycin, tetracycline and analogs, salts and derivatives thereof.

[0232] Chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, demeclocycline are all natural products that have been isolated from Streptomyces spp. The more recent tetracyclines, namely methacycline, doxycycline, and minocycline, are semisynthetic derivatives. Methacycline, like demeclocycline, has a longer half-life than tetracycline. Minocycline is active against some tetracycline-resistant bacteria, including strains of staphylococci. Both doxycycline and minocycline are more lipid-soluble than the other tetracyclines and they penetrate well into tissues. They are thus more suitable for incorporating into oily or emollient containing formulations. However, they have a place in the treatment of chlamydial infections, rickettsial infections such as typhus and the spotted fevers, mycoplasmal infections such as atypical pneumonia, pelvic inflammatory disease, Lyme disease, brucellosis, tularaemia, plague, cholera, periodontal disease, and acne. The tetracyclines have also been useful in the treatment of penicillin-allergic patients suffering from venereal diseases, actinomycosis, bronchitis, and leptospirosis. Minocycline may sometimes be used in multidrug regimens for leprosy.

Doxycycline may be used for the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria; it is also used in the management of anthrax.

[0233] In an embodiment the active ingredient may be any one of the following non limiting examples chlortetracycline, demeclocycline, doxycycline, lymecycline, meclocycline, methacycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline, rolitetracycline, tetracycline. In a preferred embodiment they are doxycyline or minocycline.

[0234] Tetracycline antibiotics can be incorporated into the formulations of the present invention to treat, ameliorate or prevent a multitude of disorders responsive to tetracycline antibiotics. The formulations can be applied topically to the skin or to the genitals or to mucosal membranes and on and around the eye, sub-gingival and can be applied into a wide range of body cavities, including aural, digestive, oral, nasal, urethra, penal, endocervical, rectum, respiratory, and vaginal and tooth pocket. Non limiting examples of applications include eye infections, blepharitis, dry eye, inclusion conjunctivitis, glaucoma, inflammatory ocular conditions where bacterial infection or a risk of bacterial ocular infection exists, neuropathic atrophy (in diabetes), abrasions, injuries, wounds, burns, ulcers, pyoderma, furunculosis, granuloma inguinale, periodontitis, rosacea , post-operation infections and tissue reconstruction, trachoma,

lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inquinale, acne, inflammation, sinusitis, neuroprotection, washing out, disinfectation, and stabilization of body cavities, at on around or in the site of an operation, which for example can provide multiple therapeutic effects, such as, inhibition of post operation adhesions, anti infection, neuro-protection.

[0235] Whether delivered as a foam, gel, ointment or suspension the active pharmaceutical tetracycline can be present by weight in the range of about 0.2% to about 20%, or at about 0.2%, at about 0.3%>, at about 0.4%>, at about 0.5%>, at about 0.6%>, at about 0.7%>, at about 0.8%>, at about 0.9%), at about 1%, at about 1.5%, at about 2%, at about 2.5%, at about 3%, at about 3.5% at about 4%, at about 4.5%, at about 5%, at about 6%,at about 7%, at about 8%, at about 9%, at about 10%, at about 12%, or at about 14%, at about 16%, at about 18%, or at about 20%.

Tetracyclines eye and skin infections

[0236] Tetracyclines have been used in ophthalmic ointments for the prevention or treatment of infections of the eye caused by susceptible bacteria. Although minor skin infections and wounds usually heal without treatment, some minor skin wounds do not heal without therapy and it is impossible to determine at the time of injury which wounds will be self-healing. Therefore, some experts believe that, by reducing the number of superficial bacteria, topical anti-infectives are useful for preventing infection in minor skin injuries (e.g., cuts, scrapes, burns).

[0237] Tetracycline hydrochloride may be used topically in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris. Tetracyclines are usually bacteriostatic in action, but may be bactericidal in high concentrations or against highly susceptible organisms.

[0238] Tetracyclines appear to inhibit protein synthesis in susceptible organisms primarily by reversibly binding to 30S ribosomal subunits, thereby inhibiting binding of aminoacyl transfer- R A to those ribosomes. In addition, tetracyclines appear to reversibly bind to 50S ribosomal subunits. There is preliminary evidence that tetracyclines also alter cytoplasmic membranes of susceptible organisms resulting in leakage of nucleotides and other intracellular components from the cell. At high concentrations, tetracyclines also inhibit mammalian protein synthesis.

[0239] The exact mechanisms by which tetracyclines reduce lesions of acne vulgaris have not been fully elucidated; however, the effect appears to be partly the result of the antibacterial activity of the drugs. Following topical application to the skin of a 0.22% solution of tetracycline hydrochloride in a vehicle containing n-decyl methyl sulfoxide (Topicycline ; no longer commercially available in the US), the drug inhibits the growth of susceptible organisms (principally Propionibacterium acnes) on the surface of the skin and reduces the concentration of free fatty acids in sebum. The reduction in free fatty acids in sebum may be an indirect result of the inhibition of lipase-producing organisms which convert triglycerides into free fatty acids or may be a direct result of interference with lipase production in these organisms. Free fatty acids are comedogenic and are believed to be a possible cause of the inflammatory lesions (e.g., papules, pustules, nodules, cysts) of acne. However, other mechanisms also appear to be involved because clinical improvement of acne vulgaris with topical tetracyclines does not necessarily correspond with a reduction in the bacterial flora of the skin or a decrease in the free fatty acid content of sebum. (Martindale Electronic Version 2007).

Tetracyclines, solubility and stability

[0240] Tetracyclines are known to be unstable in the presence of water, as well as numerous types of formulation excipients, such as protic solvents, various surfactants and certain oils. We surprisingly discovered that the inclusion of tetracyclines in a composition comprising a hydrophobic solvent and a foamer complex described herein results in a stable product, with extended stability of the tetracycline. In an embodiment a hydrophobic solvent is selected by (1) testing the solubility of said active agent in various hydrophobic solvents, (2) identifying those that do not solubilize the active agent followed by (3) inclusion in the composition of such solvents that do not solubilize the active agent. In certain embodiments the tetracycline is insoluble in the composition.

Doxycyline

[0241] According to some embodiments, the tetracycline is doxycycline. Doxycycline is a tetracycline antibiotic and also has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

Doxycycline is a semisynthetic tetracycline antibiotic derived from oxytetracycline. In addition to antimicrobial activity, the drug has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. It is available as Doxycycline calcium, doxycycline hyclate and doxycycline monohydrate.

Doxycycline hyclate and doxycycline monohydrate occur as yellow, crystalline powders. The hyclate is soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol; the monohydrate is very slightly soluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol. Doxycycline calcium is formed in situ during the manufacturing process. Following reconstitution of doxycycline hyclate powder for IV administration with sterile water for injection, solutions have a pH of 1.8-3.3. [0242] The mechanism(s) by which doxycycline reduces inflammatory lesions (papules and pustules) in patients has not been elucidated, but these effects may result at least in part from the anti-inflammatory actions of the drug; other mechanisms may be involved

[0243] Doxycycline is used for the treatment of rosacea treatment or prophylaxis of anthrax (including inhalational anthrax [postexposure]), treatment of presumed or confirmed rickettsial infections, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), fever, ehrlichiosis, and

anaplasmosis, and for the treatment of Bartonella infections, for the treatment of brucellosis, for the treatment of Burkholderia Infections, Chlamydial Infections , Lymphogranuloma venereum Psittacosis, Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis, Gonorrhea and Associated Infections, Epididymitis, Proctitis, Granuloma Inguinale (Donovanosis,) Legionella Infections, Leptospirosis, Lyme Disease, Prophylaxis of Lyme Disease, Erythema Migrans, Early Neurologic Lyme Disease, Lyme Carditis, or Borrelial Lymphocytoma, Lyme Arthritis, Malaria, and prevention,

Mycobacterial Infections, Mycobacterium marinum Infections, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Parenteral Regimens, Plague, pleural Effusion, Rickettsial Infections, Q Fever, Syphilis,

Tularemia, Treatment, Postexposure Prophylaxis.

[0244] When reconstituted and diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose, doxycycline hyclate IV solutions containing 0.1-1 mg of doxycycline per mL are stable for 48 hours at 25°C; when reconstituted and diluted with Ringer's, 10% invert sugar, Normosol-M® in D5W, Normosol-R® in D5W, Plasma-Lyte® 56 in 5% dextrose, or Plasma-Lyte® 148 in 5% dextrose, doxycycline hyclate IV solutions containing 0.1-1 mg/mL are stable for 12 hours at room temperature. The manufacturer states that doxycycline hyclate solutions prepared with any of these infusion solutions are stable for 72 hours at 2-8°C when protected from direct sunlight and artificial light; however, after storage in this manner, infusion of these solutions must be completed within 12 hours Doxycycline hyclate IV solutions diluted to a concentration of 0.1-1 mg/mL with lactated Ringer's injection or 5% dextrose in lactated Ringer's injection must be infused within 6 hours to ensure stability. During infusion, all doxycycline hyclate IV solutions must be protected from direct sunlight. (Martindale 2007 Electronic Version). Thus it can be seen that Doxycycline is not stable for more than short periods of a matter of hours.

[0245] Preparations of doxycycline hyclate have an acid pH and incompatibility may reasonably be expected with alkaline preparations or with drugs unstable at low pH.

[0246] Doxycycline is more active than tetracycline against many bacterial species including Streptococcus pyogenes, enterococci, Nocardia spp., and various anaerobes. Cross-resistance is common although some tetracycline-resistant Staphylococcus aureus respond to doxycycline. Doxy eye line is also more active against protozoa, particularly Plasmodium spp.

[0247] Doxycycline is a tetracycline derivative with uses similar to those of tetracycline. It may sometimes be preferred to other tetracyclines in the treatment of susceptible infections because of its fairly reliable absorption and its long half-life that permits less frequent (often once daily) dosing. It also has the advantage that it can be given (with care) to patients with renal impairment. However, relatively high doses may need to be given for urinary-tract infections because of its low renal excretion.

[0248] For relapsing fever and louse-borne typhus, for the prophylaxis of leptospirosis , for periodontiti, for Lymphatic filariasis, for Musculoskeletal and joint disorders and for the treatment of acne.

Minocycline

[0249] According to some embodiments, the tetracycline is minocycline. Minocycline hydrochloride is a semisynthetic tetracycline antibiotic derived from tetracycline. The drug is usually bacteriostatic in action; it exerts its antimicrobial activity by inhibiting protein synthesis. It is a yellow crystalline powder that is sparingly soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol; practically insoluble in chloroform and in ether; soluble in solutions of alkali hydroxides and carbonates. pH of a solution in water containing the equivalent of minocycline 1% is between 3.5 and 4.5. Preparations of minocycline hydrochloride have an acid pH and incompatibility may reasonably be expected with alkaline preparations or with drugs unstable at low pH.

[0250] Minocycle is highly sensitive and should be stored in airtight containers and protected from light to prevent degradation. Therefore use in foamable formulations stored in airtight sealed containers under pressure with propellant may contribute to preserving stability subject to selection of compatible canisters and accessories.

[0251] The instability of Minocycline was confirmed in a compatibility study described herein that demonstrated that different hydrophilic solvents were incompatible with minocyline.

Whereas, hydrophobic emollients and waxes revealed compatibility with Minocyline, except for pomegranate seed oil.

[0252] All fatty alcohols, as well some fatty acids (such as stearic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid) surfactants (sucrose fatty esters however not all of them dissolved in oil) and some additives (aerosil and menthol) were compatible with minocycline. Isostearic acid, ethocel and titanium dioxide polysorbates, spans, polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers (brij), PEG stearates (myrj) were not compatible.

[0253] Addition of water caused rapid degradation of minocycline and addition of antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, BHA/BHT and propyl gallate) did not prevent such degradation. Thus compatible excipients became incompatible in the presence of water and addition of antioxidants did not remedy this result.

[0254] Surprisingly, it was found that enhanced penetration was achieved without the need of adding a hydrophilic solvent and thus degradation of minocyline could be further reduced or prevented. Minocycline was delivered intradermally at sufficient levels to treat skin infections but did not pass through the skin transdermally and therefore topical application should be free from adverse systemic effects.

[0255] UVB irradiation of the skin is known to decrease cell viability, total antioxidant capacity, while increasing the levels of inflammation (pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion) and epidermal cell apoptosis. Photosensitivity, manifested as an exaggerated sunburn reaction on areas of the body exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light, has occurred with tetracyclines and Minocycline has been associated with pigmentation of the skin and other tissues.

