Title:
DECK SOCKET ASSEMBLY
United States Patent 3860209


Abstract:
A deck attachment fitting, a deck socket and a socket and attachment assembly for use particularly to position and hold down standard freight or shipping containers having standard corner fittings on the deck of a ship or other carrier. When used as an assembly, the socket is welded to the deck and the attachment fitting may for example be a stacker key to fit in a corner fitting, or a device for securing the end of a cable. The deck socket includes a body member having a circular series of undercut arcuate lugs, and the attachment fitting is provided with a similar but oppositely configured projecting series of such lugs. The two parts are engaged with one another by placing them in face-to-face relation and by inserting the lugs of the fitting between those of the deck socket and rotating the fitting through a predetermined angle which depends upon the number of lugs. Corresponding lugs have mating surfaces which engage one another and provide a broad surface to broad surface tight fitting contact having high load-bearing capability. A deck socket or attachment fitting having chain link receiving sockets may be used individually for lashing.



Inventors:
STRECKER WILLIAM V
Application Number:
05/284049
Publication Date:
01/14/1975
Filing Date:
08/28/1972
Assignee:
PECK & HALE, INC.
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
24/265CD, 24/580.1, 24/DIG.53, 403/348
International Classes:
B60P7/13; B63B25/28; (IPC1-7): B60P7/10
Field of Search:
248/361R,361A,119R 285
View Patent Images:
US Patent References:
3442480CONTAINER TIE-DOWN APPARATUS1969-05-06Gaglione et al.
3331333Mounting bolster for containers1967-07-18Coulson
3233319Method of making a railway lading tie anchor assembly1966-02-08Jensen et al.
3011749Coupling device1961-12-05Kozak
2284847Photographic filter and like mount1942-06-02Raymond
0483841N/A1892-10-04



Primary Examiner:
Allen, Edward C.
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Pennie & Edmonds
Parent Case Data:


CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 180,433, filed Sept. 14, 1971 and now abandoned.
Claims:
I claim

1. A socket and an attachment fitting assembly for securing a member such as cargo to a support, the support having a substantially flat upper surface, the combination which comprises:

2. The socket member and attachment fitting assembly for securing a member such as cargo to a support according to claim 1 wherein said socket member is adapted to be secured to a support deck and includes four of said arcuate legs positioned and equally spaced along the periphery of said flange and the attachment fitting includes four of said arcuate mating lugs on said body member, said lugs being equally spaced and corresponding in thickness, spacing and configuration with the lugs on said deck socket member.

3. A deck socket and fitting assembly according to claim 2 in which the attachment fitting includes a stacker key defining an aperture lengthwise of the fitting, an elongated holding pin configured to be positioned within said aperture, said pin having means for securely positioning the container to a base support while being restrained from movement out of the aperture of the attachment fitting.

4. A deck socket and fitting assembly according to claim 2 in which the fitting includes a D-ring having an opening including a central internal protuberance, said opening being configured to receive a lashing hook member therein on one side of the protuberance such that the pull of the lashing is held off-center by the protuberance thereby holding said lugs in engagement.

5. A deck socket and fitting assembly according to claim 2 in which the fitting includes a D-ring and a latching lever, said lever being pivoted on said fitting to lockingly engage said socket member and prevent relative rotation between the members which would release the fitting from the socket member.

6. A deck socket and attachment fitting assembly according to claim 2 in which the attachment fitting includes at least one off-center chain link socket configured to receive a lashing chain having links with at least one arcuate end portion, said sockets being configured to define a lengthwise substantially vertical gap dividing the socket into two half sections to receive a vertical chain link and a substantially horizontal gap through the central portion of the socket substantially parallel to the deck, the inner portion having an arcuate configuration so as to engageably receive a horizontal chain link interlocked with the vertical chain link, such that the direction of pull of the lashing chain combines with the off-center location of the chain link socket so as to prevent relative rotation of the attachment fitting which would release the fitting from the deck socket.

7. A deck socket and attachment fitting assembly according to claim 6 in which the attachment fitting includes four of said off-center chain link sockets equally spaced 90 degress apart on the fitting and each being oriented perpendicularly to adjacent chain link sockets so as to facilitate lashing in several directions whereby the total lashing forces combined with the off-center location of the sockets tend to prevent relative rotation which would release the fitting from the socket member.

