Title:
System for electrically grounding or biasing a member
United States Patent 3910475


Abstract:
A system for electrically grounding or biasing a member comprising providing a member comprising an insulating layer and a conductive layer and at least one indent in and at least through said insulating layer and temporarily contacting a grounded or biased conductive element with said indent from the insulating side of said member sufficiently to contact said element with said conductive layer whereby said element grounds or biases said member. Further disclosed are means for doing the above grounding or biasing a member while simultaneously advancing said member.



Inventors:
Pundsack, Arnold L. (Rochester, NY)
Harris, Jerome N. (Webster, NY)
Application Number:
05/341653
Publication Date:
10/07/1975
Filing Date:
03/15/1973
Assignee:
XEROX CORPORATION
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
226/52, 226/94, 361/220
International Classes:
G03G5/10; G03G15/00; G03G15/22; G03G17/04; G03G21/00; (IPC1-7): B65H17/38
Field of Search:
355/16 226
View Patent Images:
US Patent References:
3533692PHOTOELECTROSTATIC COPYING APPARATUS1970-10-13Blanchette
3157330Electrostatic drive apparatus1964-11-17Manor



Primary Examiner:
Schacher, Richard A.
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Ralabate, James Petre David Lyons Ronald J. C. L.
Claims:
What is claimed is

1. A method of simultaneously advancing and electrically grounding or biasing a member comprising:

2. The method according to claim 1 wherein said member comprises a web.

3. The method according to claim 2 wherein said web comprises a reusable web.

4. The method according to claim 2 wherein there are plurality of perforations along the longitudinal axis of said web.

5. The method according to claim 3 wherein said reusable web comprises an endless web.

6. The method according to claim 1 wherein said electrically grounded or biased conductive driving element comprises a web.

7. The method according to claim 6 wherein said web comprises a reusable web.

8. The method according to claim 7 wherein said reusable web comprises an endless web.

9. The method according to claim 1 wherein the indent comprises at least one perforation completely through said member.

10. The method according to claim 9 wherein said electrically grounded or biased conductive driving element comprises at least one electrically grounded or biased finger.

11. The method according to claim 10 wherein said perforation comprises a plurality of perforations along at least one side of said member and said electrically grounded or biased conductive driving finger engages said perforations to contact said finger with said conductive layer and advance said member.

12. The method according to claim 11 wherein the electrically grounded or biased conductive driving finger comprises a sprocket.

13. The method according to claim 11 wherein the electrically grounded or biased conductive drive finger comprises a plurality of drive fingers perpendicularly attached to an electrically grounded or biased conductive endless web where at least one drive finger is making electrical contact with said conductive layer during said method.

14. The method according to claim 12 wherein the member comprises an imaging member.

15. The method according to claim 14 wherein the imaging member comprises a photosensitive layer overlying the conductive layer.

16. The method according to claim 14 wherein the imaging member comprises a layer of softenable material containing migration material, said softenable material overlying said conductive layer.

17. The method according to claim 16 wherein the migration material is dispersed throughout said softenable material.

18. The method according to claim 16 wherein the migration material is arranged in a fracturable layer contiguous the surface of said softenable material spaced apart from said conductive layer and contacting said softenable material.

19. The method according to claim 14 wherein the imaging member comprises a reusable web.

20. The method according to claim 19 wherein the reusable web is an endless belt.

21. The method according to claim 20 wherein the imaging member additionally comprises an overlayer of softenable material containing migration material and contacting said conductive layer.

22. The method according to claim 21 wherein the migration material is dispersed throughout said softenable material.

23. The method according to claim 21 wherein the migration material is arranged in a fracturable layer contiguous the surface of said softenable layer spaced apart from said substrate and contacting said softenable material.

24. The method according to claim 1 wherein the member comprises an imaging member.

25. The method according to claim 24 wherein the imaging member comprises a photosensitive layer overlying the conductive layer.

26. The method according to claim 25 wherein the imaging member comprises a layer of softenable material containing migration material, said softenable material overlying said conductive layer.

27. The method according to claim 26 wherein the migration material is dispersed throughout said softenable material.

28. The method according to claim 26 wherein the migration material is arranged in a fracturable layer contiguous the surface of said softenable material spaced apart from said conductive layer and contacting said softenable material.

29. The method according to claim 1 wherein the member additionally comprises a second insulating layer, said second insulating layer overlying said conductive layer.

30. A method according to claim 1 wherein the portions of said element contacting said conductive layer are sequentially moved into and out of such contact.

31. Apparatus for simultaneously advancing and electrically grounding or biasing a reusable member comprising:

32. The apparatus according to claim 31 wherein the reusable member comprises an endless web.

33. The apparatus according to claim 31 wherein the reusable member is an imaging member.

34. The apparatus according to claim 33 wherein the imaging member comprises a photosensitive layer overlying said conductive layer.