[0256] It has surprisingly discovered that oleaginous formulations containing Minocycline had not only protective properties as known in the art but also therapeutic properties in the case of UVB-induced skin damage. Cell viability was increased and apoptosis was decreased in a dose-dependant manner when formulation was applied pre UVB irradiation. Apoptosis activation was significantly decreased when the formulation was applied post UVB irradiation of a skin organ culture. Thus, it may be able to reduce skin photodamage and photoaging, and more generally to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in skin pathologies which are known to be accompanied by apoptotic cell death for example rosacea and impetigo. Furthermore the increase in viability of cells indicates that Minocycline has regenerative properties. Furthermore these properties and uses of minocycline may extend to other tetracycline antibiotics.

[0257] According to one or more embodiments the substantially surfactant- free oleaginous formulations comprising a tetracycline, such as, Minocycline have protective and therapeutic properties in the case of UVB-induced skin damage. According to one or more embodiments the substantially surfactant-free oleaginous formulations comprising a tetracycline, such as,

Minocycline have properties selected from a list including anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-photodamaging and anti-photoaging. According to one or more embodiments the substantially surfactant-free oleaginous formulations comprising a tetracycline, such as,

Minocycline have activity that decreases apoptosis and increases cell viability. According to one or more embodiments there are provided substantially surfactant- free oleaginous formulations comprising a tetracycline, such as, Minocycline for use to reduce oxidative stress and

inflammation in skin pathologies which are known to be accompanied by apoptotic cell death for example rosacea and impetigo.

[0258] Minocycline has a spectrum of activity and mode of action similar to that of tetracycline but it is more active against many species including Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, Neisseria meningitidis, various enterobacteria, Acinetobacter, Bacteroides,

Haemophilus, Nocardia, and some mycobacteria, including M. leprae. It was found in an in-vitro study that Minocycline also inhibited the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, as well as a methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (MRS A) and Propionbacterium acnes.

[0259] Partial cross-resistance exists between minocycline and other tetracyclines but some strains resistant to other drugs of the group remain sensitive to minocycline, perhaps because of better cell-wall penetration. Minocycline is a tetracycline derivative with uses similar to those of tetracycline. It is also a component of multidrug regimens for the treatment of leprosy and has been used in the prophylaxis of meningococcal infection to eliminate the carrier state, but the high incidence of vestibular disturbances means that it is not the drug of choice for the latter. It has neuroprotective properties. It is being investigated for motor neurone disease, for the management of Huntington's chorea. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and in the treatment of various skin disorders, including acne.

Steroids

[0260] In an embodiment, the active agent is a steroid. In certain embodiments the steroid is a corticosteroid, including but not limited to, hydrocortisone, hydroxyltriamcinolone, alpha- methyl dexamethasone, dexamethasone -phosphate, beclomethsone dipropionate, clobetasol valemate, desonide, desoxymethasone, desoxycorticosterone acetate, dexamethasone,

dichlorisone, diflorasone diacetate, diflucortolone valerate, fluadrenolone, fluclorolone acetonide, fludrocortisone, flumethasone pivalate, fluosinolone acetonide, fluocinonide, flucortine butylester, fluocortolone, fluprednidene (fluprednylidene) acetate, flurandrenolone, halcinonide, hydrocortisone acetate, hydrocortisone butyrate, methylprednisolone, triamcinolone acetonide, cortisone, cortodoxone, flucetonide, fludrocortisone, difluorosone diacetate, fluradrenolone acetonide, medrysone, amcinafel, amcinafide, betamethasone and the balance of its esters, chloroprednisone, chlorprednisone acetate, clocortelone, clescinolone, dichlorisone,

difluprednate, flucloronide, flunisolide, fluoromethalone, fluperolone, fluprednisolone, hydrocortisone valerate, hydrocortisone cyclopentylpropionate, hydrocortmate, mepreddisone, paramethasone, prednisolone, prednisone, beclomethasone dipropionate, triamcinolone, as well as analogs, derivatives, salts, ions and complexes thereof.

[0261] In certain embodiments, the steroid is a hormone or a vitamin, as exemplified by pregnane, cholestane, ergostane, aldosterone, androsterone, calcidiol, calciol, calcitriol, calcipotriol, clomegestone, cholesterol, corticosterone, Cortisol, cortisone, dihydrotestosterone, ergosterol, estradiol, estriol, estrone, ethinylestradiol, fusidic acid, lanosterol, prednisolone, prednisone, progesterone, spironolactone, timobesone and testosterone, as well as analogs, derivatives, salts, ions and complexes thereof. For substances like calcitriol, very low amounts such as about 0.0001% to about 0.005% by weight of foam formulation or gel or ointment or suspension, or about 0.0001%, about 0.0002%, about 0.0003%, about 0.0004%, about 0.0005%, about 0.0006%, about 0.0007%, about 0.0008%, about 0.0009%, about 0.001%, about 0.0011%, about 0.0012%, about 0.0013%, about 0.0014%, about 0.0015% , about 0.0016%, about

0.0017%, about 0.0018%, about 0.0019%, about 0.002%, about 0.003%, about 0.004%, about 0.005% by weight are effective. In some embodiments the active pharmaceutical agent is delivered by more than one route, for example, topically and body cavity.

[0262] In an embodiment, the steroid is mometasone furoate. In certain embodiments it can be used topically to treat psoriasis and dermatitis. In certain other embodiments it can be applied in nasal administration to treat disorders, such as, allergic rhinitis and asthma.

NSAID

[0263] In an embodiment, the active agent is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. In the context a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent (also termed herein "NSAID") is a

pharmaceutically active compound, other than a corticosteroid, which affects the immune system in a fashion that results in a reduction, inhibition, prevention, amelioration or prevention of an inflammatory process and/or the symptoms of inflammation and/or the production proinflammatory cytokines and other pro-inflammatory mediators, thereby treating or preventing a disease that involves inflammation.

[0264] In one or more embodiments, the NSAID is an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme. Two forms of cyclooxygenase are known today: the constitutive cyclooxygenase (COX- 1); and the inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2), which is pro-inflammatory. Thus, in one or more embodiments, the NSAID is selected from the group consisting of a COX-1 inhibitor, a COX-2 inhibitor or a non-selective NSAID, which simultaneously inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2.

[0265] In one or more embodiments, the NSAID is salicylic acid a salicylic acid derivatives. Exemplary salicylic acid derivative include, in a non limiting fashion, aspirin, sodium salicylate, choline magnesium trislicylate, salsalate, diflunisal, salicylsalicylic acid, sulfasalazine, olsalazine, esters of salicylic acid with a carboxylic acid, esters of salicylic acid with a dicarboxylic acid, esters of salicylic acid with a fatty acid, esters of salicylic acid with a hydroxyl fatty acid, esters of salicylic acid with an essential fatty acid, esters of salicylic acid with a polycarboxylic acid, and any compound wherein salicylic acid is linked to an organic moiety through a covalent bond.

[0266] In one or more embodiments, the NSAID is para-aminophenol (e.g., acetaminophen) and salts and derivatives thereof.

[0267] In one or more embodiments, the NSAID is an indole or an indole - acetic acid derivative (e.g., indomethacin, sulindac, etodolac) and salts and derivatives thereof.

[0268] In one or more embodiments, the NSAID is an aryl acetic acids (e.g., tolmetin, diclofenac, ketorolac) and salts and derivatives thereof.

[0269] In one or more embodiments, the NSAID is an arylpropionic acid and salts and derivatives thereof. Exemplary arylpropionic acid derivative include, in a non limiting fashion, are ibuprofen, naproxen, flubiprofen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, oxaprozin.

[0270] In one or more embodiments, the NSAID is anthranilic acids or an anthranilic acid derivative, also termed "fenamates" (e.g., mefenamic acid, meclofenamic acid) and salts and derivatives thereof.

[0271] In one or more embodiments, the NSAID is selected from the group of enolic acids, enolic acid salts, enolic acid esters, amides, anhydrides and salts and derivatives thereof. Non- limiting examples of enolic acid derivatives include oxicams (piroxicam, tenoxicam) and pyrazolidinediones (phenylbutazone, oxyphenthratrazone)

[0272] Yet, in additional embodiments, the NSAID is an alkanone (e.g., nabumetone).

[0273] Selective COX-2 Inhibitors include, in an exemplary manner diaryl-substituted furanones (e.g., Rofecoxib); diaryl-substituted pyrazoles (e.g., Celecoxib); indole acetic acids (e.g., Etodolac); and sulfonanilides (e.g., Nimesulide) and salts and derivatives thereof. Local anesthetic agents

[0274] In an embodiment, the active agent is a local anesthetic agent. Without limiting the scope, the anesthetic agent can be selected from the group consisting of benzocaine, lidocaine, bupivacaine, chlorprocaine, dibucaine, etidocaine, mepivacaine, tetracaine, dyclonine, hexylcaine, procaine, cocaine, ketamine, pramoxine, phenol, any pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof and mixtures of such anesthetic agents. Any mixture of synergistically beneficial anesthetic agents is contemplated.

Keratolytically active agents

[0275] A keratolytic agent may be included as an active agent of a foamable composition. The term "keratolytically active agent" as used herein includes a compound that loosens and removes the stratum corneum of the skin, or alters the structure of the keratin layers of skin. Keratolytically active agents are used in the treatment of dermatological disorders that involve dry skin, hyperkeratinization (such as psoriasis), skin itching (such as xerosis), acne and rosacea.

[0276] Suitable keratolytically active agents include phenol and substituted phenolic compounds. Such compounds are known to dissolve and loosen the intracellular matrix of the hyperkeratinized tissue. As such, they are used in the treatment of dermatological disorders. Dihydroxybenzene and derivatives thereof have been recognized as potent keratolytic agents. Resorcinol (m-dihydroxybenzene) and derivatives thereof are used in anti-acne preparations. In addition to hydroquinone (p-dihydroxybenzene) having anti-pigmentation properties, hydroquinone is also known to be keratolytic. These compounds also exhibit antiseptic properties. Cresols also possess bactericidal and keratolytic properties.

[0277] Vitamin A and vitamin A derivatives, also termed herein "retinoids", such as retinoic acid, isoretinoic acid, retinol and retinal, as well as adapalene, tazarotene, isotretinoin, acitretin and additional retinoids known in the art of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics are another class of keratolytically active agents.

[0278] Another group of keratolytically active agents include alpha-hydroxy acids, such as lactic acid and glycolic acid and their respective salts and derivatives; and beta-hydroxy acids, such as salicylic acid (o-hydroxybenzoic acid) and salicylic acid salts and pharmaceutically acceptable derivatives.

[0279] Another class of keratolytically active agents includes urea and urea derivatives. Immunomodulators

[0280] In an embodiment, the active agent is an immunomodulator. Immunomodulators are chemically or biologically-derived agents that modify the immune response or the functioning of the immune system. Immunomodulators suitable for use according to the present invention include, among other options, cyclic peptides, such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus, tresperimus, pimecrolimus, sirolimus, verolimus, laflunimus, laquinimod and imiquimod, as well as analogs, derivatives, salts, ions and complexes thereof. Such compounds, delivered in the foam, are especially advantageous in skin disorders such as psoriasis, eczema and atopic dermatitis, where the large skin areas are to be treated.

Retinoids

[0281] In an embodiment, the active agent is a retinoid. Retinoids suitable for use according to the present invention include, among other options, retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, isotretinoin, tazarotene, adapalene, 13-cis-retinoic acid, acitretin all-trans beta carotene, alpha carotene, lycopene, 9-cis-beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin, as well as any additional retinoids known in the art of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics; and analogs, derivatives, salts, ions and complexes thereof.

Anti-acne and anti-rosacea active agents

[0282] In an embodiment, the active agent is an anti-acne or an anti-rosacea agent. The antiacne agent can be selected from the group consisting of resorcinol, sulfur, salicylic acid and salicylates, alpha-hydroxy acids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, benzoyl peroxide, retinoic acid, isoretinoic acid and other retinoid compounds, adapalene, tazarotene, azelaic acid and azelaic acid derivatives, antibiotic agents, such as minocycline erythromycin and

clyndamycin, coal tar, zinc salts and complexes, and combinations thereof, in a therapeutically effective concentration.