8. A deck socket and attachment fitting assembly according to claim 2 in which the attachment fitting includes one of an S and reversed-S shaped lashing hook receiving member having at least two reversed off-center open arcuate sections including arcuate inner surface portions configured to receive a lashing hook, the hook having a stem, a curved hooking portion attached to the upper part of the stem, and a substantially cylindrical anchor member perpendicularly affixed to the lower end of the stem such that when the cylindrical member is positioned within a hook receiving section of the hook receiving member, the stem of the hook is engageably nestled within one of the off-center arcuate inner surface portions and the hooking portion may be used for lashing.

9. A deck socket and attachment fitting assembly according to claim 8 in which the attachment fitting engageably receives two oppositely positioned spaced apart lashing hooks so as to facilitate lashing in several directions whereby the total lashing forces combined with the off-center location of the lashing hooks prevent relative rotation which would release the fitting from the socket member.

10. A deck socket and attachment fitting assembly according to claim 2 in which the deck socket has two superposed series of said arcuate lugs, the respective lugs of each of said series being in vertical alignment, and said attachment fitting also has two superposed series of said arcuate lugs with the individual lugs of each series in vertical alignment, the lugs of the upper series on said fitting interlocking with the upper series lugs on the deck socket and the lugs of the lower series on said fitting interlocking simultaneously with the corresponding lower series on the deck socket.

11. A deck socket and fitting assembly according to claim 2 in which the upstanding flange of the deck socket has an upper surface which is substantially flush with the upper surface of the support member.

12. A socket and an attachment fitting assembly for securing a member such as cargo to a support, the support having a substantially flat upper surface, the combination which comprises:

13. A deck attachment fitting assembly according to claim 12 in which the attachment fitting includes four of said off-center link sockets equally spaced 90° apart on the fitting and each being oriented perpendicularly to adjacent chain link sockets so as to facilitate lashing in several directions.

14. A deck socket member and attachment fitting assembly which comprises a socket member having a body member having an upper surface portion and a generally circular peripheral flange extending upwardly from the upper surface and defining an opening in its upper face, at least four arcuate lugs projecting inwardly from said flange and positioned in spaced relationship along the periphery thereof, each of said lugs having an arcuate edge and a frusto-conical surface extending outwardly and downwardly at an acute angle to the upper surface portion of the body member to define a lower arcuate edge at the intersection therewith, said lower edge being spaced from the center of said flange a greater radial distance than the upper edge, said frusto-conical surface of each lug being generated about a central conical axis spaced radially from the center of the socket member a distance substantially equal to the radial spacing of the central conical axis associated with any other lug, an attachment fitting adapted for rotatable attachment to the deck socket member and having a body member having a lower surface portion substantially parallel to the body member of said deck socket member when the attachment fitting is positioned in face-to-face relation with the deck socket member, at least four arcuate lugs extending downwardly from said body member, said lugs corresponding at least in thickness, number, spacing and configuration with the lugs of said socket member, each lug having a lower arcuate edge and frusto conical surface substantially identical to the frusto-conical surface of the mating lug of the socket member and being generated about a conical axis substantially identical to the axis of the mating lug, said surface extending from the lower edge upwardly and inwardly at a generally acute angle to the lower surface of the body member to define an upper arcuate edge at the intersection therewith, said upper edge being spaced from the center of rotation of the body member less than the lower edge, each lug being correspondingly configured and positioned such that when the attachment fitting is placed in face-to-face relation with said socket member in one of a plurality of relative positions, the lugs on the attachment fitting are positioned between the lugs of said socket member and said attachment fitting is rotatable to a second position in which the members become interlocked and the frusto-conical surfaces of the lugs of the attachment fitting are in face-to-face relation to the frusto-conical surfaces of the lugs of the socket member thereby providing axial locking forces between the members due to the interlocking surface-to-surface engagement of the correspondingly positioned lugs of each member.

15. A deck socket and cover assembly which comprises:

Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of Invention

This invention relates to deck attachment fittings and a deck socket and attachment fitting in combination for use to secure standard freight and shipping containers having standard corner fittings or other cargo on a support member such as the deck of a ship or loading platform.

