Title:
Fireplace
United States Patent 3910251


Abstract:
A freestanding fireplace having unique insulation structure, draft deflector, pedestal, and cantilevered hearth.



Inventors:
ANDREW LYMAN R
Application Number:
05/241297
Publication Date:
10/07/1975
Filing Date:
04/05/1972
Assignee:
VIKING UNIVERSAL COMPANY
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
126/519, D23/343
International Classes:
F24B1/181; (IPC1-7): F24B1/18
Field of Search:
126/120,121 D23
View Patent Images:
US Patent References:
3339540Portable pre-cast fireplace1967-09-05Kreider
2235428Fireplace1941-03-18Hayden



Primary Examiner:
O'dea, William F.
Assistant Examiner:
Capossela, Ronald C.
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Grunewald, Glen R.
Claims:
I claim

1. An improved fireplace comprising:

2. A fireplace as recited in claim 1 and further comprising an annular-segment hearth, cantilevered from said fire support means by a plurality of bars, circumferentially spaced about and attached to the periphery of said fire support means, said hearth being held in angular position by direct connection to said fire support means.

3. An improved fireplace comprising:

4. A fireplace as recited in claim 3 in which the space between said walls of said cylindrical wall member is closed by a solid member at said fireplace opening; and in which said insulative material between said walls of said cylindrical wall member comprises heat insulative stopper, positioned between said walls at the top and bottom of said walls, and granular heat insulative material between said stoppers.

5. A fireplace as recited in claim 4 in which said stoppers are of mineral wool and said granular heat insulative material is vermiculite.

6. A fireplace as recited in claim 3 in which said draft diverter means comprises:

7. A fireplace as recited in claim 6 in which the upward dimension of said vane is substantially one-half of the inward dimension of said shelf and further comprising an outwardly directed flange on the edge of said vane distal from said shelf.

8. A fireplace as recited in claim 3 and further comprising an annular shaped hearth, cantilevered from said bowl at least in front of said fireplace opening.

9. A fireplace as recited in claim 8 in which said hearth is shaped as an annular segment, positioned at least in front of said fireplace opening.

10. A fireplace as recited in claim 8 in which said hearth is supported by a plurality of bars, circumferentially spaced about and attached to the periphery of said bowl, and said hearth is held in angular position about the periphery of said bowl by direct connection to said bowl.

11. A fireplace as recited in claim 3 in which said bowl and pedestal, hood, and means for supporting are each separate structures and further comprising means for attaching said bowl and pedestal to said means for supporting; and means for attaching said means for supporting to said hood.

12. An improved fireplace comprising:

13. An improved fireplace comprising:

14. A fireplce as recited in claim 13 in which said conduit means comprises a cylindrical member having baffles positioned and staggered along the length thereof to prevent straight flow through said conduit.

15. A fireplace as recited in claim 14 in which said cylindrical member is a circular cylindrical member, and each said baffle is a disc segment in the form of a circle, divided by a chord line thereof, with the smaller portion missing; and said baffles are substantially aligned with the diameters thereof which are perpendicular to said chord lines defining a plane across the diameter of said cylindrical member.

16. In combination:

17. A fireplace as recited in claim 16 in which the upward dimension of said vane is substantially one-half of the inward dimension of said shelf, and further comprising an outwardly directed flange on the edge of said vane distal from said shelf.

18. An improved fireplace bowl and pedestal comprising in order from the bottom of the pedestal to the top of the bowl:

19. An improved fireplace comprising:

20. A fireplace as recited in claim 3 and further comprising a fire ring centrally positioned upon said heat insulative means to limit the fire region within said ring.

21. An improved fireplace comprising:

22. An improved fireplace comprising:

23. A fireplace as recited in claim 22 in which said conduit means comprises a cylindrical member having baffles positioned and staggered along the length thereof to prevent straight flow through said conduit.

24. A fireplace as recited in claim 23 in which said cylindrical member is a circularly cylindrical member.

25. A fireplace as recited in claim 24 in which each said baffle is a disc segment in the form of a circle, divided by a chord line thereof, with the smaller portion missing; and said baffles are substantially alined with the diameters thereof which are perpendicular to said chord lines defining a plane across the diameter of said circular cylindrical member.

26. An improved fireplace fire support means comprising in order from the bottom thereof to the top thereof:

27. An improved fireplace comprising:

28. An improved fireplace comprising:

29. Apparatus as recited in claim 28 in which said hood is substantially right circularly cylindrical frustum-shaped hood.

30. Apparatus as recited in claim 28 in which said said fire support means is substantially right circularly conical.

31. Apparatus as recited in claim 28 in which said fire place opening is substantially rectangular.

32. Apparatus as recited in claim 28 in which the walls of said wall member are metal, the space between said walls is closed by a solid member at said fireplace opening; and insulative material between said walls comprise at least one insulative stopper of non-granular insulative material and granular insulative material.