35. The apparatus according to claim 33 wherein the imaging member comprises a layer of softenable material containing migration material, said softenable material overlying said conductive layer.

36. The apparatus according to claim 35 wherein the migration material is dispersed throughout said softenable material.

37. The apparatus according to claim 35 wherein the migration material is arranged in a fracturable layer contiguous the surface of said softenable material spaced apart from said conductive layer and contacting said softenable material.

38. The apparatus according to claim 31 wherein the grounded or biased conductive driving element comprises a web.

39. The apparatus according to claim 38 wherein the web comprises a reusable web.

40. The apparatus according to claim 39 wherein the reusable web comprises an endless web.

41. The apparatus according to claim 31 wherein the electrically grounded or biased conductive driving element comprises a roller.

42. The apparatus according to claim 31 wherein said indent comprises at least one perforation completely through said member.

43. The apparatus according to claim 42 wherein said electrically grounded or biased conductive driving element comprises at least one electrically grounded or biased conductive finger.

44. The apparatus according to claim 43 wherein said perforation comprises a plurality of perforations along at least one side of said member and said grounded or biased conductive driving finger engages said perforations to contact said finger with said conductive layer and advance said member.

45. The apparatus according to claim 44 wherein the electrically grounded or biased conductive finger comprises a sprocket.

46. The apparatus according to claim 43 wherein the electrically grounded or biased conductive finger comprises a plurality of fingers perpendicularly attached to an electrically grounded or biased conductive endless web, said endless web parallel to said member and at least one drive finger is making electrical contact with said conductive layer.

47. The apparatus according to claim 45 wherein the member comprises an imaging member.

48. The apparatus according to claim 47 wherein the imaging member comprises a photosensitive layer overlying said conductive layer.

49. The apparatus according to claim 47 wherein the imaging member comprises a layer of softenable material containing migration material, said softenable material overlying said conductive layer.

50. The apparatus according to claim 49 wherein the migration material is dispersed throughout said softenable material.

51. The apparatus according to claim 40 wherein the migration material is arranged in a fracturable layer contiguous the surface of said softenable material spaced apart from said conductive layer and contacting said softenable material.

52. A method of electrically grounding or biasing an advancing web comprising:

Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates in general to electrically grounding or biasing a member comprising an electrically insulating layer and a conductive layer from the insulating side of the member. Further disclosed are means for doing the above grounding or biasing of a member while simultaneously advancing the member.

It has been a problem in electrical systems and more specifically in imaging systems where it is desirable to have a web or imaging member overlying a conductive layer which is overlying an insulating layer and to ground or bias the conductive layer from the insulating layer side of the member.

One illustration for solving this problem is shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,533,692. However, it will be noted that this patent utilizes in one of the more pertinent embodiments a member which comprises a photoconductive layer overlying a conductive layer overlying an insulating layer. A conductive strip is applied underneath the insulating layer which runs along the edge of the member and makes continuous electrical contact with conductive drive rollers. The conductive layer and the conductive strip, which are separated by the insulated layer, are placed into electrical contact through a connecting element which extends through the insulating layer. Both the conductive strip and the connecting element are integral parts of the imaging member. Therefore, it will be noted that there has to be as many feet of electrical stripping as there is film. Therefore, since the conductive strip must be an integral part of the film, substantial cost and complexity of preparing the film becomes a problem.

Another approach of grounding or biasing a member comprising a conductive layer and an insulating layer has been demonstrated in the art by placing corotron charging devices on each side of a member and then charging the member from both sides with opposite polarities.

There has recently been discovered a system which overcomes many of the disadvantages of the prior art.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide a method of electrically grounding or biasing, or optionally simultaneously electrically grounding or biasing and advancing a member from the insulating layer side of the member which overcomes the above noted disadvantages and satisfies the above noted needs.

It is a further object of this invention to provide a method of electrically grounding or biasing a member from the insulating layer side of the member without the grounding or biasing conductive element being an integral part of the member.

It is a further object of this invention to provide a method of simultaneously advancing and electrically grounding or biasing a member from the insulating layer side of the member without the advancing and the grounding or biasing conductive elements being an integral part of the member.

It is a further object of this invention to provide a compact and simply operated apparatus for simultaneously advancing and electrically grounding or biasing a reuseable web.

