Title:
Kiwi plant named `Hort16A`
United States Patent PP11066


Abstract:
A new and distinct kiwi plant of the species Actinidia chinensis Planch. is described. The cultivar results from a controlled pollination using a male A. chinensis selection CK15-- 01 of unknown parentage, and a female A. chinensis selection CK01-- 01-- 01-- 01. Both named parents (CK15-- 01 and CK01-- 01-- 01-- 01) are unpatented cultivars. The new cultivar is distinguished by its short silky hair, protruding stylar end, golden flesh and sweet tropical taste.



Inventors:
Lowe, Russell G. (The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of N.Z. Ltd, Private Bag 11030, Palmerston North, NZ)
Marsh, Hinga D. (The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Limited,, Palmerston North, NZ)
Mcneilage, Mark A. (The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Limited,, Palmerston North, NZ)
Application Number:
08/996829
Publication Date:
09/21/1999
Filing Date:
12/23/1997
Assignee:
LOWE; RUSSELL G
MARSH; HINGA D
MCNEILAGE; MARK A
Primary Class:
International Classes:
A01H5/08; (IPC1-7): A01H5/00
Field of Search:
Plt/33.1, Plt/156
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
Locker, Howard J.
Assistant Examiner:
Kimball, Melissa L.
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Quarles & Brady
Claims:
We claim:

1. A new and distinct kiwi plant of the species A. chinensis substantially as described and illustrated, characterized by yellow flesh with a sweet, tropical taste, ovoid fruit shape with a protruding stylar end, and yellow brown skin with soft fine hairs.

Description:

BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION

Kiwi plants in cultivation are deciduous vines of A.deliciosa. There are more than 50 species in the genus Actinidia originating in China and parts of Asia. The kiwi cultivar `Hayward`, developed in New Zealand, is the most widely grown cultivar because of its distinctive green flesh, good flavor and long storage life.

Less well known outside of mainland China is the species A. chinensis, closely related to A. deliciosa. Fruit can be as large as the kiwi, generally have much finer, softer hairs on the fruit skin, and can have either green or yellow flesh. Many Chinese prefer fruit of A. chinensis rather than the kiwi of commerce, considering the flavor to be superior. Like the kiwi, plants are dioecious, so male pollinizers are required as well as female plants to ensure fruit production.

A. chinensis plants grow vigorously in spring, and rapidly develop canes up to 4 m long if not managed correctly. Plants require a mild, warm-temperate climate, free from spring and early autumn frosts, and need well-drained soils to produce consistent heavy crops. Regular irrigation is necessary in dry spells. A. chinensis flowers in spring (mid-October to mid-November) in New Zealand. Harvest of A. chinensis fruit may occur between April and mid-May in New Zealand, depending on the selection and location of plantings.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a new and distinctive kiwi plant having a generally ovoid shaped fruit which tapers towards the stylar end and which has soft, silky hair. More particularly, the new cultivar is designated `Hort16A` and is derived from a controlled pollination of A. chinensis CK15-- 01, a male selection of unknown parentage, and A. chinensis female CK01-- 01-- 01. Both parents were derived from seedling plants grown from two introductions of seeds from China in 1981 and 1978 and are unpatented.

The new cultivar of kiwi was created in the course of a plant breeding program which was initiated during 1987 at Hort Research in Auckland, New Zealand. The cross made by Mark McNeilage in November 1987. Seed were sown in winter 1988 and 312 seedlings from this cross were planted out in the field at Te Puke Research Centre in spring,1988. The seedlings first fruited in May 1990 and `Hort16A` (breeding code CK01-- 02-- 01-- 01) was selected, after storage and sensory evaluation in 1991 and 1992 by Russell Lowe and Hinga Marsh.

The new cultivar can be asexually reproduced as cuttings or by grafting or budding on to seedling or cutting-grown rootstocks of A. deliciosa or A. chinenis. Trial plantings on seedling rootstocks, established in 1992 at Te Puke, have shown that the unique combination of characteristics come true to form and are established and transmitted through succeeding asexual propagations.

`Hort16A` flowers four weeks ahead of the unpatented `Hayward` variety, so the usual pollinizers used for `Hayward` are ineffective as well as being of a different species and ploidy. Two new and unpatented early-flowering A. chinensis male pollinizers, designated Hortkiwi `Meteor` and Hortkiwi `Sparkler`, have been selected as males for use in new plantings of `Hort16A`.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG. 1 shows typical fruit of the cultivar `Hort16A` on the vine

FIG. 2 shows typical fruit of the cultivar `Hort16A`

FIG. 3 shows `Hort16A` fruit in cross-section and profile

FIG. 4 shows `Hayward` fruit in cross-section and profile

FIG. 5 shows flowers of the cultivar `Hort16A`

FIG. 6 shows flowers of the cultivar `Hayward`

FIG. 7 shows mature leaves of `Hort16A`

FIG. 8 shows a mature leaf of `Hayward`

Photographs of fruit were taken after the normal harvest date. Colors may vary depending upon growing conditions under different climate, soil, and cultivation conditions and the fruit skin color may vary depending upon extent of exposure to direct sunlight.