33. Apparatus as recited in claim 28 in which said draft diverter means comprises:

34. An improved fireplace comprising:

35. An improved fireplace comprising:

36. A fire support means comprising in order from the bottom thereof to the top thereof, means for supporting said fire support means clear of the floor and conduit means for delivering air to the bottom of said fire support means;

37. Apparatus as recited in claim 36 in which said concrete is reinforced.

38. An improved fireplace comprising:

39. The combination of claim 38 in which said conduit delivers air from the under-floor static air to the bottom of said first compartment.

40. An improved fireplace comprising:

Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Freestanding fireplaces are fireplaces which are not built into a wall, or the like. Usually they occupy a position well away from the wall.

It would be desirable to have a fireplace which can be installed in a room, adjacent the wall of the room without having to restructure the wall. Unfortunately, prior to this invention, such freestanding fireplaces had to be placed well away from the wall to prevent the wall from catching fire when the fireplace was used.

A freestanding fireplace which is open all of the way around has a substantially even draft, whereby smoke is convected up the chimney. When, however a freestanding, particularly a cylindrical freestanding, fireplace has an opening on only one side, the pressure distribution over the entrance to the fireplace causes the smoke to curl and to be forced out of the fireplace, particularly around the sides of the opening, into the surrounding room.

Another disadvantage of prior art freestanding fireplaces is that they overheat the floor upon which they stand.

Because of the above disadvantages, the others, freestanding fireplaces could neither be placed next to the wall nor on a cumbustible floor or platform.

Naturally it would be unthinkable to install such a prior art fireplace in a mobile home or trailer.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

To overcome the disadvantages of a freestanding fireplace, the fireplace contemplated by this invention uses an insulated and ventilated five bowl, an insulated conically shaped hood, and insulated side panel in the portion between the hood and bowl, and a uniquely positioned and shaped deflecting plate which produces a substantially uniform pressure distribution over the entrance opening of the fireplace.

The fireplace of this invention, in one embodiment thereof, also has a cantilevered hearth which enhances its utility while making the fireplace portable.

The fireplace of this invention is adapted to be manufactured in pieces and to be assembled at its resting site. To that end, the insulated side walls or panels and the conical hood have a sandwich of insulation which includes insulation stoppers for preventing granulated insulation materials from escaping in transit.

The fireplace comprises a pdestal supporting a fireplace bowl upon which a fire may be built, a substantially conically shaped hood over the bowl for collecting smoke and heat and conducting it up a chimney, and a central body between the hood and the bowl. The central body, in one embodiment, comprises supporting posts for supporting the hood on the rim of the bowl. In another embodiment, the central body comprises a substantially circularly cylindrical wall extending around the bowl and the hood, leaving an opening for the projection of heat into the surrounding room. In one of the latter embodiments, a hearth is cantilevered from the bowl edge, extending radially outward in an annular segment from the opening in the body.

The fireplace of this invention has an insulated hood. The hood is formed by a pair of spaced-apart conically shaped walls with insulating material between the walls. Typically the insulating material is granular such as vermiculite. Other granular material having high insulating properties may be used. At the top and bottom of the hood, between the walls, are insulating stoppers of, for example, mineral wool. The mineral wool prevents the vermiculite from outpouring when the fireplace is moved in sections. Thus, the hood may be shipped as a separate piece with the insulating material in place.

When the fireplace of this invention has a central substantially cylindrical body between the fire bowl and hood, the body is fabricated with a double wall having spaced-apart cylindrical walls with insulating material between them. A portion of the wall is missing to form the fireplace opening. The insulating material is preferably granular material such as vermiculite with mineral wool stoppers at the top and bottom so that the central body may be shipped as a separate piece.

The fire bowl and pedestal are circular and formed of two conical sections joined at their smaller end.

In a preferred embodiment of the fire bowl and pedestal, a ventilated air cell is positioned in the bottom of the pedestal, adjacent the floor. Above the ventilated air cell in the pedestal is a compartment of, for example, insulating mineral wool.

The top of the pedestal is optionally separated from the bottom of the fire bowl by, for example, metal foil. The bottom of the fire bowl is made, for example, of steel, and metal foil is optionally positioned over the steel. Above the metal foil is, for example, a 5/8 light weight aggregate having a substantial number of air cells. Over the aggregate is a moisture barrier which may be made, for example, of polyethylene. A concrete mixture of aggregate, sand, cement, and vermiculite is positioned over the moisture barrier. A wire mesh is preferably embedded in the latter mixture to avoid cracking of the fire bowl. A fire ring, if desired, may be anchored in the top mixture.