The foregoing objects and others are accomplished with this invention by a method and apparatus for electrically grounding or biasing a member comprising providing a member comprising an electrically insulating layer and a conductive layer and at least one indent in and at least through said insulating layer and temporarily contacting an electrically grounded or biased conductive element with said indent from the insulating side of said member sufficiently to contact said element with said conductive layer whereby said element electrically grounds or biases said member.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

For a better understanding of the invention, as well as other objects and further features thereof, reference is made to the following detailed disclosure of various preferred embodiments of the invention taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1a is a partially schematic side view of a member containing a longitudinally located continuous indent in and through the insulating layer to be electrically grounded or biased and optionally advanced according to the invention.

FIG. 1b is a partially schematic, cross-sectional view of the member of FIG. 1a.

FIG. 2a is a partially schematic view of a member from the electrically insulating layer side of the member containing a plurality of indents longitudinally located along the axis of the member to be electrically grounded or biased and optionally advanced according to the invention.

FIGS. 2b, 2c and 2d are other views of the member of FIG. 2a.

FIG. 3a is a partially schematic side view of a member containing a plurality of perforations located above the longitudinal axis of the member and through the member to be electrically grounded or biased and optionally advanced according to the invention.

FIGS. 3b, 3c and 3d are other views of the member of FIG. 3a.

FIG. 4a is a partially schematic side view of an imaging member containing a continuous indent located along the longitudinal axis of the member to be electrically grounded or biased and optionally advanced according to the invention.

FIGS. 4b, 4c and 4d are other views and modifications of the member of FIG. 4a.

FIG. 5a is a partially schematic side view of an imaging member containing a plurality of indents located along the longitudinal axis of the member and in and through the insulating layer to be electrically grounded or biased and optionally advanced according to the invention.

FIGS. 5b, 5c, 5d and 5e are other views and modifications of the member of FIG. 5a.

FIG. 6a is a partially schematic side view of an electrically grounded or biased driving roller and member with the roller engaged in a continuous indent located along the longitudinal axis of the member and through the member to electrically ground or bias and optionally advance a member.

FIGS. 6b, 6c and 6d are other views and modifications of the apparatus of FIG. 6a.

FIG. 7a is a partially schematic side view of an electrically grounded or biased driving sprocket engaged in a plurality of indents longitudinally located along the axis of the member and in a member to electrically ground or bias and optionally advance a member.

FIGS. 7b and 7c are other views and modifications of the apparatus of FIG. 7a.

FIG. 8a is a partially schematic side view of an electrically grounded or biased sprocket engaged in a plurality of indents longitudinally located along the axis of and in a reuseable member to electrically ground or bias and optionally advance the member. The member is held in position by other means than the sprocket.

FIGS. 8b, 8c, 8d and 8e are other views and modifications of the apparatus of FIG. 8a.

FIG. 9a is a partially schematic side view of an electrically grounded or biased sprocket engaged in a plurality of indents longitudinally located along the axis of and in a reuseable member to electrically ground or bias and optionally advance a member. The member is held in position by the sprocket.

FIG. 9b is a view of a modification of the apparatus of FIG. 9a.

FIG. 10 is a partially schematic side view of an electrically grounded or biased conductive finger engaged from the insulating layer side of the member in an indent longitudinally located along the axis of the member to either electrically ground or bias and optionally advance the member.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Referring now to FIG. 1a which is a side view of a member comprising an electrically conductive layer 1 overlying an electrically insulating layer 2. The electrically conductive layer 1 may comprise any suitable conductive material. Typical suitable conductive materials include, for example, copper, brass, nickel, zinc, chromium, stainless steel, conductive plastics and rubbers, aluminum, steel, cadmium, silver, gold or paper rendered electrically conductive by the inclusion of a suitable chemical therein or through conditioning in a humid atmosphere to ensure the presence therein of sufficient water content to render the material conductive. The electrically insulating layer 2 may comprise any insulating material such as, for example, a polyester film available under the trademark Mylar from DuPont. Of course, the electrically insulating layer 2 may also be a wide variety of film formable materials such as plastics.

FIG. 1b is a cross-sectional view of the member illustrated in FIG. 1a showing conductive layer 1 overlying electrically insulating layer 2. Indent 3 is a channel cut in and through the electrically insulating layer 2 to the conductive layer 1. The indent 3 is longitudinally located along the axis of the member and continues for the entire length of the member. Indent 3 may either allow grounded or biased conductive elements to permanently or temporarily contact the conductive layer 1 from the electrically insulating layer 2 side of the member in order to either electrically ground or bias the member or to simultaneously electrically ground or bias and optionally advance the member. The member in FIG. 1a or 1b may be of any configuration including webs, reuseable webs or endless webs.