COMPARISON TO CLOSEST CULTIVAR

The distinctive characteristics of this new kiwi cultivar, described in detail below, were observed in 1994 at Te Puke, New Zealand. The age of the plants was 3 years from the graft. Comparison `Hayward` vines were grown in another block on the same orchard.

The fruit of `Hort16A` is ovoid in shape and has a protruding distal end unlike `Hayward` which has a rounded distal end. `Hort16A` fruit are generally circular in cross-section although slightly flattened. `Hort16A` fruit has a much smaller core than `Hayward` and the flesh of ripe fruit is golden yellow whereas `Hayward` flesh is green. The hairs on the skin of the fruit of `Hort16A` are much finer, soft to the touch, and are very easily removed by rubbing or brushing to reveal a leathery, almost shiny skin. The skin color of `Hort16A` fruit is a yellow-brown in contrast to that of `Hayward` which is a medium brown color. `Hort16A` fruit have a higher dry matter content at harvest and are much sweeter tasting than `Hayward` fruit when ripe. While `Hort16A` fruit soften more rapidly than `Hayward` in coolstorage, fruit will stay at about 1 kg firmness for up to 3 months without further significant softening.

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT

The new cultivar `Hort16A` is pistillate, with imperfect flowers, i.e. the flowers produce only sterile pollen and thus require a pollinizer for fruit production. Two specific A. chinensis pollinizers, named Hortkiwi `Meteor` and Hortkiwi `Sparkler`, have been developed for `Hort16A`. Characteristics of the new cultivar, in which it differs from the standard kiwi cultivar `Hayward`, include earlier flowering time, protruding stylar end on the fruit, silky easily-removed hairs on the skin, golden flesh when ripe, and yellow-brown colored skin.