Antipsoriasis agents

[0283] In an embodiment, the active agent is an anti-psoriasis agent. Such anti-psoriasis agents can be selected, among other options, from the group of keratolytically-active agents, salicylic acid, coal tar, anthralin, corticosteroids, retinoids, photodymamic therapy agents, and vitamin D and derivatives and analogs thereof, including vitamin D3 derivatives or analogs such as calcitriol, calcipotriol. Antiinfective agents

[0284] In an embodiment, the active agent is an anti-infective agent. Such anti-infective agent can be selected from the group of an antibiotic agent, an antibacterial agent, an antifungal agent, an agent that controls yeast, an antiviral agent and an antiparasitic agent. Exemplary antiinfective agents are exemplified by beta-lactam antibiotic, an aminoglycoside, an ansa-type antibiotic, an anthraquinone, an azole, metronidazole, an antibiotic glycopeptide, a macrolide, erythromycin, clindamycin, an antibiotic nucleoside, an antibiotic peptide, polymyxin B, an antibiotic polyene, an antibiotic polyether, an antibiotic quinolone, an antibiotic steroid, fucidic acid, mupirocin, chloramphenicol, a sulfonamide, tetracycline, an antibiotic metal, silver, copper, zinc, mercury, tin, lead, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, an oxidizing agent, iodine, iodate, a periodate, a hypochlorite, a permanganate, a substance that release free radicals and/or active oxygen, a cationic antimicrobial agent, a quaternary ammonium compound, a biguanide, chlorohexidine, a triguanide, a bisbiguanide, a polymeric biguanide and a naturally occurring antibiotic compound, as well as analogs, derivatives, salts, ions and complexes thereof.

The foamable composition essential ingredients as active agents

[0285] In certain embodiments, hydrophobic solvent possesses therapeutic properties on its own and therefore, it can be regarded as "active agent." For example, some essential oils kill microorganisms and can be effective in the treatment or prevention of conditions that involve microbial infection, such as bacterial, fungal and viral conditions. Additionally, the occlusive effect of hydrophobic solvents is useful for the treatment of conditions which involve damaged skin, such as psoriasis or atopic dermatitis. The combination of a hydrophobic solvent and a therapeutically effective fatty alcohol or fatty acid may afford a synergistic beneficial effect in conditions characterized, for example, by infection and/or inflammation.

Combination of active agents

[0286] Several disorders involve a combination of more than one etiological factor; and therefore, the use of more that one active agents is advantageous. For example, psoriasis involves excessive cell proliferation and inadequate cell differentiation as well as inflammation. Atopic dermatitis involves keratinocyte growth abnormality, skin dryness and inflammation. Bacterial, fungal and viral infections involve pathogen colonization at the affected site and inflammation. Hence, in many cases, the inclusion of a combination of active agents in the foamable

pharmaceutical composition can be desirable. Thus, in one or more embodiments, the foamable composition further includes at least two active agents, in a therapeutically effective concentration.

[0287] In an embodiment one of the active agents is a vitamin, a vitamin derivative or analogue thereof. In a preferred embodiment the vitamin, vitamin derivative or analogue thereof is oil soluble.

Microsponges

[0288] Microsponges (or microspheres) are rigid, porous and spongelike round microscopic particles of cross-linked polymer beads (e.g., polystyrene or copolymers thereof), each defining a substantially noncoUapsible pore network. Microsponges can be loaded with an active ingredient and can provide a controlled time release of the active ingredient to skin or to a mucosal membrane upon application of the formulation. The slow release is intended to reduce irritation by the active agent. Microsponge® delivery technology was developed by Advanced Polymer Systems. In one or more embodiments the composition comprises one or more active agents loaded into Microponges with a waterless carrier described herein, which may also comprise a modulating agent.

Fields of Applications

[0289] The foamable carrier of the present disclosure is suitable for treating any inflicted surface. In one or more embodiments, foamable carrier is suitable for administration to the skin, a body surface, a body cavity or mucosal surface, e.g., the cavity and/or the mucosa of the nose, mouth, eye, respiratory system, vagina, urethra or rectum and the ear canal (severally and interchangeably termed herein "target site").

[0290] The foamable carrier of the present disclosure is also suitable for preventing a disorder or disease prior to its onset. The foamable carrier comprising for example a tetracycline may be applied to a body surface or a body cavity to try and prevent apoptosis, a disorder or disease prior to onset thereof. For example, prior to an anticipated inflammatory reaction or risk thereof , or prior to an anticipated onset of apoptosis or a risk thereof, or prior to an anticipated onset of inflammatory cytokines or risk thereof, prior to a medical procedure requiring intervention such as chemo therapy; radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy, laser therapy, etc. An simple example of prevention use is where the foam comprising a tetracycline (or the formulation prior to addition of propellant) is applied to the skin surface surrounding both eyes. [0291] According to another embodiment a non-limiting list of disorders where a tetracycline antibiotic might be used to prevent a disease or disorder is provided, which includes prophylaxis of gonococcal and chlamydial ophthalmia, neonatal conjunctivitis, periodontal disease, postoperative tetracycline , prophylaxis in pregnancy termination, for prevention of skin rash/acneiform skin eruption during cancer therapy, intraoperative topical tetracycline sclerotherapy following mastectomy for prevention of postoperative mastectomy seromas etc.

[0292] By selecting a suitable active agent, or a combination of at least two active agents, the foamable composition of the present disclosure is useful in preventing or treating an animal or a human patient having any one of a variety of dermatological or mucosal diseases or disorders; in alleviating such diseases or disorders; or where such agent or agents have shown proficiency in preventative therapy in preventing such diseases or disorders , including but not limited to a bacterial infection, a benign tumor, a bullous disease, a burn, a chlamydia infection, a condition which respond to hormone therapy, a cut, a dermatitis, a dermatophyte infection, a dermatose, a disorder of a body cavity, a disorder of cornification, a disorder of the nose, a disorder of the penile urethra or ear canal, a disorder of the rectum, a disorder of the respiratory system, a disorder of the vagina, a disorder which responds to hormone replacement therapy, a disorder which responds to transdermal nicotine administration, a disorders of hair follicles, a disorders of sebaceous glands, a disorders of sweating, a fungal infection, a gonorrhea infection, a

gynecological disorders that respond to hormonal therapy, a malignant tumor, a non- dermatological disorder which responds to topical or transdermal delivery of an active agent, a parasitic infection, a pelvic inflammation, a pigmentation disorder, a scaling papular diseases, a sexual dysfunction disorder, a sexually transmitted disease, a vaginal disorder, a viral infection, a vulvar disorder, a vulvovaginal infection, a wound, a yeast infection, abscess, acne, acne conglobata, acne fulminans, acne scars, acne vulgaris, actinic keratosis, acute and chronic salpingitis, acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, acute lymphangitis, acute pelvic inflammatory disease, acute soft tissue injury, albinism, allergic contact dermatitis, alopecia, alopecia areata, alopecia totalis, alopecia universalis, an allergy, an anal abscess or fistula, an anal and rectal disease, an anal disorder, an anal fissure, an anal wart, an ear disorder, an hormonal disorder, an inflammatory reaction, an intra-vaginal or rectal sexually-transmitted and non-sexually- transmitted infectious disease, anal cancer, anal excoriation, anal fissures, anal itch, anal pruritus, anal soreness, anal warts, angiomas, arthritis, athlete's foot, atopic dermatitis, back pain, bacterial skin infections, bacterial vaginosis, baldness, basal cell carcinoma, benign tumors, blisters, bromhidrosis, bullous diseases, bullous pemphigoid, burn, calluses, calluses candidiasis, cancer of the cervix, cancer of the vagina, cancer of the vulva, candidal vaginitis, candidiasis, carbuncles, cellulitis, cervical cancer, cervicitis, chancroid, chemical burns, chicken pox, chloasma, cholesteatoma, cholinergic urticaria, chronic dermatitis, chronic effects of sunlight, cold sores, cold urticaria, comedones, constipation, contact dermatitis, corns, creeping eruption, Crohn's disease, cutaneous abscess, cutaneous larva migrans, cutaneous myiasis, dark spots, delusional parasitosis, Dercum disease, dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, dermatofibroma, dermatological inflammation, dermatological pain, dermatophytoses, dermographism, diaper rash, drug eruptions and reactions, drug-induced hyperpigmentation, dyshidrotic eczema, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dysplastic nevi, ecthyma, ectodermal dysplasia, ectopic pregnancy, eczema, endometriosis, endometritis, epidermal necrolysis, epidermoid cyst, erysipelas, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, erythrasma, exfoliative dermatitis, fallopian tube cancer and gestational trophoblastic disease, fecal incontinence, female orgasmic disorder, folliculitis, fungal nail infections, fungal skin infections, furuncles, gangrene, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, genital cancer, genital herpes, genital ulcer, genital warts, granuloma annulare, granuloma inguinale, gynecological neoplasms including endometrial cancer, head lice, hemorrhoids, hepatitis B, herpes, herpes simplex, hidradenitis suppurativa, hirsutism, HIV/ AIDS, hives, human papillomavirus (HPV), hyperhidrosis, hyperpigmentation melasma, hypertrichosis, hypohidrosis, hypopigmentation, ichthyosis, impetigo, inflammatory acne, inflammatory reactions, ingrown nails, intertrigo, irritant contact dermatitis, ischemic necrosis, itching, jock itch, joint pain, Kaposi's sarcoma, keloid, keratinous cyst, keratoacanthoma, keratosis pilaris, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, lichen simplex chronicus, linear immunoglobulin A disease, lipomas, localized pain in general, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, lymphogranloma venereum, male pattern baldness, malignant melanoma, malignant tumors, mastocytosis, measles, melanoma, midcycle pain, midcycle pain due to ovulation, miliaria, mittelschmerz, moles, molluscum contagiosum, MRSA, mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC), muscle pain, necrotizing fasciitis, necrotizing myositis, necrotizing subcutaneous infection, necrotizing subcutaneous infections, nodular papulopustular acne, nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), non-inflammatory acne, nummular dermatitis, oophoritis, oral herpes, osteoarthritis, osteoarthritis, ovarian cancer, ovarian cysts and masses, paget's disease of the nipples, panniculitis, papules, parapsoriasis paronychia, parasitic infections, parasitic skin infections, paronychial infection, pediculosis, pelvic congestion syndrome, pelvic inflammatory disease, pelvic pain, pemphigus, perianal pruritus, perianal thrush, perioral dermatitis, photo-allergy, photo-damage, photo-irritation, photosensitivity, pigmentation disorders, pimples, pityriasis Lichenoides, pityriasis rosea, pityriasis rubra pilaris, poison ivy, poison oak, polyps of the colon and rectum, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, postinflammatory hypopigmentation, post-operative or post-surgical skin conditions, premenstrual syndrome, pressure sores, pressure ulcers, pressure urticaria, pruritis, pruritus ani, pseudofolliculitis barbae, psoriasis, PUPPP, purpura, pustules, pyogenic granuloma, rash, reactions to sunlight, rectal abscess, rectal fistula, rheumatic pain, ringworm, rosacea, roseola, rubella, salpingitis, scabies, scalded skin syndrome, scaling papular diseases, scarring, scleroderma, sebaceous cyst, seborrheic dermatitis, seborrheic keratoses, seborrheic keratosis, sexual arousal disorder, shingles, skin aging, skin cancer, skin neoplasia, skin neoplasms, skin rash, skin tags, skin ulcers, sports injuries, squamous cell carcinoma, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, stasis dermatitis, Stevens- Johnson syndrome, sun spots, sunburn, thermal burns, tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis, tinea versicolor, toxic epidermal necrolysis, trauma or injury to the skin, trichomonas vaginalis, trichomoniasis, vaginal cancer, vaginal dryness, vaginismus, varicella zoster virus, viral skin infections, vitamin D deficiency, vitiligo, vulvar cancer, vulvar disorders, vulvar dystrophy, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), vulvar pain, vulvodynia, warts, water hives, wrinkles, xerosis, yeast skin infections, zoster

[0293] Likewise, the foamable composition of the present disclosure is suitable for preventing or treating a disorder of a body cavity or mucosal surface, e.g., the mucosa of the nose, mouth, eye, ear, respiratory system, vagina, urethra, or rectum. Non limiting examples of such conditions include chlamydia infection, gonorrhea infection, hepatitis B, herpes, HIV/ AIDS, human papillomavirus (HPV), genital warts, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, chancroid, granuloma Inguinale, lymphogranloma venereum, mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC), molluscum contagiosum, nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), trichomoniasis, vulvar disorders, vulvodynia, vulvar pain, yeast infection, vulvar dystrophy, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), contact dermatitis, pelvic inflammation, endometritis, salpingitis, oophoritis, genital cancer, cancer of the cervix, cancer of the vulva, cancer of the vagina, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, anal and rectal disease, anal abscess/fistula, anal cancer, anal fissure, anal warts, Crohn's disease, hemorrhoids, anal itch, pruritus ani, fecal incontinence, constipation, polyps of the colon and rectum.

[0294] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, the composition is useful for the treatment of an infection. In one or more embodiments, the composition is suitable for the treatment of an infection, selected from the group of a bacterial infection, a fungal infection, a yeast infection, a viral infection and a parasitic infection.

[0295] In an embodiment of the present disclosure, the composition is useful for the treatment of wound, ulcer and burn. This use is particularly important since the composition of the present disclosure creates a thin, semi-occlusive layer, which coats the damaged tissue, while allowing exudates to be released from the tissue.