Referring now to FIG. 2a which is a view of a member from the electrically insulating layer 2 side of the member showing a plurality of indents 3a located in and through the electrically insulating layer 2 and along the longitudinal axis of the member on the electrically insulating side of the member. FIG. 2b is a cross-sectional view of FIG. 2a showing conductive layer 1 overlying insulating layer 2 and indent 3a located in and through the insulating layer 2 and extending to the conductive layer 1 for receiving an element which may either permanently or temporarily contact and either electrically ground or bias the conductive layer from the insulating layer side of the member or simultaneously advance and electrically ground or bias the member from the insulating layer side of the member. FIG. 2c is a view of the member of FIG. 2a from the conductive layer 1 side of the member. FIG. 2d is a side view of the member of FIG. 2a slightly orientated showing condutive layer 1 overlying insulating layer 2 which shows the plurality of indents 3a longitudinally located along the axis of the member and in and through the insulating layer 2.

Referring now to FIG. 3a which shows a member comprising conductive layer 1 overlying insulating layer 2 and a plurality of perforations 4 which are located along the longitudinal axis of the member and in and through both the conductive layer 1 and the insulating layer 2. Perforations 4 may receive an element from the insulating layer 2 side of the member which may either permanently or temporarily contact and either electrically ground or bias the conductive layer or simultaneously advance and electrically ground or bias the member. FIG. 3b is a view of the member of FIG. 3a from the conductive layer 1 side of the member showing a plurality of the perforations 4 located along the longitudinal axis of the member. FIG. 3c is a view of the member of FIG. 3a from the insulating layer 2 side of the member showing a plurality of perforations 4 longitudinally located along the axis of the member. FIG. 3d shows a cross-sectional view of FIG. 3a, showing the conductive layer 1 overlying the electrically insulating layer 2 and perforation 4 in and through both the conductive layer 1 and the electrically insulating layer 2. The member shown in FIGS. 2a-2d may be of any configuration including webs, reuseable webs or endless webs.

Referring now to FIG. 4a which shows a side view of a member comprising layer 8 which may be a photosensitive layer or non-photosensitive layer overlying conductive layer 1 overlying electrically insulating layer 2. Any suitable electrically photosensitive material may be used as layer 8. Layer 8 may typically comprise photosensitive materials which may include inorganic or organic photoconductive insulating materials; materials which undergo conductivity changes when photoheated, for example, see Cassiers, Photog. Sci. Engr. 4. No. 4,199 (1960); materials which photoinject, or inject when photoheated. Layer 8 may comprise materials of the same type as electrically insulating layer 2. These materials and the term photosensitive as used herein are more fully described and defined in U.S. Pat. No. 3,713,818, the pertinent parts of which are incorporated herein by reference. FIG. 4b is a cross-sectional view of the member shown in FIG. 4a. FIG. 4b shows a member comprising layer 8 overlying conductive layer 1 overlying electrically insulating layer 2. Indent 3 is a channel cut in and through electrically insulating layer 2 to conductive layer 1. Indent 3 is located along the longitudinal axis of the member and continues for the entire length of the member. Indent 3 may either allow grounded or biased conductive elements to permenently or temporarily contact the conductive layer 1 from the electrically insulating layer 2 side of the member in order to either electrically ground or bias the member or to simultaneously electrically ground or bias and advance the member. FIG. 4c is a cross-sectional view of FIG. 4a showing layer 8 as a photographic migration imaging member 10 of the type disclosed in copending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 837,591, filed June 30, 1969. The photographic migration imaging member 10 comprises migration material 11 dispersed in softenable material 10a which overlies conductive layer 1 overlying insulating layer 2. Insulating layer 2 contains indent 3 which is a channel cut through electrically insulating layer 2 and is located along the longitudinal axis of the member and continues for the entire length of the imaging member for receiving electrical grounding, biasing or advancing elements the same as the members shown in FIGS. 4a and 4b described above. The migration material 11 and the softenable material 10a are typically of materials disclosed in copending application Ser. No. 837,591, filed June 30, 1969, the pertinent parts of which are incorporated herein by reference. FIG. 4d is a cross-sectional view of FIG. 4a illustrating photographic migration imaging member 10b comprising a fracturable layer 12 contiguous the surface of softenable material 10a and contacting the softenable material 10a. The migration imaging member 10b and the fracturable layer 12 and the softenable material 10a are of the types disclosed in copending application Ser. No. 837,780, filed June 30, 1969, the pertinent parts of which are incorporated herein by reference. Photographic migration imaging member 10b overlies conductive layer 1 which is overlying electrically insulating layer 2. Electrically insulating layer 2 contains indent 3 which is a channel cut in and through electrically insulating layer 2 and continues along the longitudinal axis of the member for the entire length of the member. Indent 3 may receive permanently or temporarily electrically grounding, biasing or advancing conductive elements the same as members 4a and 4b described above. The members shown in FIGS. 4a-4d may be any configuration including webs, reuseable webs or endless webs.