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TABLE OF CHARACTERISTICS Horticultural terminology is used in accordance with revised UPOV guidelines for kiwi. Characters of comparison cultivar ` Hayward` are noted opposite that character in brackets! when significantly different. `Hayward` plants were observed in a planting on the same orchard, but not the same plot. All dimensions in millimeters unless otherwise stated, weights in grams. Hort16A Hayward
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PLANT
Plant: sex expression
female (flowers
imperfect)
Plant: ploidy diploid (2n = 2x = 58)
hexaploid!
Plant: vigor strong medium!
Young shoot: hairs
present
Young shoot: density of hairs
medium
Young shoot: type of hairs
short hirsute!
Young shoot: anthocyanin
absent medium!
coloration of growing tip
Young shoot: anthocyanin
absent
coloration of leaf axil
STEM
Stem: coloration of leaf axil
absent weak!
Stem: diameter medium -
Mean 11.0 mm
(Range 8.3-13.3 mm)
Stem: dormant bud diameter
6.9 mm (4.9-8.3 mm)
Stem: color on upper side of
dark-brown
shoot
Stem: character of bark
smooth medium!
Stem: hairs present
Stem: conspicuousness of
conspicuous
lenticels
Stem: number of lenticels
medium
Stem: color of lenticels
brownish-white
greyish-white!
Stem: size of bud support
medium
Stem: visibility of bud
visible almost buried!
(dormant canes)
Stem: number of hairs visible
medium
on bud (dormant canes)
Stem: leaf scar
medium
LEAF (Mature)
Leaf: general shape of blade
very broadly ovate
Leaf: length 170.3 mm
(145-198 mm)
Leaf: width 186.3 mm
(159-217 mm)
Leaf: petiole length
166.8 mm
(100-250 mm)
Leaf: shape of tip of blade
cuspidate mucronate!
Leaf: shape of base of blade
cordate
Leaf: arrangement of leaf
overlapping
bases
Leaf: puckering/blistering on
weak medium!
upper side of blade
Leaf: margin ciliate
Leaf: green color of upper
light-medium
side of blade
Leaf: glossiness of upper
medium
surface of blade
Leaf: color of lower side of
light green
blade
Leaf: glaucosity (lower side
absent
of blade)
Leaf: hairs on petiole
present
Leaf: density of hairs on
medium
petiole
Leaf: anthocyanin coloration
medium
on upper side of petiole
FLOWER
(Measurements are from a 20
flower sample)
Inflorescence: predominant
one
number of flowers
Pedicel: length
medium - 42.0 mm
(29.9-49.20 mm)
Pedicel: hairs present
Pedicel: length of hairs
very short
Flower: number of sepals
>5
Flower: color of sepals
pale green
Flower: diameter (terminal or
large - 47.9 mm (42.3-
king flower when fully open)
52.5 mm)
Flower: petal length
23.1 mm
(20.8-25.4 mm)
Flower: petal width
17.7 mm
(15.8-19.1 mm)
Flower: petal length/width
1.31 mm
ratio (1.14-1.45 mm)
Flower: mean number of
8 (6-10)
petals per flower
Flower: number of flowers
17 out of 20 flowers
with more than six petals
Flower: arrangement of petals
overlapping
Flower: petal shoulder
present
Flower: primary color of
white
petals (when fully open)
Flower: type of coloration of
uniform color over
petals whole petal
Flower: style number
30.85 (26-36)
Flower: attitude of styles
erect semi-erect!
Flower: curvature of styles
straight strongly
curved!
Flower: amount of hair on
strongly expressed
ovary
FRUIT
(Measurements are from a 10
fruit sample)
Fruit: overall size
large 98.3 g
(43-176 g)
Fruit: length 79.1 mm
(76.0-84.2 mm)
Fruit: width (max.)
53.1 mm
(55.4-48.1 mm)
Fruit: width (min.)
49.1 mm
(47.0-51.2 mm)
Fruit: core diameter (max.)
13.1 mm
(9.3-17 mm)
Fruit: core diameter (min.)
4.9 mm
(4.1-6.1 mm)
Fruit: locule number
34.5 (26-37)
Fruit: peduncle length
48.3 mm
(44.7-50.3 mm)
Fruit: peduncle width
3.57 mm
(3.22-4.28 mm)
Fruit: general shape
ovoid cylindrical!
Fruit: cross-section at median
elliptic
Fruit: general shape of stylar
protruding flat!
end
Fruit: shape of shoulder on
rounded
stalk end
Fruit: skin color at harvest
yellow-brown brown!
(fruit still hard)
Fruit: skin color change
absent
during ripening
Fruit: skin color at maturity
yellow-brown brown!
for consumption
Fruit: hairs present
Fruit: density of hairs
medium
Fruit: type of hair
pubescent hirsute!
Fruit: hair length
short medium!
Fruit: concentration of hairs
uniform
Fruit: adherence of hairs to
weak strong!
skin (when rubbed)
Fruit: core diameter (at
small large!
largest diameter)
Fruit: core shape (in cross
elliptical
section)
Fruit: core woody spike
present
Fruit: prominence of core
weak medium!
woody spike
Fruit: outer pericarp color at
golden yellow green!
maturity for consumption
Fruit: inner pericarp color
brownish-yellow
green!
(locules) at maturity for
consumption
Fruit: core color at maturity
white greenish white!
Fruit: sweetness (Brix level)
15.6% (14.4-17.0%)
at maturity for consumption
Fruit: Vitamin C content
medium (125 mg/l00 g
fresh weight)
Fruit: seed color at maturity
dark brown
Fruit: seed color when dry
brown
EVENTS (at Te Puke,
New Zealand)
Time of vegetative budbreak
late August to first
week of September
Time of beginning of
late October to first
flowering week of November
Time of maturity for harvest
first-second week of
(at 10.0% SSC) May
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HORTICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS

Details below relate to observations made on plants growing at Te Puke Research Centre, New Zealand. These plants were grafted on to A. deliciosa seedling rootstocks.

`Hort16A` vines can be grown on the same rootstocks as can `Hayward`. Rootstocks currently being used in New Zealand include A.deliciosa seedlings, `Hayward` rooted cuttings and Hortkiwi `Kaimai`.

Cropping: young vines of `Hort16A` carry higher yields than `Hayward` when plants of equivalent ages are compared, although at maturity, yields are likely to be similar. The storage life of `Hort16A` fruit is about 75% of that of `Hayward` fruit under a coolstorage temperature of 0° C. `Hort16A` fruit soften in coolstore more rapidly than `Hayward` fruit initially, but will hold at a ready to eat firmness of about 1 kg for over two months after the initial softening period.

OTHER DATA

Fruit size: Data from a random harvest of 1940 fruit which were graded to measure fruit size in May 1995. Individual fruit weights collected electronically from the grader.

Mean fruit weight: 98.3 g.

Minimum.--43 g.

Maximum.--176 g.

Standard error of the mean (SEM): 0.574.

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COLOR CHART RHS Colour Chart, the Royal Horticultural Society, London 1966.
______________________________________

Flesh Color at maturity:
Outer pericarp
Hort16A 12C-12B Hayward 138B-138C!
Inner pericarp
Hort16A 162A-162C
Fruit core at harvest:
Hort16A 159C Hayward 155A!
Seed color (in flesh):
200A
Seed color (dry seed):
200D
Fruit skin at maturity:
combination of
Hort16A 199A plus 161A
Leaf color:
mature leaf after petal fall
Upper side of leaf
Hort16A 146A Hayward 147A!
Lower side of leaf
Hort16A 147B Hayward 147C!
Flower petals:
main body of petal
155D
Plant stem:
exposed side 200B-200C-165A
Hayward 147C!
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