[0296] The composition of the present disclosure is also suitable for administering a hormone to the skin or to a mucosal membrane or to a body cavity, in order to deliver the hormone into the tissue of the target organ, in any disorder that responds to treatment with a hormone.

[0297] In one embodiment the disorder is an inflammation, skin inflammation, acne, rosacea, actinic keratosis, skin cancer, a local pain, joint pain and osteoarthritis; the active agent is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, given at a therapeutically effective concentration.

[0298] In light of the hygroscopic nature of the composition, it is further suitable for the treatment and prevention of post-surgical adhesions. Adhesions are scars that form abnormal connections between tissue surfaces. Post-surgical adhesion formation is a natural consequence of surgery, resulting when tissue repairs itself following incision, cauterization, suturing, or other means of trauma. When comprising appropriate protective agents, the foam is suitable for the treatment or prevention of post surgical adhesions. The use of foam is particularly advantageous because foam can expand in the body cavity and penetrate into hidden areas that cannot be reached by any other alternative means of administration.

Cosmetic use

[0299] In one or more embodiments, the composition may be used for cosmetic use. For example it may be used as part of a cosmetic formulation to prevent a cosmetic disorder or to improve the skin. Alternatively it may be used with cosmetic effect for example as a cosmetic remover. It can be dispensed in small quantities as a foam targeted to a surface and applied locally with mechanical force causing the foam to break.

Route of Administration

[0300] The formulations disclosed herein can be applied to the target site as a foam. In one or more alternative embodiments the formulations are prepared without propellant and are applied as a gel or ointment, for example, with the tetracycline as a suspension. Application can be hourly, 2 hourly, 3 hourly, four hourly, six hourly or eight hourly, twelve hourly, daily, alternate- day or intermittent, as necessary. For reasons of compliance less frequent applications, where possible are preferable such as twice -daily or daily single applications. In cases where prolonged or long term treatment is required a higher initial dose is provided followed by a gradual reduction to a lower maintenance dose, which can be increased if further outbreaks occur.

[0301] The formulations are suitable for administration directly or indirectly to an inflicted area, in need of treatment, through the following routes of administration:

1. Topical administration: for local effect, it is applied directly where its action is desired;

2. Enteral: when the desired effect is systemic (non-local), it is given via the digestive tract; and

3. Parenteral: when the desired effect is systemic, it is given by other routes than the digestive tract

[0302] The following list more specifically exemplifies some routes of administration.

1. Topical

[0303] Topical administration is any form of administration that reaches a body organ topically, such as epicutaneous administration (application onto the skin), inhalation, enema, eye drops (onto the conjunctiva), ear drops, intranasal (into the nose) and vaginal.

[0304] Exemplary dosage forms that are suitable for topical administration of the stable formulations, such as tetracycline formulations include cream, gel, liniment, lotion, ointment, paste, spray, foam, mousse, lacquer (e.g., for nail treatment) and transdermal patch. Additionally, topical vaginal dosage forms may include a douche, an intrauterine device, a pessary (vaginal suppository), a vaginal ring and a vaginal tablet. Rectal dosage forms include enema and suppositories. Inhaled dosage forms include aerosol inhalers, metered dose inhalers and solutions for nebulizer. Ophthalmic dosage forms include eye drop (solution or suspension), ophthalmic gel and ophthalmic ointment. In a preferred embodiment the dosage form is a foam that is thermally stable and breakable under shear force but is not "quick breaking" which allows comfortable application and well directed administration to the target area.

2. Enteral

[0305] Enteral is any form of administration that involves any part of the gastrointestinal tract by mouth (orally), as buccal or sublingual tablets, capsules, suspensions, solutions, powder or drops; by gastric feeding tube, duodenal feeding tube, or gastrostomy; and rectally, in suppository or enema form.

3. Parenteral by injection or infusion

[0306] Intravenous (into a vein); intraarterial (into an artery); intramuscular (into a muscle); intracardiac (into the heart); subcutaneous (under the skin); intraosseous infusion (into the bone marrow); intradermal, (into the skin itself); intrathecal (into the spinal canal); and intraperitoneal (into the peritoneum).

4. Other parenteral

[0307] Transdermal (diffusion through the intact skin); transmucosal (diffusion through a mucous membrane), e.g. insufflation (snorting), sublingual, buccal (absorbed through cheek near gumline) and vaginal; and inhalational; epidural (synonym: peridural) (injection or infusion into the epidural space); and intravitreal.

EXAMPLES

[0308] The invention is described with reference to the following examples, in a non-limiting manner. The following examples exemplify the foamable compositions and methods described herein. The examples are for the purposes of illustration only and are not intended to be limiting. Many variations will suggest themselves and are within the full intended scope.

Example 1 - General Manufacturing Procedures

[0309] The following procedures are used to produce the foam samples described in the examples below, in which only the steps relevant to each formulation are performed depending on the type and nature of ingredients used.

[0310] Step 1: Hydrophobic solvents such as mineral oils are mixed at room temperature. Others solvents such as silicones, if present, are added at room temperature under mixing until formulation homogeneity is obtained.

[0311] Step 2: The formulation is warmed to 70-80°C and solid compounds such as fatty alcohols, fatty acids and waxes are added and mixed until complete dissolution.

[0312] Step 3: The formulation is cooled down to 30-40°C and active agents if present, and water if present are added under mixing until formulation homogeneity is obtained.

[0313] Step 4: The formulation is packaged in aerosol canisters which are crimped with a valve, pressurized with propellant and equipped with an actuator suitable for foam dispensing. Optionally a metered dosage unit can utilized, to achieved delivery of repeatable measured doses of foam. Docket No. 0113873.00188 WOl

Materials

Table 1 - Exemplary possible ingredients suitable for the production of foamable compositions disclosed herein. Equivalent materials from other manufacturers can also be used satisfactorily.

Docket No. 0113873.00188 WOl

Docket No. 0113873.00188 WOl

Canisters Filling and Crimping

[0314] Each aerosol canister is filled with the pre- foam formulation ("PFF", i.e., foamable carrier) and crimped with valve using vacuum crimping machine. The process of applying a vacuum will cause most of the oxygen present to be eliminated. Addition of hydrocarbon propellant may, without being bound by any theory, further help to reduce the likelihood of any remaining oxygen reacting with the active ingredient. It may do so, without being bound by any theory, by one or more of dissolving in, to the extent present, the oil or hydrophobic phase of the formulation, by dissolving to a very limited extent in the aqueous phase, by competing with some oxygen from the formulation, by diluting out any oxygen, by a tendency of oxygen to occupy the dead space, and by oxygen occupying part of the space created by the vacuum being the unfilled volume of the canister or that remaining oxygen is rendered substantially ineffective in the formulation.

Pressurizing & Propellant Filling

[0315] Pressurizing is carried out using a hydrocarbon gas or gas mixture. Canisters are filled and then warmed for 30 seconds in a warm bath at 50°C and well shaken immediately thereafter.

TESTS

[0316] By way of non-limiting example the objectives of hardness, collapse time and freeze- thaw cycle ("FTC") stability tests are briefly set out below as would be appreciated by a person of skill in the art. Collapse Time

[0317] Collapse Time, which is the measure of thermal stability, is examined by dispensing a given quantity of foam and photographing sequentially its appearance with time during incubation at 36°C. The collapse time result is defined as the time when the foam height reaches 50% of its initial height or if the foam has not yet reached 50% of its initial height after say 180 seconds then the collapse time is recorded as being >180. By way of illustration one foam may remain at 100% of its initial height for three minutes, a second foam may reach 90% of its initial height after three minutes, a third foam may reach 70% of its initial height after three minutes, and a fourth foam may reach 51% of its initial height after three minutes, nevertheless in each of these four cases the collapse time is recorded as >180 seconds since for practical purposes for easy application by a patient to a target the majority of the foam remains intact for more than 180 seconds. If the foam for example reaches 50% of its original height after say 100 seconds it would be recorded as having a collapse time of 100 seconds. It is useful for evaluating foam products, which maintain structural stability at skin temperature for at least 1 minute. Foams which are structurally stable on the skin for at least one minute are termed "short term stable" carriers or foams.

[0318] Alternatively, a Simple Collapse Time can be assessed by placing a foam sample on the warm fingers of a volunteer and measuring the time it takes to melt on the fingers.

Density

[0319] In this procedure, the foam product is dispensed into vessels (including dishes or tubes) of a known volume and weight. Replicate measurements of the mass of foam filling the vessels are made and the density is calculated. The canister and contents are allowed to reach room temperature. Shake the canister to mix the contents and dispense and discard 5-10 mL. Then dispense foam into a pre-weighed tube, filling it until excess is extruded. Immediately remove (level off) excess foam at both ends and weigh the filled tube on the weighing balance. Viscosity

[0320] Viscosity is measured with Brookfield LVDV-II + PRO with spindle SC4-25 at ambient temperature and 10, 5 and 1 RPM. Viscosity is usually measured at 10RPM. However, at about the apparent upper limit for the spindle of ~>50,000CP, the viscosity at lRPM may be measured, although the figures are of a higher magnitude. Unless otherwise stated viscosity of the pre-foam formulation (PFF) is provided. It is not practical to try and measure the viscosity of the foamable formulation with regular propellants since they have to be stored in sealed pressurized canisters or bottles. In order to simulate the viscosity in the foamable formulations with propellant an equivalent weight of pentane (a low volatile hydrocarbon) is added to and mixed with the pre-foam formulation and left overnight. The viscosity is then measured as above. FTC (Freeze Thaw Cycles)

[0321] Foam appearance under extreme conditions of repeated heating and cooling is evaluated by cycling through cooling, heating, (first cycle) cooling, heating (second cycle) etc., conditions, commencing with -10°C (24 hours) followed by +40°C (24 hours) and measuring the appearance following each cycle. The cycle is repeated for up to three times.

Chemical Stability

[0322] The amount of active agent present is analyzed chromatographically in foam released from various pressurized canisters. Analysis is carried out at baseline and at appropriate time intervals thereafter. The canisters are typically stored in controlled temperature incubators at one or more of 5°C, 25°C and 40°C. At appropriate time intervals canisters are removed and the amount of active agent in the foam sample is measured.

Bubble Size

[0323] Foams are made of gas bubbles entrapped in liquid. The bubble size and distribution reflects in the visual texture and smoothness of the foam. Foam bubbles size is determined by dispensing a foam sample on a glass slide, taking a picture of the foam surface with a digital camera equipped with a macro lens. The diameter of about 30 bubbles is measured manually relatively to calibration standard template. Statistical parameters such as mean bubble diameter, standard deviation and quartiles are then determined. Measuring diameter may also be

undertaken with image analysis software. The camera used was a Nikon D40X Camera

(resolution 10MP) equipped with Sigma Macro Lens (ref: APO MACRO 150mm F2.8 EX DG HSM). Pictures obtained are cropped to keep a squared region of 400 pixels x 400 pixels.

Shakability

[0324] Shakability represents the degree to which the user is able to feel / hear the presence of the liquid contents when the filled pressurized canister is shaken. Shaking is with normal mild force without vigorous shaking or excessive force. When the user cannot sense the motion of the contents during shaking the product may be considered to be non-shakable. This property may be of particular importance in cases where shaking is required for affecting proper dispersion of the contents. Table of Shakability scoring

Aging by centrifugation:

1. Principle of test

[0325] The centrifugation used in this procedure serves as a stress condition simulating the aging of the liquid formulation under investigation. Under these conditions, the centrifugal force applied facilitates coalescence of dispersed globules or sedimentation of dispersed solids, resulting in loss of the desired properties of the formulation.

2. Procedure

2.1. Following preparation of the experimental formulation/s, allow to stand at room temperature for > 24 h (hour).

2.2. Handle pentane in a chemical hood. Add to each experimental formulation in a 20-mL glass vial a quantity of pentane equivalent to the specified quantity of propellant for that formulation, mix and allow formulation to stand for at least 1 h and not more than 24 h.

2.3. Transfer each mixture to 1.5 mL microtubes. Tap each microtube on the table surface to remove entrapped air bubbles.

2.4. Place visually balanced microtubes in the centrifuge rotor and operate the centrifuge at say l,000rpm for 5min or 10 min. The centrifuge can be a BHG HEMLE Z 231 M.

2.5. Centrifugation can also be executed at a higher rpm for a shorter period or a lower rpm for a longer period bearing in mind the G-force experienced by the formulations is many fold greater than the one G to which a formulation would be exposed to during its shelf life. Centrifugation can also be executed at a higher rpm for the same period, say 3000 or 10,000rpm to simulate an extremely high stress level.