Referring now to FIG. 5a which is a side view of a member comprising layer 88 overlying conductive layer 1 overlying electrically insulating layer 2. Electrically insulating layer 2 contains a plurality of indents 3a located along the longitudinal axis of the member and in and through the electrically insulating layer 2 for receiving either permanently or temporarily, either an electrically grounded or biased conductive element from the insulating side of the member sufficiently to contact the element with the conductive layer 1 whereby the element electrically grounds or biases the member or an electrically grounded or biased conductive element from the insulating layer 2 side of the member sufficiently to contact the element with the conductive layer whereby the element simultaneously advances and electrically grounds or biases the member. It should be appreciated that layer 8 of FIG. 5a may be comprised of the same material and construction as FIG. 4c layer 10 and FIG. 4d layer 10b. FIG. 5b is a cross-sectional view of a member comprising layer 8 overlying conductive layer 1 overlying electrically insulating layer 2. Indents 3b are located along the longitudinal axis of the member and in and through both the electrically insulating layer 2 and the conductive layer 1. FIG. 5c is a cross-sectional view of a member comprising photographic imaging member 10 comprising migration material 11 dispersed in softenable material 10a overlying conductive layer 1 which is overlying electrically insulating layer 2. Indents 3b are located along the longitudinal axis of the member and in and through both the electrically insulating layer 2 and conductive layer 1. FIG. 5d is a cross-sectional view of a photographic migration imaging member 10b comprising fracturable layer 12 contiguous the surface of softenable layer 10 and contacting softenable layer 10, overlying conductive layer 1 which is overlying insulating layer 2. FIG. 5e is a view of FIGS. 5a, 5b, 5c and 5d from the electrically insulating layer 2 side of the members showing indents 3a or 3b which are located along the longitudinal axis of the member and continues for the entire length of the member. Indents 3a or 3b may allow either an electrically grounded or biased conductive elements to permanently or temporarily contact the conductive layer 1 from the electrically insulating layer 2 side of the member in order to either electrically ground or bias the member or simultaneously advance and electrically ground or bias the member.

It should be appreciated that all the members shown in FIGS. 1a-1b, FIGS. 2a-2d, FIGS. 3a-3d, FIGS. 4a-4d and FIGS. 5a-5e may comprise any configuration including, for example, a web, a reuseable web, an endless web, an endless belt, a drive web, a reuseable drive web, an endless drive web or an endless drive belt.

Referring now to FIG. 6a which shows a side view of the same member shown in FIGS. 1a and 1b but additionally showing the member being contacted by conductive roller 13 rotating around axle 14. Conductive roller 13 may comprise any material which is electrically conductive. Typically, conductive roller 13 may be of copper, brass, nickel, zinc, chromium, stainless steel, conductive plastics and rubbers, aluminum, steel, cadmium, silver or gold. Insulating layer 2 contains indent 3 shown in FIG. 1b for receiving roller 13. Roller 13 may either simultaneously advance the member and electrically ground or bias the member or electrically ground or bias the member by contacting conductive layer 1 from the insulating layer 2 side of the member by engaging roller 13 sufficiently into indent 3 shown in FIG. 1b, sufficiently to permanently or temporarily contact roller 13 with conductive layer 1. FIG. 6b shows a cross-sectional view of FIG. 6a, more clearly illustrating insulating layer 2 which contains indent 3 receiving roller 13 in and through insulating layer 2 so that roller 13 is contacting conductive layer 1 thereby either electrically grounding or biasing or simultaneously driving and electrically grounding or biasing the member. It should be appreciated that in addition to the member shown in FIGS. 1a-1b, that the members shown in FIGS. 4a-4 d may be used in the embodiment shown in FIGS. 6a-6b. FIG. 6c shows a side view of the member shown in FIGS. 1a and 1b but additionally showing the member being contacted by a conductive reuseable belt 19. Conductive reuseable belt 19 may be a conductive web, a conductive reuseable web, a conductive endless web or a conductive endless belt, a conductive driving reuseable belt, a conductive driving web, a conductive reuseable driving web or a conductive endless driving web. Conductive reuseable belt 19 may comprise any material which is electrically conductive. Typically, conductive belt 19 may be of copper, brass, nickel, zinc, chromium, stainless steel, conductive plastics and rubbers, aluminum, steel, cadmium, silver or gold or combinations thereof. Reuseable belt 19 contacts indent 3 located in and through insulating layer 2 as shown in FIG. 6d from the electrically insulating side 2 of the member. The member comprises conductive layer 1 and electrically insulating layer 2. Belt 19 engages indent 3 sufficiently to contact permanently or temporarily reuseable belt 19 with said conductive layer 1 whereby reuseable belt 19 may either ground or bias or simultaneously ground or bias and advance the member. Reuseable belt 19 is held in position and driven by rollers 18 which rotate around axles 20. It should be appreciated that any suitable means may be used to hold and advance reuseable belt 19. Rollers 18 and axles 20 merely illustrate a preferred means. Rollers 18 and axles 20 may be either electrically conductive or electrically insulating. However, it should be appreciated that at least one roller 18 and axle 20 must be conductive in order that belt 19 may electrically ground or bias the member shown in FIG. 6c. Roller 18 and axle 20, when conductive, may typically be of copper, brass, nickel, zinc, chromium, stainless steel, conductive plastics and rubbers, aluminum, steel cadmium, silver or gold. FIG. 6d shows a cross-sectional view of FIG. 6c. The member comprises conductive layer 1 overlying insulating layer 2. Insulating layer 2 containing indent 3 as shown in FIG. 1b which is a channel cut in and through insulating layer 2 to conductive layer 1. Indent 3 is located along the longitudinal axis of the member and continues for the entire length of the member for receiving reuseable belt 19. Reuseable belt 19 contacts conductive layer 1 from the insulating side of the member for the same reasons and performs the same functions as described above for FIG. 6c. It should be appreciated that in addition to the members shown in FIGS. 1a-1b, that the members shown in FIGS. 4a-4d may be used in the embodiment shown in FIGS. 6c-6d.