2. Description of the Prior Art

Modern day cargo securing devices are expensive and lack the strength and low profile characteristics generally required for efficient use in arrangements for attaching cargo such as cars, containers, trailers and the like to a support member such as a deck of a ship. Moreover, they lack the versatility required for uni-directional or multi-directional lashing and they generally are not quickly removable so as to avoid interference with cargo and cargo carrying vehicles. U.S. Pat. No. 2,736,272 to Elsner relates to an attachment fitting having a bayonet projection with camming surfaces which make a line contact with the edges of a slot in which it is inserted. U.S. Pat. No. 2,962,245 to Molzan et al. relates to a complex spoked attachment fitting. Other prior art includes U.S. Pat. No. 3,106,377 to Cotton and U.S. Pat. No. 3,570,413 to Miller.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A deck socket and attachment fitting assembly for securing cargo to a support member such as the deck of a ship. The deck socket is secured to the support by any suitable means such as by welding. The deck socket includes a comparatively thin low profile body member which is arcuate or generally circular in shape and has a generally arcuate flange projecting upwardly from its upper surface. The flange has a series of at least two undercut arcuate lugs having an undersurface angularly oriented with respect to the upper surface of the body member such that the upper arcuate marginal edges of the lugs are nearer to the center of the body member than the lower marginal edges. The lugs are configured such that the undersurface may be interlockly engaged with corresponding mating lugs on an attachment fitting such that a substantial load carrying capability is possible through the substantial contact surface of the interlocked lugs.

The attachment fitting has a base member with a series of undercut arcuate lugs on the lower surface. The lugs are corresponding at least in thickness, spacing, and configuration with the lugs of the socket member. When the attachment fitting is positioned against the deck socket with the lugs of each member in adjacent face-to-face relation, the lugs on the fitting are positioned between the lugs of the socket member and when the attachment fitting is rotated through a predetermined angle in relation to the deck socket, the members are in interlocked face-to-face engagement due to the interference or wedge-type engagement of the lugs of each member. The lugs of the members are preferably configured such that they are locked by rotating the attachment fitting in a clockwise direction while they cannot be disengaged except by rotating the attachment fitting in the opposite direction.

Alternate embodiments of the attachment fitting includes a stacker key, a D-ring or a bulb hook. Such means for securing cargo in conjunction with the attachment fitting are merely exemplary and are not intended to limit the scope of my invention. Other securing means generally used by those skilled in the art may be incorporated with my invention.

When the attachment device is used to secure cargo to a support in conjunction with a lashing means, disengagement of the attachment device can be prevented by securing the lashing means such as a cable or link chain off center with respect to the attachment fitting in a direction to urge interlocking lugs toward engagement with one another. Where such an arrangement is inconvenient or not possible, a locking lever may be pivoted to the attachment fitting and arranged to lockingly engage the body of the deck socket in such a way as to prevent rotation.

A unique chain-link receiving socket is disclosed in combination with an attachment fitting for use in lashing cargo. The attachment device includes sockets which have vertical and horizontal slots configured to engageably receive a link chain lashing. If it is preferred, the attachment fitting may be secured to a support member by utilizing a deck socket as disclosed herein or it may be secured by any other means such as by welding. A deck socket may be used without the attachment fitting disclosed wherein other means having lugs similar to those of the attachment fitting may be used for engagement with the lugs of the deck socket. The deck socket and attachment fitting assembly provides interchangeability, strength, and low profile features which are not found in the present lashing devices.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS

Preferred embodiments of the invention are described hereinbelow with reference to the drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is an isometric view showing freight containers attached to a ship's deck by the deck socket and attachment fitting combination of the invention;

FIG. 2 is a vertical detailed section taken on line 2--2 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a plan view of the deck socket;

FIG. 4 is an isometric exploded view of the deck socket and its cooperating attachment fitting;

FIG. 5 shows a cover member for inactivating the deck socket when not in use;

FIG. 6 is a plan view of another modification of the deck socket;

FIG. 7 is a vertical section taken on line 7--7 of FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is a plan view of a deck socket similar to FIG. 1 having a different attachment fitting;

FIG. 9 is a plan view showing another modification and the deck socket and attachment fitting combination;

FIG. 10 is a vertical section taken in broken line 10--10 of FIG. 9;

FIG. 11 is a horizontal section taken on line 11--11 of FIG. 10;

FIG. 12 is a perspective of a deck socket similar to FIG. 1 but having a modified attachment fitting;