Penetration

[0326] Transdermal penetration of Minocycline was tested using the Franz cell in- vitro diffusion system. This system is commonly used to test the delivery of drugs through the skin from semisolid topical dosage forms. Pig skin was used according to the OECD Draft New Guideline 428, since pig skin shows similar permeation characteristics to human skin. The following experimental parameters were employed: 1. Two formulations were tested: 244 foam with 1% minocycline and 244 foam with 4% minocycline. The two carrier formulations were unchanged accept that the amount of mineral oil was reduced by 3% to allow for the increase in minocycline.

2. Vertical Franz diffusion cells were used (PermeGear, 1.77 cm2 area, 14 ml receptor fluid).

3. 6 cells were used to test the 4% formulation, 5 cells were used to test the 1% formulation and. one cell was used as a "negative control" (without any applied sample). Approximately 500mg of product was placed in each cell. [Note the amount per skin area was calculated to be about three times more than an amount that might be applied clinically, namely for 244 with 4% minocycline 300mg by weight of foam product which comprises about 12mg of minocycline.]

4. The receiving compartments were sampled at baseline and 3, 6, 9 and 24 hours following application. At the 24 hours time point the skin was processed as follows:

- Residues of materials were removed from the skin using filter paper, followed by

stripping the skin once using adhesive tape "Scotch Magic® Tape", 3M.

Sequential 19 tapes (9 and 10) were transferred into two separate vials with 3 mL extraction solution ("Stratum Corneum 1" and "Stratum Corneum 2").

The circular skin area (1.77 cm2) was cut and transferred to a 3 mL extraction solution (Viable skin - VS samples) vial.

5. The amount of active agent present was analyzed chromatographically: About lg of foam or pre-foam formulation is dissolved in 25mL while mixing. .The sample solution is filtered with PTFE 0.2μιη filter. The filtrate is analyzed by UPLC using a C-18 column; elution is performed with a mobile phase containing 0.1M Ammonium oxalate: 0.01M EDTA: DMF: THF, 60: 18: 12:8(v/v). Note DMF is dimethylformamide and THF is tetrahydrofurane. The content of MCH and of 4-Epimer is calculated using the ratio between MCH peak area response in the sample solution and the average response area of MCH peak in the working standard solution present at a similar concentration.

Residence on the skin

[0327] The degradation of active pharmaceutical ingredient, namely, minocycline was assessed following exposure to pig skin. Formulation 232A, containing 1% minocycline was applied to freshly retrieved porcine dermatomated skin and samples of the foam were analyzed chromatographically for both minocycline and a known 4-Epi degradation product at the start and then after 1, 3 and 6 hours of exposure.

Microbiological Tests a) Microbial load: Testing was performed according to EP 2.6.12 and 2.6.13 as described in the European Pharmacopea. b) Preservative efficacy: Testing was performed according to USP <51> and EP 5.6, 2007 5.1.3. as described in the European and U.S Pharmacopea.

[0328] The test consists of challenging the product with specified microorganisms, storing the inoculated preparations at a prescribed temperature, removing the inoculated samples at specified intervals of time and counting the number of viable organisms in the withdrawn samples using a plate-count procedure. Formulations were challenged by introducing the following microorganisms:

Escherichia coli (ATCC no. 8739)

Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC no. 6538)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC no. 9027)

Candida albicans (ATCC no. 10231)

Aspergillus niger (ATCC no. 16404)

[0329] The number of colony-forming units (cfu/g) determined at each incubation time point was compared to the number of cfu/g measured in non-inoculated control samples. In order to verify that the samples tested are free of microbial contaminants, the microbial load (base-line) in the samples was determined prior to preservative efficacy testing. Study results are expressed as the number of surviving microorganisms (cfu/g).

c) Water Activity (Aw): The test for water activity was performed on pre-foam formulation samples introduced into the measuring cell of a PAWKIT water activity meter from DECAGON. d) In-vitro effect on microbial growth: The tested microorganism is grown on Tryptic Soy Agar Slants. After incubation, the bacteria is harvested using sterile buffer phosphate pH 7.0, to obtain a microbial count of about 104 cfu/ml. 0.2 ml of the above suspension is spread on Letheen Agar plate and put aside to dry for 20 minutes at room temperature. A sterile disc of 6mm diameter which has been soaked in ΙΟμΙ of the tested antibacterial pre-foam-formulation (PFF) is put on the microbial film, the plate is incubated at 35°C for 1-2 days. A control experiment is also performed where no antibacterial material is put on the sterile discs. Antimicrobial activity of the tested material inhibits growth of the microorganism around the disc, leaving a transparent zone around it. The diameter of the inhibition zone is measured in mms.

HET-CAM

[0330] The potential of compounds to cause irreversible or severe eye irritation or corrosion may be detected by observing adverse changes, which occur in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the egg after exposure to test chemicals. The methodology is described in Example 17. Apoptosis

[0331] UVB irradiation of the skin is known inter alia to increase epidermal cell apoptosis. Specimens are treated topically then irradiated with UVB and incubated. Apoptosis activation is measured post-irradiation by measuring the extent of caspase 3 activity . The methodology is described in Example 18.

Compatibility

[0332] Active agent is incubated with various excipients at one or more temperatures for a certain fixed period or to the point where degradation was suspected. Visual inspection is a criterion for indication of compatibility. Any change of color indicates oxidation or degradation. The methodology is described in Example 19.

Color/Pigmentation

[0333] Samples are applied to fair healthy human skin to observe whether any skin pigmentation occurs. The skin is observed prior to and following application. The methodology is described in Example 20.

SECTION A - CARRIER COMPOSITIONS

Example 2 - Non surfactant oleaginous foam formulations

[0334] Surface active agents are known to be useful foaming agents, and thus it is not obvious to produce good quality foams free of surfactants. As shown table 2 below, formulations 001 and 002 containing a mixture of heavy mineral oil and light mineral oil with or without cyclomethicone fail to produce foams and release only liquids from the pressurized canisters. Compounds other than customary surfactants have been identified below that are suitable for the foaming of oleaginous vehicles. Table 2 - Oleaginous compositions

[0335] Silicone oils such as cyclomethicone are included in the formulations primarily as cosmetic agent, for their contribution to skin feeling properties. Volatile cyclomethicones can help reduce the greasy skin feeling that may be present in oleaginous formulations.

Example 3 - Oleaginous formulations containing a Fatty Acid

[0336] Two fatty acids were used in combination with heavy mineral oil, light mineral oil and cyclomethicone, and tested for their foaming properties. As described in Table 3 below, formulation 003 containing isostearic acid (a liquid fatty acid) did not give rise to foam but merely generated bubbly liquids. Formulation 004 containing stearic acid (a solid fatty acid) initially produced a fairly good quality foam, but which was not stable and collapsed after 10 seconds. It follows that that fatty acids alone are not sufficient as foaming agents in oleaginous formulations even in reasonably high amounts. Also, the average bubble size was quite large and more than double that of a quality foam.

Table 3 - Oleaginous compositions containing a fatty acid

Example 4 - Oleaginous compositions containing Fatty Alcohols

[0337] The influence of fatty alcohols on the foaming properties of oleaginous formulations was studied. Several fatty alcohols of different chain length were used in combination with heavy mineral oil, light mineral oil and cyclomethicone, and checked for their foaming properties. As described in Table 4 below, formulations 005, 006 and 007 respectively containing myristyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol or stearyl did not give rise to quality foams but merely generated bubbly liquids of fair quality foam that quickly collapsed. Formulation 009 which contains behenyl alcohol (a fatty alcohol having 22 carbons) produced fairly good quality foams that quickly collapsed. It follows that fatty alcohols alone are not sufficient as foaming agents in oleaginous formulations.

Table 4 - Oleaginous compositions containing various fatty alcohols

Example 5 - Oleaginous formulations containing a combination of Fatty Acids and Fatty Alcohols

[0338] Formulations were prepared, containing a combination of fatty acids and fatty alcohols and checked for their foaming properties. As described in Table 5a below, formulations

010 (containing stearic acid and myristyl alcohol) and formulation 017 (containing isostearic acid and stearyl alcohol) did not give rise to quality foams but merely generated bubbly liquids.

[0339] However, very surprisingly, the combination of stearic acid with cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol, cetostearyl alcohol or behenyl alcohol give rise to good quality foams having a fine bubble structure as shown in formulations 011, 012, 013 and 014. Such foams can be

successfully produced in the presence or in the absence of silicone oils, as shown in formulation

011 and 016, despite the defoaming effect of silicones. Moreover, formulations 012 and 014 containing a combination of stearic acid with stearyl alcohol or behenyl alcohol give rise to stable foams which did not collapse after 180 sec at 36°C. Thus, it has been discovered that a combination of fatty alcohols and fatty acids has a synergistic effect and possesses effective foaming properties in the case of oleaginous compositions to achieve a thermally stable breakable foam. Interestingly cetyl and stearyl alcohol achieved the lowest average bubble size, whilst using a combination of the two led to a substantial reduction in viscosity of the pre foam formulation. Table 5a - Oleaginous compositions containing various Fatty Acids and Fatty Alcohols

[0340] Formulations were prepared, containing various ratios of fatty acids to fatty alcohols and checked for their foaming properties, as described in Table 5b.

Table 5b - Oleaginous compositions containing various Fatty Acids and Fatty Alcohols ratios

[0341] It was observed that in oleaginous foam formulations containing fatty alcohols and fatty acids, the ratio of the concentrations of fatty alcohol to fatty acid influenced the foaming properties. Foams of good quality that did not collapse after 180 seconds at 36°C were obtained with a ratio of fatty alcohol : fatty acid of 3: 17 to 2: l . Foams of excellent quality were obtained when the ratio was 1 : 1. However, fairly good foams were obtained with a ratio of 5.6: 1. Thus, in one or more embodiments the ratio of fatty alcohol to fatty acid is about 3: 17 to about 2: 1; or about 1 :6 to about 16:3; or about 1 :7 to about 5: 1 or between any first ratio to any second ratio.

[0342] Formulations were prepared, containing various concentrations of fatty acids and fatty alcohols with a fixed ratio of fatty alcohol to fatty acid of 1 : 1 and checked for their foaming properties, as described in Table 5c.

Table 5c - Oleaginous compositions containing various Fatty Acids and Fatty Alcohols concentrations

Formulations 221 222 223 211 224

Ingredients %w/w %w/w %w/w %w/w %w/w

Heavy Mineral oil 65.0 65.0 65.0 65.0 65.0

Light Mineral oil 32.5 30.0 28.0 25.0 20.0

Stearyl alcohol 1.25 2.50 3.50 5.00 7.50

Stearic acid 1.25 2.50 3.50 5.00 7.50

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Propellant AP-70 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0

Results

Foam Quality Fair Good Excellent Excellent Block

Collapse Time (sec) - >180 >180 >180 -

[0343] It was observed that foams of good to excellent quality that did not collapse after 180 seconds at 36°C were obtained with a fixed ratio of fatty alcohol to fatty acid of 1 : 1 and a total concentration of fatty alcohol together with fatty acid ranging from about 5% to about 10%. For a total concentration of fatty alcohol together with fatty acid of 15%, the PFF content was very viscous and could not be expelled through the valve. This can be overcome by including higher amounts of propellant, or propellant of higher vapor pressure or a low viscosity solvent such as alkyl benzoate.

Example 6 - Oleaginous formulations containing Fatty alcohols, Fatty acids and Waxes

[0344] Formulations, containing a combination of fatty acids, fatty alcohols and waxes were prepared and checked for their foaming properties. As noted in Table 6a below, formulations 018 containing fatty alcohols and low amounts of stearic acid did not give rise to quality foams but generated fairly good quality foam that very quickly collapsed. Surprisingly, the addition of hydrogenated castor oil and beeswax (in formulation 019) both of which are solid waxes at room temperature, enhanced the foam quality and good quality foam that was stable at 36°C was obtained. Furthermore, formulations containing waxes feel less greasy upon application on skin. Thus, it has been discovered that waxes are useful foamer ingredients instead of fatty acids in oleaginous foams free of standard surfactants, and additionally they can enhance both the skin feeling and the foam quality.

Table 6a - Oleaginous compositions containing waxes

[0345] It is apparent that the addition of a wax to the composition improved the foam quality from fairly-good (insufficient) to good (acceptable) and collapse time from 10 (unacceptable) to 120 seconds (acceptable).

[0346] Additional formulations were prepared, containing waxes alone and in combination with a fatty acid or a fatty alcohol and checked for their foaming properties. As described in Table 6b below, formulations 021 , 021b and 022 containing beeswax alone or in combination with hydrogenated castor oil did not give rise to quality foams but merely generated bubbly liquids. Formulations 020 containing hydrogenated castor oil alone generated fairly good quality foam that collapsed after 10 seconds. On the other hand the combination of beeswax,

hydrogenated castor oil and fatty alcohol enhanced the foam quality and produced good quality foam that were stable at 36°C for more than 180 seconds, as shown in formulation 023. However, formulations 024 and 024b composed of combinations of beeswax, hydrogenated castor oil and fatty acid only without fatty alcohol generated fairly good foam that quickly collapsed. This shows the importance of the presence of both fatty alcohols and waxes in oleaginous foam compositions. Additionally, wax such as hydrogenated caster oil or beeswax can not only be used in place of a fatty acid but it can be used to facilitate a lower level of fatty acid presence without compromising the foam properties.