Referring now to FIG. 7a which shows a side view of the member shown in FIGS. 2a-2d and additionally shows conductive sprocket 17 containing conductive fingers 16 engaging indents 3a with at least one finger 16. Conductive sprocket 17 and conductive fingers 16, which are permanently attached to sprocket 17, and axlw 15 on which sprocket 17 rotates may comprise any suitable material which is electrically conductive. Typically, this material may be of copper, brass, nickel, zinc, chromium, stainless steel, conductive plastics and rubbers, aluminum, steel, cadmium, silver or gold. At least one conductive finger 16, attached to sprocket 17, engages at least one of the indents 3a sufficiently to permanently or temporarily contact conductive layer 1 from the insulating layer 2 side of the member sufficiently to either electrically ground or bias the member or simultaneously advance and electrically ground or bias the member. It should be appreciated that in addition to the members shown in FIGS. 2a-2d that the members shown in FIGS. 5a-5e may be used in the embodiment shown in FIG. 7a. FIG. 7b shows a cross-sectional view of the member shown in FIGS. 3a-3d and also additionally shows conductive sprocket 17 containing conductive fingers 16. At least one conductive finger 16 may engage perforation 4 from the insulating layer 2 side of the member at least sufficient to pass in and through the electrically insulating layer 2 and at least in and in many instances through conductive layer 1 sufficiently to permanently or temporarily contact conductive layer 1 to either electrically ground or bias the member or simultaneously advance and electrically ground or bias the member. It should be appreciated that in addition to the members shown in FIGS. 3a-3d that FIGS. 5a-5e may be used in the embodiment shown in FIG. 7b. FIG. 7c shows a side view of the member shown in FIGS. 2a-2d and also additionally shows conductive drive web 21. It should be understood that the member shown in FIGS. 3a-3d may additionally be used in the embodiment shown in FIG. 7c. Conductive web 21 contains a plurality of fingers 16 perpendicularly attached to web 21. Electrically conductive web 21 may be a reuseable conductive web, an endless conductive web, an endless conductive belt, a conductive drive web, a reuseable conductive drive web, an endless conductive drive web and an endless conductive drive belt. Conductive fingers 16 may comprise the same material as the sprocket 17 of FIGS. 7a and 7b. The conductive drive web 21 may comprise the same material as the reuseable belt 19 of FIG. 6c. At least one conductive finger 16, attached to conductive web 21, engages at least one indent 3a sufficiently from the insulating layer 2 side of the member, to contact permanently or temporarily finger 16 with conductive layer 1 whereby the member is either electrically grounded or biased or simultaneously grounded or biased and advanced. Electrically conductive web 21 may be held in position and may be driven by rollers 18 which rotate around axles 20. It should be appreciated that any means may be used which would be suitable to hold and advance conductive web 21. Rollers 18 and axles 20 may be of the same type rollers shown in FIGS. 6c-6d and merely illustrate a preferred means. It should be further appreciated that in addition to the members shown in FIGS. 2a-2d that the members shown in FIGS. 3a-3d and FIGS. 5a-5e may be used in the embodiment shown in FIG. 7c.