When the fireplace of this invention has a partly closed central body, a derlector is positioned over the fireplace opening to equalize the pressure over the opening, thereby to prevent smoke from escaping into the surrounding room from the edges of the opening. The deflector preferably extends substantially horizontally across the top of the fireplace opening with an upstanding deflector from the horizontal portion, tilted slightly toward the interior of the fireplace.

It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide a fireplace having a cool exterior.

It is also an object of this invention to provide a fireplace which is easily fabricated at the factory and transported ready for assembly at a site.

It is likewise an object of this invention to provide a freestanding fireplace having a cool pedestal bottom.

It is an object of this invention to provide a fireplace which may be placed with safety near a combustible wall.

It is also an object of this invention to provide a freestanding fireplace having a central body with an opening on one side and a deflecting plate within said fireplace for substantially equalizing pressure across the opening to prevent entry of smoke through the opening into the surrounding room.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Other objects will become apparent from the following description take together with the accompanying drawings.

FIG. 1 is an elevation view, partly in section, of a first embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 2 is a view, partly broken, taken at 2--2 in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken at 3--3 in FIG. 2.

FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken at 4--4 in FIG. 2.

FIG. 5 is a sectional view of a portion of the double wall of the central body of the fireplace, showing a feedthrough tube for securing bolts.

FIG. 6 is a side profile view of a fireplace of the invention showing a cantilevered hearth.

FIG. 7 is a plan view showing a portion of the cantilevered hearth of FIG. 6.

FIG. 8 is a view, partly in section, of a pedestal of a fireplace, mounted over a baffled vent for circulation of cooling air.

FIG. 9 is a sectional view taken at 9--9 in FIG. 8.

FIG. 10 is a view, partly in section, taken at 10--10 in FIG. 8.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

As shown in FIG. 1, the fireplace of this invention comprises an insulated hood 10, a pedestal and fireplace bowl 12, and a central body portion 14 positioned between the hood 10 and the pedestal-bowl 12.

The hood 12 is substantially conical with its smaller end at the top, and it may be made of 16 gauge cold rolled black steel welded, bolted and cemented together and coated with a silicone and carbon finish.

Typically the inner wall 16 and the outer wall 18 of the conical hood are made of eight panels which are sealed together at their edges to prevent insulation material leakage. Between the walls 16 and 18 is insulating material 20, 22 and 24. Typically the insulation 20 is a granular material such as vermiculite. Vermiculite is particularly good because of its excellent insulating properties. To enable the fireplace to be assembled at the factory and shipped in pieces, the insulating stoppers 22 and 24 are preferably fabricated of mineral wool which prevents the loss of vermiculite.

The center portion 14 may also be made of 16 gauge cold rolled black steel coated with a silicone and carbon finish.

The center portion 14, in the embodiment shown, comprises a substantially right circular double-walled cylinder with the fireplace opening on one side of the center portion. The double walls 26, 28 contain insulating material 30, 32, 34. Typically the insulation 30 is vermiculite. The insulating stoppers 32, 34 are preferably fabricated of mineral wool to prevent the loss of vermiculite during shipping.

The space between the walls 26, 28, in the region of the opening 36, are rigidly connected together, both for structural strength and to prevent escape of insulating material into the opening region 36.

The fireplace opening 36 is preferably closed by a movable chain link fireplace screen, indicated by the dashed lines. The screen is typically supported from sliders (not shown), positioned in a track (also not shown) around the upper and lower periphery of the opening.

The pedestal-bowl 12 comprises a pedestal portion 40 and a bowl portion 42. The exterior of both the pedestal 40 and the bowl 42 may be made of, for example, 16 gauge cold rolled black steel coated with a silicone and carbon finish.

The pedestal 40 is substantially conically shaped with the small end of the cone toward the top. The pedestal 40 has two compartments, a ventilated air cell 43 and a cell 44 of mineral wool. A solid bottom shield 46 separates the air cell 43 and the compartment 44. The air cell 43 is opened on at least one side thereof (preferably the side opposite the fireplace opening 36) by a plurality of holes 48 which allow cooling air convection under the fireplace. The mineral wool in compartment 44 provides additional insulation and dead air space to enhance cooling of the floor under the fireplace.

The top of the pedestal 40 and the bottom of the bowl 42 are covered with a steel plate 50. The outer portion 51 of the bottom of the bowl 42 is optionally covered with a metal foil 52, such as aluminum foil, to reflect heat.

Over the foil 52 and the steel plate 50 is a layer 54, such as 5/8 light weight aggregate, which is filled with air cells. The loose aggregate acts as an insulating barrier.