Table 6b - Oleaginous compositions containing waxes

[0347] Formulations were prepared, containing various ratio of beeswax to hydrogenated castor oil, with a fixed concentration of fatty alcohol and checked for their foaming properties, as described in Table 6c.

Table 6c - Oleaginous compositions containing waxes in different ratios

Formulations 229 228 226 227 230

Ingredients %w/w %w/w %w/w %w/w %w/w

Heavy Mineral oil 65.0 65.0 65.0 65.0 65.0

Light Mineral oil 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0

Stearyl alcohol 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00

Beeswax 0.83 1.67 2.50 3.33 4.17

Hydrogenated castor oil 4.17 3.33 2.50 1.67 0.83

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Propellant AP-70 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0

Results

Foam Quality Fairly Good Fairly Good Good - Good Good

Collapse Time (sec) - - >180 >180 >180

Ratio Beeswax: Hydrog.

1 :5 1 :2 1 : 1 2: 1 5: 1 Castor oil

[0348] It was observed that in oleaginous foam formulations containing fatty alcohols and waxes such as beeswax and hydrogenated castor oil, the ratio of the concentrations of beeswax to hydrogenated castor oil influenced foaming properties. Foams of good quality that did not collapse after 180 seconds at 36°C were obtained with a ratio of beeswax to hydrogenated castor oil of 1 : 1 or more, whereas fairly good foams were obtained when the level of the beeswax was less than 2% and the amount of hydrogenated cater oil exceeded the level of beeswax. According to one or more embodiments there is provided a composition, wherein ratio of beeswax to hydrogenated castor oil is about or at least 1 : 1. According to one or more other embodiments the ratio may be less than 1 :1 where beeswax is more than about 2%.

[0349] Formulations were prepared, containing various ratio of fatty alcohol to wax and checked for their foaming properties, as described in Table 6d.

Table 6d - Oleaginous compositions containing waxes and fatty alcohols in different ratios

Formulations 234 231 230 232 233

Ingredients %w/w %w/w %w/w %w/w %w/w

Heavy Mineral oil 65.0 65.0 65.0 65.0 65.0

Light Mineral oil 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0

Beeswax 7.50 6.255 4.17 2.085 0.834

Stearyl alcohol 1.00 2.50 5.00 7.50 9.00

Hydrogenated castor oil 1.50 1.245 0.83 0.415 0.166

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Propellant AP-70 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0

Results

Foam Quality Fair Good Good Good - Fair

Foam Collapse Time - >180 >180 >180 -

Ratio Fatty alcohol: Wax 1 :9 2:3 1 : 1 3:2 9: 1

[0350] In the above experiment the ratio of beeswax to hydrogenated caster oil was maintained at 5 : 1 , whilst the amount of fatty alcohol was progressively increased. It was observed that in oleaginous foam formulations containing fatty alcohols and waxes, the ratio of the concentrations of fatty alcohol to wax (beeswax plus hydrogenated caster oil) influenced foaming properties. Foams of good quality that did not collapse after 180 seconds at 36°C were obtained with a ratio of fatty alcohol to wax of 2:3 to 3:2 or more, whereas only fair foams were obtained with a ratio of 1 :9 or 9: 1. So in one or more embodiments the ratio of fatty alcohol to wax (total) is between about 2:3 to about 3 :2; or between about 1 :2 to about 2: 1 or between about 1 :3 to about 3 : 1 ; or between about 4: 1 to about 1 :4 or between any first ratio to any second ratio.

Example 7 - Oleaginous formulations containing various hydrophobic solvents

[0351] Formulations were prepared, containing various hydrophobic solvents and checked for their foaming properties. As described in Table 7 below, formulations containing substantial amounts of MCT oil (capric/caprylic triglycerides), octyldodecanol, coconut oil, PPG- 15 stearyl ether and soybean oil provided good quality foams that were stable at 36°C, as shown in formulation 025 and 026. Table 7 - Oleaginous compositions containing various

Example 8 - Foamable Oil Combinations with Fatty acid, Fatty alcohol and Wax

Part A - Without Water

[0352] Foam formulations were prepared containing high amounts of oils, in combination with fatty alcohols, fatty acids and waxes, according to the general manufacturing procedure described in Example 1. As described in Table 8a, quality breakable foams were obtained in compositions containing different oils. The pre-foam formulations were viscous semi-solid primarily due to the addition of waxes and/or foam adjuvants. Upon addition of propellant, the formulations were shakable, indicating that the formulation within the aerosol canister is liquid. Table 8a - Foamable Oil Combinations with Fatty acid, Fatty alcohol and Wax

Part B - With Low Water (10% or 20%)

[0353] Foam formulations were prepared containing high amounts of oils, low amounts of water, in combination with fatty alcohols, fatty acids and waxes, according to the general manufacturing procedure described in Example 1. As described in Table 8b, quality breakable foams were obtained in different compositions containing oils and low amounts of water, with or without fragrance. The pre-foam formulations were viscous semi-solid primarily due to the addition of waxes and/or foam adjuvants. Upon addition of propellant, the formulations were shakable, indicating that the formulation within the aerosol canister is liquid. Table 8b - Foamable Oil Combinations with Water, Fatty acid, Fatty alcohol and Wax

[0354] Surprisingly, and despite the absence of surfactants, water-in-oil emulsion

formulations were prepared containing high amounts of oils and low amounts of water, in combination with fatty alcohols, fatty acids and waxes, which produced quality breakable foams.

[0355] In one or more embodiments, there is provided a foamable formulation comprising high amounts of hydrophobic solvents, low amounts of water, fatty alcohols, fatty acids and waxes, wherein the formulation generates quality breakable foam which does not collapse for more than 180 seconds at 36°C. In one or more embodiments, the amount of water is lower than about 20%. In one or more embodiments, the amount of water is lower than about 10%. In one or more embodiments, the amount of water is lower than about 5%. In one or more embodiments, the amount of water is lower than about 2%. In one or more embodiments, the oleaginous formulation is essentially free of water. Example 9 - Petrolatum Based Foamable Compositions

[0356] Foam formulations were prepared containing high amounts of Petrolatum, in combination with liquid oils, fatty alcohols and waxes, according to the general manufacturing procedure described in Example 1. As described in Table 9a, quality breakable foams were obtained in different compositions containing Petrolatum. The pre-foam formulations were viscous semi-solid. Upon addition of propellant, the formulations were shakable, indicating that the formulation within the aerosol canister is liquid.

Table 9a - Oleaginous Formulations containing Petrolatum

[0357] In one or more embodiments, there is provided a foamable formulation comprising Petrolatum, optionally a liquid oil, a fatty alcohol and a wax, wherein the formulation generates quality breakable foam.

[0358] Foam formulations were also prepared without waxes, containing high amounts of Petrolatum, in combination with liquid oils and fatty alcohols, according to the general manufacturing procedure described in Example 1. As described in Table 9b, quality breakable foams were obtained in different compositions containing Petrolatum without waxes. The pre- foam formulations were viscous semi-solid. Upon addition of propellant, the formulations were shakable, indicating that the formulation within the aerosol canister is liquid.

Table 9b - Oleaginous Formulations containing Petrolatum

[0359] In one or more embodiments, there is provided a foamable formulation comprising Petrolatum, and a fatty alcohol with optionally shea butter, wherein the formulation generates quality breakable foam. In one or more embodiments, there is provided a foamable formulation comprising Petrolatum, optionally a liquid oil, and a fatty alcohol with optionally shea butter, wherein the formulation generates quality breakable foam.

Example 10 - Oleaginous compositions containing Waxes

[0360] The influence of waxes on the foaming properties of oleaginous formulations was examined. The wax studied is Paraffin 51-53, which is a paraffin wax a mixture of solid saturated hydrocarbons having a melting point between 51°C and 53°C. As observed in Table 10 below, formulations COOl and C002 respectively containing 10% stearyl alcohol and up to 2.5%

Paraffin 51-53 did not give rise to high quality foams but merely generated fairly good quality foam that quickly collapsed. Surprisingly, formulations C003 to C007, containing 5% or more Paraffin 51-53 alone or in combination with stearyl alcohol generated quality foams that did not quickly collapse at 36°C. Increasing the amount of wax resulted in improved collapse times. Unexpectedly, paraffin 51-53 was able to produce a high quality foam with a collapse time in excess of 3minutes in the absence of a fatty alcohol. Thus, in one or more embodiments the foamer complex can be a paraffin wax alone or in combination with a foam adjuvant. Moreover, formulation C007 is an example of a surfactant free, hydroxyl free, acid free, water free formulation essentially free of polyols and alcohols.

[0361] Therefore, it has been discovered that quality oleaginous foams can be produced without surfactant and even without fatty alcohols, where the foaming agent is a wax such as Paraffin 51-53.

[0362] Manufacturing Procedure: Heavy mineral oil is heated to 60-70°C, waxes and fatty alcohols if present are added under mixing until complete melting. The formulation is cooled down to room temperature, packaging in canisters which are crimped with a valve, pressurized with propellant and equipped with an actuator.

Table 10 - Oleaginous compositions containing waxes

Example 11 - Comparative example

[0363] Two foam formulations of the present disclosure (Formulations 012 and 019) were compared with a foam formulation from patent US 3,419,658, Example 4 which contains high viscosity mineral oil, cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol and isobutane. All the foam samples were tested for bubble size. As described in Table 11a, the results from Example 4 of US patent 3,419,658, show a very large bubble size of 420 micrometers which indicates a poor foam quality. It is known in the art that large foam bubbles are prone to coalescence and lead to a poor foam stability. Moreover, application onto the skin is made difficult, since the foam sample from the prior art rapidly turned into a poorly absorbed runny liquid upon rubbing. Therefore, the combination and concentration of fatty alcohols described in the prior art fails to create quality foams suitable for topical application.

[0364] On the other hand, the formulations of the present disclosure provide a very small mean bubble size (74 micrometers for formulation 012 and 79 micrometers for formulation 019), which indicates a good foam quality and an extended physical stability. Foams with small bubble size also have improved organoleptic properties, which is of importance in order to ensure a better patient compliance and a better skin feeling. These foam formulations provide an easy application onto the skin, good skin absorption and do not turn into runny liquids upon rubbing. It has thus been discovered that the combination of fatty alcohol, with fatty acids and/or waxes has a clear advantages over the prior art and provides foam of improved quality, usability and stability.

Table 1 la - Comparative example

[0365] Two foam formulations of the present disclosure (Formulations 012 and 019) were also compared with placebo samples of formulations from Example 3 and Example 4 of US patent 6,140,355, which contains high viscosity mineral oil, cetostearyl alcohol and hydrocarbon propellants. As noted in Table 1 lb, placebo samples from Example 3 and Example 4 of US patent 6,140,355, are merely delivered as a bubbly liquids that collapse on release showing that the combination of fatty alcohols described in the prior art fails to create quality foams suitable for topical application.

[0366] On the other hand, the formulation of the present disclosure provides a foam of good quality with an extended physical stability. It has thus been discovered that the combination of fatty alcohol with fatty acids and/or waxes has a clear advantage over the prior art and provides foam of improved quality and stability.

Table 1 lb - Comparative example

SECTION B - COMPOSITIONS WITH TETRACYCLINES

Example 12 - Minocycline oleaginous formulations with different hydrophobic solvents

[0367] Minocycline foam formulations were prepared containing soybean oil,

octyldodecanol, Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) oil and coconut oil, which are other examples of hydrophobic solvents. Parameters such as foam quality, collapse time and density were evaluated. As described in Table 12, foams of good quality which did not collapse at 36°C were obtained in different compositions containing these hydrophobic solvents. Coconut oil, which on its own is a semi solid paste like oil, was used in combination with liquid soybean oil. Docket No. 0113873.00188 WOl

Table 12 - Formulation containing different hydrophobic solvents

[0368] Comments: All the foams were of high quality and had a collapse time at 36°C in excess of 100 seconds, a foam density of less than 0.3g/ml and the formulations were able to withstand 4 Freeze and Thaw Cycles (FTC) and still generate foam of high quality with a collapse time at 36°C in excess of 100 seconds. The pre-foam-formulation in the above formulations, before the addition of propellant, are semi-solid gel-like homogeneous

compositions where no separation or sedimentation of the ingredients is observed.