FIG. 8a shows a side view of the members shown in FIGS. 2a-2d with the exception that the members are illustrated as a reuseable member. The reuseable member comprises electrically insulating layer 2 overlying conductive layer 1. Insulating layer 2 contains indents 3a in and through insulating layer 2 to conductive layer 1 from the insulating layer 2 side of the member. Indents 3a are located along the longitudinal axis of the member and continues for the entire length of the member. The member is held in position and may be rotated around rotating insulating rollers 18a which rotate on axles 20a. It should be appreciated that any insulated means may be used for rollers 18a which would be suitable for holding the member in place and rotating. It should be appreciated that rollers 18a may be driving rollers or freely rotating rollers. Conductive sprocket 17 containing conductive fingers 16 may comprise the same material as sprocket 17 of FIGS. 7a and 7b. At least one conductive finger 16, attached to sprocket 17, engages at least one of the indents 3a from the electrically insulating layer 2 side of the member, sufficiently to either permanently or temporarily contact finger 16 with conductive layer 1 whereby the member is either simultaneously grounded or biased and advanced or grounded or biased. It should be appreciated that in addition to the members as shown in FIGS. 2a-2d that members shown in FIGS. 3a-3d and FIGS. 5a-5e may be used in the embodiments shown in FIG. 8a. Furthermore, as mentioned above, it should be appreciated that rotating insulating rollers 18a may drive the reuseable member and sprocket 17 may freely rotate or that roller 18a may freely rotate and sprocket 17 drive the member with fingers 16.

FIG. 8b shows a side view of the members shown in FIGS. 1a-1b except that the member is illustrated as a reuseable member. The reuseable member comprises electrically insulating layer 2 overlying conductive layer 1. Insulating layer 2 contains an indent 3 as shown in FIG. 8c which is a channel cut in and through insulating layer 2 to the conductive layer 1 from the insulating layer side of the member. Indent 3 is located along the longitudinal axis of the member and continues for the entire length of the film. The member is held in position and rotated around rotating insulating rollers 18a which rotate on axles 20a. It should be appreciated that any insulated means may be used which would be suitable to hold the member in place and rotate. Conductive roller 13 may comprise the same material as roller 13 of FIGS. 6a-6d. Roller 13 may either simultaneously advance the member and electrically ground or bias the member or electrically ground or bias the member by contacting conductive layer 1 from the insulating layer 2 side of the member sufficiently to either permanently or temporarily contact roller 13 with conductive layer 1. It should be appreciated that rotating insulating rollers 18a may drive the reuseable member and roller 13 may freely rotate. FIG. 8c shows a cross-sectional view of FIG. 8b showing roller 13 engaged in indent 3 from the insulating layer 2 side of the member sufficiently to contact conductive layer 1. It should be appreciated that in addition to the members shown in FIGS. 1a-1b, that the member of FIGS. 4a-4d may be used in the embodiments shown in FIG. 8b.

Referring now to FIG. 8d which shows a side view of the members shown in FIGS. 2a-2d except the members are illustrated as a reuseable member. The member and apparatus may be of the same materials and function the same as the embodiment shown in FIG. 8a except that the reuseable member is reversed and sprocket 17 is relocated. Insulating layer 2 contacts rotating rollers 18a and sprocket 17 is located on the insulating layer 2 side of the reuseable member. The same members that may be used in the embodiment shown in FIG. 8a may be used in the embodiment shown in FIG. 8d.

Referring now to FIG. 8e which shows a side view of the members shown in FIGS. 1a-1b except that the member is illustrated as a reuseable member. The member and apparatus may be of the same materials and function the same as the embodiment shown in FIG. 8b except that the reuseable member is reversed and roller 13 is relocated. Insulating layer 2 contacts rotating rollers 18a and roller 13 is located on the insulating layer 2 side of the reuseable member. The same members that may be used in the embodiment shown in FIG. 8b may be used in the embodiment shown in 8e.

FIG. 9a shows a side view of a member shown in FIGS. 2a-2d with the exception that the member is illustrated as a reuseable member. The reuseable member comprises an electrically conductive layer 1 overlying insulating layer 2. Insulating layer 2 contains indents 3a in and through the insulating layer 2 from the insulating layer 2 side of the member. Indents 3a longitudinally continue for the entire length of the member. FIG. 9a additionally shows the member being supported by electrically conductive sprocket 17 which is rotated on axle 15. Conductive fingers 16 are attached to sprocket 17 and engage indents 3a. At least one conductive finger 16 may engage at least one of the indents 3a from the insulating layer 2 side of the member sufficiently to either permanently or temporarily contact finger 16 with conductive layer 1 whereby the member may be either simultaneously advanced and electrically grounded or biased or electrically grounded or biased. Sprocket 17 may comprise the same material as sprocket 17 shown in FIGS. 7a and 7b. The member may be additionally held in position and rotated around rotating roller 18 which rotates on axle 20. It should be appreciated that any means may be used for roller 18 which would be suitable to hold the member in place and rotate. It should be further appreciated that roller 18 may be a driving roller or freely rotating. Furthermore, it should be appreciated that in addition to the members of FIGS. 2a-2d that members shown in FIGS. 3a-3d and 5a-5e may be used in the embodiment shown in FIG. 9a.