Over the aggregate 54 is placed a moisture barrier 55, such a 6 mil polyethylene, to prevent wet concrete and liquid from filling the air spaces in the aggregate 54.

An insulative concrete mixture 56 of 5/8 light weight aggregate, light weight sand, vermiculite, and cement in substantially equal parts, called "6-stack," is positioned above the moisture barrier 55. The concrete 56 is reinforced with a metal mesh 58 to take thermally caused tension loads and to prevent cracking of the bowl.

A fire ring 59 may, optionally, be anchored in the concrete 56 to contain the fire in the center of the bowl.

The bowl shape of the upper surface of the concrete 56 is formed by a specially bowl-shaped frame (not shown).

With a walled center portion 14 between the hood 10 and the bowl-pedestal 12, the opening 36 tends to have an uneven pressure distribution thereacross, when the fireplace is used, which channels air inwardly at the center of the opening 36 and outwardly around the edges of the opening 36 into the enclosing room (not shown). To prevent the channeling of the smoke back into the room, a draft diverter 60 is positioned above the opening 36 within the hood 10 and extending across the opening 36. By experiment it has been determined that the draft diverter should have a substantially horizontal shelf 62 with an upstanding substantially rectangular vane 64 which is attached along its length to the inner edge of the shelf 62 and is inclined slightly inwardly of the hood 10. The shown vane 64 has an inclination from the vertical of approximately twelve degrees, and it produces the desired pressure distribution. It has been found that although the inclination need not be precisely twelve degrees, deviation therefrom by any substantial amount causes smoke to enter the room. For example, a vertical vane is completely unsatisfactory.

The inward extend of the shelf 62, as shown particularly in FIGS. 2 and 4, is substantially to a chord line connecting the two outer edges of the opening 36. The width of the vane 64, in its upward direction, is approximately equal to one-half of the maximum outwardly directed dimension of the shelf 62.

The edge 66 of the vane 64 has an outwardly directed flange. It is the shown combination of shapes that creates a substantially uniform pressure distribution across the opening 36, preventing the flow of smoke back into the enclosing room.

The top of the hood 10 is adapted to be attached to a smoke stack (not shown).

Connecting brackets, such as bracket 70 and ornamental strips may be bolted onto the fireplace. Typically sleeves such as sleeve 72 of FIG. 5 are formed between the walls such as 26, 28 to prevent loss of the insulating material 30 where a connection is to be made. For example, as shown in FIGS. 2 and 5, a bolt through sleeve 72 connects to angle iron 73 which is welded to bowl 12, attaching members 12 and 14.

A cantilevered hearth 80 of this invention is shown in FIGS. 6 and 7. The hearth is supported by a plurality of support bars 82 which are welded to the bowl portion 42. The ends of the hearth, which is formed as an annular segment, are attached as by bolts 84, at its ends, to the bowl portion 42.

An alternate embodiment of the pedestal portion 40, for use of the fireplace in a mobile home or trailer, is shown in FIGS. 8, 9, 10. In such an embodiment, to ensure that there is sufficient air flow to keep the base of the pedestal cool, the pedestal 40 is supported off of the floor 113 of the mobile home by legs 100. The legs 100 are preferably attached, as by screws, to the floor 113 to center the fireplace over the conduit structure 103.

The conduit 103 in the floor of the mobile home 113 may be circularly cylindrical member having baffles 105, 107, 109 axially spaced-apart and staggered so that air, entereing through opening 112 follows a circuitous path before entering the interior of the mobile home in the region 101 under the pedestal 40. The baffles are preferably circular disc segments. The shape of the baffle, shown in FIG. 10, may be defined by a circle and its chord. The chord divides the disc into two parts, the smaller part of which is missing in the baffles 105, 107, 109. The chord is spaced, in the shown embodiment, approximately one-third of the distance across a diameter. To ensure that the air does not flow in a straight path through the conduit 103, the diameters of the three baffles, each of which is perpendicular to its edge chord, are aligned to form a plane on a diameter of the cylindrical conduit 103. The missing portions of the disc are staggered. That is, as shown in FIG. 8, if the missing portion is on the left for baffles 105, 109, it is on the right of baffle 107 to avoid straight path drafts of air.

In summary, the fireplace of this invention is sufficiently cool on it exterior to meet underwriter laboratory requirements wherein the temperature remains sufficiently cool that combustible material, such as a wooden wall or floor, will not kindle under constant use of the fireplace.

Further, the fireplace of this invention has a substantially uniform draw, whereby smoke is not channeled back into the surrounding room.

The cantilevered hearth of this invention enhances its fabrication in sections. So too, the use of stoppers in thw wall and hood insulation allows pre-assembly of the hood and center portion at the factory.

Although the invention has been described in detail above, it is not intended that the invention should be limited to the exact terms of that description.