Example 13 - Stability of a tetracycline antibiotic in oleaginous formulations

[0369] Tetracycline antibiotics are known to be very unstable active agents that are degraded by a wide range of commonly used pharmaceutical excipients. For example, it has been found that minocycline is degraded in a few days by different hydrophilic solvents (such as water, glycerin, sodium PCA, propylene glycol and polyethylene glycols), by water dispersed polymers (such as xanthan gum, poloxamers, carbomers, methocel, sodium CMC) and by surfactants (such as polysorbates, sorbitan esters, polyoxyalkyl esters and also lanolin-based surfactants). Thus, the achievement of a long term stable foamable formulation of tetracycline antibiotics described herein, was a major challenge and required both extensive research and creativity.

[0370] The following example illustrates the physical stability of foams and the chemical stability of minocycline HCl ("MCH") in oleaginous formulations, namely 238, 244B and 252 as described in Tables 13a, 13b(i), 13b(ii) and 13c below. In an accelerated stability study, samples were stored at 40°C, and the concentrations of minocycline HCl were determined by UPLC. The stability test results following 2 months, 3 months and 6 months of storage are shown in Tables 13b(i) and 13b(ii).

Table 13a - Composition of foam formulation incubated at 40°C

Table 13b(i) - Chemical Stability results of foam compositions containing minocycline HCl

NM= not measured Table 13b(ii) - Physical Stability results of foam compositions containing minocycline HC1

[0371] Very surprisingly, and despite the known instability of tetracycline antibiotics, the accelerated stability results of formulations 238 and 244B after 2 months, 3 months and 6 months at 40°C showed minimal degradation of the active agent in the formulations. The formulations disclosed herein thus show an extended accelerated stability for the tetracycline antibiotic active agent and an outstanding physical stability.

[0372] Regarding formulation 252, the Table indicates that foam quality decreases with time under accelerated stability storage at 40°C. Without being bound to any theory, and by comparing the ingredients present in formulations 244B and 252 and results with other formulations, it may be assumed that the decrease in foam quality is likely due to the presence of significant amounts of lanolin which may have some form of incompatibility with one or more components of the formulation. So in certain embodiments the formulations may be essentially free of lanolin, for example, where long term physical stability is required. It may be, however, that in certain other embodiments lanolin can be successfully included either in lower amounts, or by combination of lanolin with additional ingredients (such as surfactants, polymers, etc) and the formula can be physically stable in the short, medium or long term.

[0373] These results further illustrate the difficulty, complexity and unexpected and non obvious achievement of discovering surfactant free and water free formulations containing sensitive active agents that are chemically stable and are also physically stable over short term, medium term and/or long term periods. Testing and identifying single substances that are compatible chemically with the active agent is not sufficient. Combining multiple substances, which on their own are compatible can lead to collective incompatibility The discovery and knowledge of substances are chemically compatible does not presume physical stability of the composition or vice-versa. Running a compatibility study between individual formulation components and the active agents does not ensure nor achieve physical stability. Discovering combinations of ingredients that can lead to a physically stable formulation in the absence of surfactant, is itself unexpected. Further, adding propellant can destabilize the formulation as can expelling the formulation from a pressurized canister and ultimately achieving a quality foam that is stable but breakable on application of modest shear force is far from straightforward.

[0374] It has further been discovered that the propellant has a positive influence on the homogeneity of the formulation. After 2 months of storage at 40°C, several aliquots of foam formulations 238 as well as pre-foam formulation (liquid preparation without the addition of the propellant) were tested for minocycline content in order to determine to what extent the active agent is homogeneously dispersed. In the pre-foam formulation, high differences were found in the minocycline content, showing that the active agent is not homogeneously dispersed.

Surprisingly, the foam formulations containing propellant demonstrated an increase in the minocycline content homogeneity, which is of high importance in pharmaceutical applications in order to ensure a reproducible and accurate dose delivery. Without being bound to any theory, it can be assumed that inter alia the propellant acts as a solvent to the hydrophobic carrier and also as a dispersing agent, by reducing the formulation viscosity within the canister.

[0375] In another experiment, a PFF sample of formulation 244 1% was stored during 6 months at 40°C and tested for API content uniformity. It was found that minocycline was homogeneously dispersed into the pre-foam- formulation even after prolonged incubation at 40°C. In one or more embodiments, there is provided a formulation wherein the active ingredient is homogeneously dispersed in the pre-foam-formulation and remains homogeneously dispersed after 2, 3 and/or 6 months of incubation at 40°C.

[0376] An ex-vivo study of the skin stability of a minocycline oleaginous foam formulation according to the present disclosure was performed in comparison with a reference minocycline gel, which comprised, amongst other components, water, ethanol and propylene glycol. Gel and foam samples were applied on pig ear skins, incubated for 6 hours at 35°C and the skin concentrations of minocycline HC1 and its 4-epi degradant were determined by liquid

chromatography.

[0377] As shown in Table 13c below, a rapid degradation of minocycline was observed after 6h on skin treated with the reference silicone based gel. The minocycline content decreased by 34% and its 4-epi degradant content reached 19.4% showing that the gel reference product fails to deliver the all the antibiotic amount to the skin in its active form. [0378] In the case of the foam formulation, very surprisingly, and despite the known instability of minocycline, the skin stability results after 6h showed a very minimal degradation of the active agent: with the content of 4-epi degradant only reached 3.3% and no detectable decrease was observed in the amount of minocycline. Therefore, the foam formulation has an active protective effect on the tetracycline antibiotic upon contact with the skin, and prevents its degradation on the target site of treatment over several hours.

Table 13c - Skins stability results of foam and gel compositions containing minocycline HC1

Example 14 - Optimization of minocycline oleaginous formulations

Part A - Wax effect on formulation homogeneity

[0379] Formulations were prepared, containing various concentrations of waxes and checked for their pre-formulation homogeneity, as described in Table 14a.

Table 14a - Influence of waxes on formulation homogeneity

[0380] It was observed that in the presence of hydrogenated castor oil, no to minor PFF separation was observed (see formulation 244 with beeswax and formulation 283 without beeswax). It was also observed that removal of hydrogenated castor oil resulted in PFF separation in placebo formulation, but the PFF surprisingly regained its homogeneity upon addition of minocycline (see formulation 282). It was observed that an increase in beeswax concentration resulted PFF separation (see formulation 288), and that a decrease in hydrogenated castor oil concentration resulted in PFF separation (see formulation 287). In general, it appears that stability in the above formulations is a more complex issue than simply being a function of the acid/alcohol to wax ratio and that whilst no separation was seen at the higher ratio of fatty alcohols and acids to waxes of about 6: 1 and also at the lower ratio of about 7:5 some separation was seen in some inbetween ratios. Moreover the effect seems unrelated to the fatty alcohol: fatty acid ratio which is constant with one exception.

[0381] It was observed that in the presence of Paraffin wax 51-53, PFF separation occurred in placebo formulation but the PFF regained its homogeneity upon addition of minocycline (see formulation MCH276). The homogeneity of the placebo formulation may be improved by the use of higher concentrations of paraffin wax or by the combination with another wax such as beeswax or hydrogenated castor oil. In one or more embodiments hydrogenated caster oil is used to prevent separation or to restore homogeneity. In one or more embodiments a tetracycline is used to prevent separation or to restore homogeneity. In one or more embodiments a paraffin wax is used to prevent separation or to restore homogeneity.

Part B - Propellant effect

[0382] Formulation 244 was prepared, containing various types and concentrations of propellant and checked for foam properties, as described in Table 14b.

Table 14b - Influence of propellant on foam properties of formulation MCH244

[0383] It was observed that replacing AP-46 with propellant AP-70 resulted in improved foam quality. Furthermore, the use of higher concentrations of AP-70 also improved foam quality. It was noticed that the use of Tetrafluoroethane also improved foam quality but however slightly reduced shakability. Higher levels of propellant resulted in a stiffness being observed in the foam. Part C - Fatty alcohol to fatty acid ratio effect

[0384] Formulations were prepared, containing various fatty alcohol to fatty acid ratios and a constant level of wax and were checked for their foaming properties and pre-foam formulation homogeneity, as described in Table 14c.

Table 14c - Influence of fatty alcohol to fatty acid ratio on foam properties and formulation homogeneity

[0385] All the foams were of quality the foam quality appears slightly improved as the ratio of fatty alcohol to acid decreased. Lowest shakability results were seen when the fatty acid was omitted. None of the formulations displayed separation and they were all homogenous.

Moreover the effect seems unrelated to the fatty alcohol: fatty acid ratio which is constant with one exception. Example 15 - Skin Penetration and Skin Residence Studies

Part A - Skin Penetration

[0386] As can be seen from the results in Table 15A below, minocycline is delivered intradermally at sufficient levels to treat skin infections but does not pass through the skin transdermally and therefore topical application should be free from adverse systemic effects. Table 15 A: In Vitro Skin Delivery: formulation 244 with 1% and 4% minocycline

[0387] The following conclusions can be drawn:

1. Transdermal delivery: Following 24 hours of exposure, the amount which was found in the receptor cells was below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analytical method (LOQ = 2 μΒ mL).

2. Intra-dermal delivery (delivery into the skin): The total mean amount of Minocycline in the skin following 24 hours of exposure was 14 μg for the 1% formulation and 62 μg for the 4% formulation. The weight of skin at the delivery area is about 100 mg, which implies that the concentration of Minocycline in the skin following 24 hours of exposure is about 140 μg/gr of skin for the 1% formulation and about 620 μg/gr for the 4% formulation. According to the literature, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Minocycline is less than 4 μg/mL, and therefore, it can be concluded that the concentrations found in the skin are sufficient to treat bacterial skin infections.

Part B - Skin Residence

[0388] The objective of this study is to assess the degradation of Minocycline following exposure to skin. Formulation MCH232A, containing 1% Minocycline was applied to freshly retrieved pig's ear skin and samples were analyzed during 6 hours of exposure. As presented in Table 15B, the product remained stable during the exposure and only minor amounts converted into the 4-epi degradation product.

- I l l - Table 15B: Skin Residence

Example 16 - Microbial properties of oleaginous minocycline compositions

Part A - Microbial Load

[0389] Formulation 252 was examined for microbial load following 3 months storage at 25°C, as a representative formulation. As shown in Table 16A, the test revealed an absence of microorganisms in the formulation.

Table 16A: Microbial Count and Detection of Specific Microorganisms in Formulation MCH252 Following Storage for 3 Months at 25 °C

Part B - Antimicrobial Effectiveness

[0390] As seen in Table 16B, results for formulation 238, as a representative example, were found to be in agreement with USP acceptance criteria for incubation times at 2 weeks. The number of colonies counted in samples following incubation period of 2 weeks (14 days) was found below 10 cfu/g, indicating approximately a 5 -log reduction from the initial microbial inoculated level for E. coli, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. After an incubation period of 14 days, a 2-log reduction from the initial challenge level was found with C. albicans and less than a 1-log reduction was found with A. niger.

Docket No. 0113873.00188 WOl

Table 16B: Antimicrobial effectiveness in non aqueous Formulation 238

[0391] It should be noted that antimicrobial effectiveness herein was challenged in non aqueous media.

Part C - In-vitro effect of 244 1% on microbial growth

[0392] An in-vitro study showed that formulation 244 with 1% minocycline inhibited the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, as well as a methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Propionbacterium acnes, as shown in Table 16C.

Table 16C: In Vitro Antibacterial Effect: Comparison between ΙΟμΙ of 244 2%, Fucidin

Ointment 2% and Placebo - Diameter of inhibition (mm).

0 = Ineffective; >30 = Very Effective

Part D - Water Activity (Aw)

[0393] The water activity measured on formulation 232A was 0.47, which prevents the growth of bacteria, fungi and yeast. Based on this information and above test results, it appears that the waterless surfactant free formulations herein will not support bacterial growth. Example 17 - Eye Irritation Study - HET CAM

[0394] The potential of compounds to cause irreversible or severe eye irritation or corrosion may be detected by observing adverse changes, which occur in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the egg after exposure to test chemicals. Fertilized hen's eggs are rotated in an incubator for 9 days, after which any defective eggs are discarded. The shell around the air cell is removed and the inner membranes are extracted to reveal the chorionallantoic membrane. Test chemicals are added to the membrane and left in contact for up to 5 minutes. The membrane is examined for vascular damage and the time taken for injury to occur is recorded. Irritancy is scored according to the speed at which damage occurs. To validate the HET-CAM data, Positive & Negative Controls and Vehicle Control (if applicable), are tested in parallel to the Test Item. For each Test Item, Positive and Negative Controls, mean scores of replicate eggs is determined. Irritation Score (IS) is interpreted as follows:

[0395] As can be seen in Table 17 using the in vitro irritation HET-CAM, formulations 244 placebo, with 1% minocycline hydrochloride and with 4% minocycline hydrochloride, demonstrated no signs of irritation.