FIG. 9b shows a side view of a member shown in FIGS. 1a and 1b with the exception that the member is illustrated as a reuseable member. The reuseable member comprises an electrically conductive layer 1 overlying electrically insulating layer 2. Insulating layer 2 contains an indent 3 as shown in FIG. 1b. Indent 3 is a channel cut in and through the electrically insulating layer 2 to the conductive layer 1 and located along the longitudinal axis of the member and continues for the entire length of the member. Indent 3 is for receiving electrically conductive roller 13. Roller 13 may either simultaneously advance and electrically ground or bias or electrically ground or bias the member by either permanently or temporarily contacting conductive layer 1 from the insulating layer 2 side of the member sufficiently to contact roller 13 with conductive layer 1. Roller 13 may comprise the same material as roller 13 of FIGS. 6a and 6b. The member is additionally held in position and rotated around rotating roller 18a which should normally be wider than indent 3. If roller 18a is the same width or smaller than indent 3 then roller 18a must be electrically insulating. However, if roller 18a is wider than indent 3 it may be of any suitable material. It should be appreciated that any means may be used for roller 18a which would be suitable to hold the member in place and rotate. It should be further appreciated that roller 18a may be a driving roller or freely rotating roller. Furthermore, it should be appreciated that in addition to the members of FIGS. 1a-1b that the members of 4a-4d may be used in the embodiment shown in FIG. 9b.

Referring now to FIG. 10 which shows a side view of the member shown in FIGS. 2a-2d and additionally shows conductive finger 22 engaging indents 3a. Conductive finger 22 may be a free moving conductive finger or a driving conductive finger which engages indent 3a sufficiently from the insulating layer 2 side of the member to permanently or temporarily contact conductive layer 1 and may pivot on axle 23 or may oscillate on axle 23 in order to either electrically ground or bias the member or simultaneously electrically ground or bias and advance the member. The electrically conductive finger 22 may comprise any suitable material which is conductive. Furthermore, it should be appreciated that the configuration of finger 22 shown in FIG. 10 is the preferred configuration of finger 22 but finger 22 may be any number of suitable configurations which will perform the above described function of finger 22. Typical suitable conductive materials include, for example, copper, brass, nickel, zinc, chromium, stainless steel, conductive plastics and rubbers, aluminum, steel, cadmium, silver or gold. It should be appreciated that in addition to the members shown in FIGS. 2a-2d that the members shown in FIGS. 5a-5e may be used in the embodiment shown in FIG. 10. Furthermore, it should be appreciated that conductive finger 22 may be used in the embodiments shown in FIGS. 7a-7c, 8a, 8d and 9a as a substitute for sprocket 17 therein.

In a system under current development, an embodiment of the invention which is currently being used in this effort comprises the use of a 16mm photographic migration imaging member of the type described in Goffe U.S. Pat. No. 3,520,681. Perforations were placed through and along the longitudinal axis of the member in accordance with ANSI Specification 1R-3000. Each perforation had a dimension of 0.05 inches on the side of the perforation parallel to the side of the member and 0.0720 inches on the side of the perforation perpendicular to the side of the member with 0.3000 inches between each perforation. An electrically conductive sprocket drive mounted on an electrically grounded rotating drive shaft was used to simultaneously drive and electrically ground the member from the insulating layer side of the member. The pitch of the sprocket was 0.3000 inches. The sprocket was approximately 1 inch in diameter with electrically conductive sprocket drive fingers approximately one-sixteenth inch long. Similar sprocket drives may be obtained from LaVezzi Machine Works Inc., Elmhurst, Ill., Sprocket Number 210B25D. The migration imaging member described above was placed into contact, from the insulating side of the member, with the sprocket to allow the drive fingers to engage the perforations sufficiently to contact the sprocket drive fingers with the conductive layer. As mentioned, the drive fingers were engaged in the perforations from the insulating layer side of the member. The sprocket drive was rotated whereby the migration imaging member was simultaneously advanced and grounded. The member advancement speeds were up to about 4.5 inches per second. Excellent grounding and driving of the member were observed.

It will be understood that various other changes in the details, materials, steps and arrangements of parts, which have been herein described and illustrated in order to explain the nature of the invention, will occur to and may be made by those skilled in the art upon a reading of this disclosure, and such changes are intended to be included within the principle and scope of this invention.