Table 17: Eye irritation HET CAM studies

Example 18 - Anti-inflammatory effects of oleaginous minocycline compositions

[0396] UVB irradiation of the skin is known to decrease cell viability, total antioxidant capacity, while increasing the levels of inflammation (pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion) and epidermal cell apoptosis. Pre -treatment with formulation 244

[0397] Specimens of human skin in organ culture were treated topically with formulation_244 for 24 hours, then irradiated with UVB (400 mJ/cm2) and incubated for additional 72 hours. Apoptosis activation was measured 24 h post-irradiation by measuring the extent of caspase 3 activity in epidermal sheets.

[0398] Table 18a and Table 18b demonstrate the effect of formulation 244 with 1% and 4% minocycline on epidermal cell apoptosis and viability following UVB irradiation of the skin organ culture. As shown in Table 18a, apoptosis activation was significantly decreased by formulation 244 in a dose-dependant manner. Cell viability, as measured by the MTT assay 72 hours after irradiation was increased, as shown in Table 18b. One set of mediators implicated in apoptosis belong to the asparate-specific cysteinyl proteases or caspases. A member of this family, caspase-3 has been identified as being a key mediator of apoptosis of mammalian cells. Table 18a: Effect of Formulation 244 on apoptosis activation in skin organ culture after UVB irradiation

Table 18b: Effect of Formulation 244 on skin organ culture viability

[0399] Comments: It was observed that in the case of cells in contact with a placebo formulation, irradiation causes a decrease in cell viability. On the other hand, in cells in contact with a formulation containing minocycline, higher cell viability was observed both before and after irradiation compared to the placebo, which is a sign of cell regeneration. Therefore, the present formulation comprising minocycline is able to prevent cell death in the case of irradiation and can even stimulate or cause cell regeneration. Treatment with formulation 244 after UV damage induction

[0400] Specimens of human skin in organ culture were irradiated with UVB (400 mJ/cm2) and incubated for additional 72 hours. Formulation 244 4% was then applied to the skin and apoptosis activation was measured 24 h post-treatment by measuring the extent of caspase 3 activity in epidermal sheets.

[0401] As shown in Table 18c, Formulation 244 4% treatment resulted in about 60% decrease in epidermal cell apoptosis.

Table 18c: Therapeutic effect of Formulation 244 (application post irradiation)

[0402] These results demonstrate that formulation 244 containing minocycline has protective and/or therapeutic properties in the case of UVB-induced skin damage. It may therefore be able to reduce skin photo damage and photoaging, and more generally to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in skin pathologies which are known to be accompanied by apoptotic cell death.

Example 19 - Compatibility Study

[0403] Procedure: Minocycline hydrochloride ("MCH") was incubated as a suspension with various excipients at 25°C and 40°C for maximum of sixty days or to the point where degradation was suspected. The ratio between MCH and the tested excipient is detailed below. Visual inspection was the major criterion for indication of compatibility. The color of intact MCH suspension is pale yellow; and any change of color (e.g., to dark orange, red, green, brown and black) indicates oxidation or degradation.

[0404] Hydrophilic solvents were tested for compatibility with MCH at a ratio of MCH: excipient of 1 :250. Dimethyl Isosorbide, Glycerin, Ethanol, Propylene glycol, Butylene Glycol, PEG 200, Hexylene Glycol, PEG 400, Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether were found to be incompatible with MCH.

[0405] Oily emollients and waxes were tested for compatibility with MCH at a ratio of MCH: excipient of 1 :250 for Oily emollients and 1 :50 for waxes. Hydrogenated castor oil, Castor oil, Cocoglycerides, Disopropyl adipate, Mineral oil light, Coconut oil, Beeswax, MCT oil,

Cyclomethicone, Isododecane, Cetearyl octanoate, Gelled mineral oil, Isopropyl myristate, PPG 15 stearyl ether, Mineral oil heavy, Octyl dodecanol, White Petrolatum, Petrolatum (Sofmetic), Paraffin 51-53, Paraffin 51-53, Paraffin 58-62, Calendula oil, Shea butter, Grape seed oil, Almond oil, Jojoba oil, Avocado oil, Peanut oil, Wheat germ oil and Hard Fat were found to be compatible with MCH. Pomegranate seed oil was found to be incompatible with MCH.

[0406] The compatibility of MCH with hydrophobic surfactant was tested following solubilization of the surfactant in mineral oil (mineral oil was previously shown to be compatible with MCH). Surfactants were tested for compatibility with MCH at a ratio of MCH: excipient of 1 :50. PEG150 distearate, Laureth 4, PEG 40 hydrogenated castor oil, PEG 75 lanolin, Glucam P20 distearate, PEG 100 stearate, Glyceryl monostearate, PEG 40 stearate, Montanov S (Cocoyl Alcohol (and) CI 2-20 Alkyl Glucoside)), Alkyl lactate, Benton gel, SPAN 60, Sorbitan sesquistearate, SPAN 40, SPAN 80, Tween 20, Ceteth 2, Sucrose stearic acid esters D1813, Ceteareth 20, Steareth 2/Steareth 21, Methyl glucose sesquistearate, Oleth 20, PPG 20 methyl glucose ether, Tween 60 were found to be incompatible with MCH. Sucrose stearic acid esters D1803, Sucrose stearic acid esters D1807 and Sucrose stearic acid esters D1811 were found to be compatible with MCH; however, not all of them dissolved in oil (e.g. 1811, 1813).

[0407] Foam adjuvants were tested for compatibility with MCH at a ratio of MCH: excipient of 1 :50. Isostearyl alcohol, Behenyl alcohol, Stearyl alcohol, Cetyl alcohol, Oleyl alcohol, Myristyl alcohol, Cetostearyl alcohol, Palmitic acid, Stearic acid and Oleic acid were found to be compatible with MCH. Isostearic acid was not compatible with MCH.

[0408] Additives were tested for compatibility with MCH at a ratio of MCH: excipient of 1 :50. Aerosil and Menthol were found to be compatible with MCH. Titanium dioxide and Ethocel were not compatible with MCH.

[0409] Additives were tested for compatibility with MCH. Minimal quantities of water (ΙΟΟμί) were added to MCH, suspended in excipients that had demonstrated compatibility to examine whether water can enhance oxidation/degradation in the absence or presence of antioxidant. In parallel, antioxidants were added to the MCH suspensions comprising water. Antioxidants were also added to excipients which were found to be non compatible with MCH. Addition of water caused prompt degradation of MCH. Addition of the antioxidants alpha- tocopherol, BHA/BHT and propyl gallate did not prevent MCH degradation. Compatible excipients became incompatible in the presence of water. Addition of antioxidants did not alter this result. Example 20 - Color and Pigmentation Study Part A - Color change

[0410] Samples of formulations 238 and 216 with 1% minocycline were incubated during 3 months at 25°C, 30°C and 40°C. Following this period the foam product was actuated and the change in color was observed. Minimal to no change was observed following 3 months storage at all three temperatures.

Part B - Pigmentation

[0411] A large amount of MCH 244 4% was actuated on human skin to observe whether any skin pigmentation occurs. Minimal to no skin pigmentation following rubbing the foam onto the skin was noticed, when observed after about 30 seconds..

Example 21 - Oleaginous "oil-gel" compositions stability

[0412] Formulations 244A and 244B were prepared without the addition of propellant, packaged in a tube and tested for stability during 8 days. The tubes were opened each day and exposed to air and moisture to mimic typical patient use. On days 0, 3, 5, and 8 an aliquot was removed and analyzed. Results are presented in Table 21 and demonstrate that MCH in these formulations was stable when tube was exposed to air and moisture on a daily basis. On visual inspection no color change was observed during the eight day period. The contents of the tube were also observed after a month and no visual difference was noted. The formulations presented as homogeneous oil-gels. These gels are semi-solid at rest and liquefy upon application of shear forces. The agents are uniformly distributed throughout the carrier. Upon slight rubbing, both formulations readily liquefy in order to ensure an easy application and an optimal spreading of the composition. So not only are these formulations capable of generating a high quality foam that is stable and breakable on application of shear force but can also be used as a gel or ointment and whether applied as a foam or a gel or ointment it is easy to spread, readily absorbable, relatively non greasy and non-sticky and can be used for the treatment of a great number of diseases and syndromes affecting skin, mucosal membranes, eye and body cavities.

Table 21

NM = Not measured Example 22 - Oleaginous Eye compositions

[0413] Minocycline oleaginous compositions suitable for ophthalmic use were prepared using ingredients allowed in pharmaceutical eye formulation according to the FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide.

[0414] Manufacturing Procedure: Heat Petrolatum and light mineral oil to 50-60°C and add Cetyl alcohol. Mix until complete melting. Cool down to 35-40°C, add minocycline, mix until formulation homogeneity is obtained and cool down to room temperature.

Table 22 - Ophtalmic oleaginous compositions containing minocycline

[0415] Formulations O-001 and O-002 gave homogeneous oil-gels suitable for use in ophthalmic preparations. The two formulations differ in their texture, formulation O-002 being more liquid due to the inclusion of high amounts of liquid oils. Upon slight rubbing, both formulations readily liquefy in order to ensure an easy application onto the eye and an optimal spreading of the composition. For application as a foam, a wax or shea butter or a hydrogenation caster oil may be usefully added together with a propellant. Shea butter can be obtained in several different formats: Liquid, semi solid or butter like consistency. In the presence of another hydrophobic solvent good shakability of a foamable formulation with petrolatum can be obtained even with semi shea butter of solid or butter like consistency. In one or more embodiments, the foamer complex can be a fatty alcohol and shea butter. In one or more embodiments, the foamer complex can be a fatty acid and shea butter. In one or more embodiments, the foamer complex can be a hydrogenated caster oil and shea butter. In one or more embodiments, the foamer complex can be a wax, such as beeswax or paraffin wax and shea butter. SECTION C - COMPOSITIONS WITH ACTIVE INGREDIENTS Example 23 - Oleaginous formulations containing different active ingredients

[0416] Several active ingredients (API) were added to formulation 012 in order to assess the compatibility between the oleaginous foam vehicle and various APIs. Parameters such as foam quality, and collapse time were evaluated as described in Table 23 a and 23b below.

Table 23a - Oleaginous compositions containing different active ingredients

Table 23b - Oleaginous compositions containing calcipotriol

[0417] Formulations containing Doxycycline Hyclate, Betamethasone Valerate,

Progesterone, Terbinafme, Metronidazole, Calcitriol, Calcipotriol and Naproxen gave rise to breakable foams of good quality which were stable at 36°C during more than 3 minutes.

Example 24 - Oleaginous formulations containing calcitriol and stability Example 24A - Surfactant Free formulations

[0418] Foam formulations containing calcitriol as an active ingredient were prepared.

Parameters such as foam quality, collapse time and density were evaluated. As described in Table 24 A, foams of good to excellent quality which did not collapse at 36°C for at least more than two minutes were obtained in different compositions containing these hydrophobic solvents.

[0419] Manufacturing procedure: Hydrophobic solvents are mixed together and heated to 70- 80°C, fatty alcohols are added and mixed until complete melting. The mixture is cooled to 40- 45°C. Calcitriol is added and mixed until dissolved and until a uniform preparation is obtained. The mixture is cooled to 15-20°C using an ice bath while mixing. The preparation is filled into canisters which are crimped with a suitable valve, pressurized with propellant and equipped with an actuator. Table 24A - Formulations without surfactant containing calcitriol

Example 24B - Stability of a vitamin D derivative in oleaginous formulations

[0420] The following example illustrates the physical and chemical stability of foams and the chemical stability of Calcitriol in an oleaginous formulation, namely C016 as described in Example 16 A. In an accelerated stability study, samples were stored at 40°C, and the

concentration of Calcitriol was determined by UPLC. The physical and chemical stability test results following 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of storage are shown in Table 24b(i) and 24b(ii).

Table 24b(i) - Chemical Stability results of foam composition CO 16 containing Calcitriol Table 24b(ii) - Physical Stability results of foam composition CO 16 containing Calcitriol

Example 25 - Stability of a corticosteroid in oleaginous formulations

[0421] The following example illustrates the physical and chemical stability of foams and the chemical stability of Mometasone Furoate in an oleaginous formulation M03 as described in Table 25(i). In an accelerated stability study, samples were stored at 40°C, and the concentration of Mometasone Furoate was determined by UPLC. The stability test results following 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of storage are shown in Table 25 (ii) and 25(iii).

Table 25 (i) - Formulations without surfactant containing Mometasone Furoate

Table 25(ii) - Chemical Stability results of foam composition M03 containing Mometasone Furoate Table 25(iii) - Physical Stability results of foam composition M03 containing Mometasone Furoate