FIG. 13 is a side view of the deck socket of FIG. 12 showing a link chain lashing;

FIG. 14 is a perspective view of a hook type deck attachment fitting; and

FIG. 15 is a perspective view of a reversed-S shaped hook receiving member intended for use with the hook type deck attachment fitting of FIG. 14.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Referring first to FIGS. 1-4 FIG. 1 shows a portion 20 of a ship's deck on the surface of which a number of deck sockets 21 have been welded and on several of these deck sockets two freight containers 22 and 23 have been lowered and secured. At each of the lower corners of these containers lower corner fittings 24 have been applied and at each of their upper corners upper corner fittings 25 are shown.

Each of deck sockets 21 is made up of body member 26 which is circular in form, and has an attachment fitting indicated generally by numeral 27 connected to it.

As shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 4 this attachment fitting constitutes a stacker key inasmuch as the device is to be used in holding the containers 22 and 23 in place.

Body portion 26 of deck socket 21 has an upwardly directed flange 28 and projecting inwardly from flange 28 there are four lugs 29. These lugs are of equal size and equally spaced around the internal periphery of flange 28. Each flange has an undercut arcuate surface 30, the upper marginal portion 31 of which is nearer the center of body member 26 than the lower marginal portion 32. This may be accomplished by making the common center 33 (FIG. 3) of the two marginal portions of each lug offset from the center 34 of body member 26 and flange 28, and forming the surface 30 of each lug 29 as a frusto-conical surface of a cone whose apex is the center 33, through which the conical axis passes. As shown in FIG. 3, the center 33 for the lower right hand lug is slightly to the right of the vertical center line and a considerably greater distance from the horizontal line. The remaining lugs have their own centers (not shown) which are correspondingly positioned with respect to the center of the body member. The end edges of each lug 29 are approximately radial and the inner edge 31 is shorter than the outer end edge 32.

The attachment fitting 21 has an outwardly projecting horizontal flange 35 (FIG. 2) at the lower portion of its body member 36. The diameter of flange 35 is approximately the same or somewhat greater than the diameter of upwardly extending flange 28 of the deck socket. Formed in one piece with the lower surface of flange 35 (FIG. 4) and projecting downwardly therefrom are four undercut arcuate lugs 37. These lugs are preferably equally spaced apart circumferentially of flange 35 and project a distance below this flange which corresponds with the thickness of the undercut arcuate lugs 29 of the deck socket body member. Each of lugs 37 has surfaces 38 which correspond in thickness spacing and shape with lugs 29 of the deck socket body member except that surfaces 38 face outwardly whereas surfaces 30 face inwardly. In other words, the surfaces 38 also frustoconical and mate with the surfaces 30 when two parts are connected together. For the attachment fitting as shown in FIG. 2 the upper marginal portion 19 of the lug 37 is closer to the center of the fitting than the lower marginal portion 18. The marginal portions of eah lug preferably have a common center spaced from the center of the attachment fitting and are preferably connected by a frusto-conical surface which is oppositely configured and capable of mating in interlocking relation with the corresponding surface of each of the lugs of the deck socket. See FIG. 3 which illustrates the center associated with the lug in the lower right hand position of that Figure, for example. Thus, when the attachment fitting is placed in face-to-face relation with the deck socket, the lugs on the fitting are positioned between the lugs of the socket member. When the attachment fitting is rotated through a predetermined angle in relation to the deck socket, the frusto-conical surfaces 30 and 38 of the respective lugs contact each other in interfering relation until they engage each other in a wedging or camming action. The attachment fitting is thus prevented from rotating further. Depending upon the desired fit the interference relation of the surfaces of the lugs may be dimensioned and oriented so as to provide a sufficiently tight fitting assembly in which rotation of the attachment fitting in a direction which would remove it from the deck socket would be difficult in the absence of substantial rotational forces.

When it is desired to use the deck socket and attachment fitting combination of the invention in securing containers such as indicated at 22 and 23 to the deck, before the containers are lowered into place an attachment fitting 27 having a stacker key formation thereon as shown in FIGS. 2 and 4 is applied to each of the deck sockets 21. As shown the device has four interengaging undercut arcuate lugs on the attachment fitting and four mating lugs on the deck socket. Thus the stacker key or attachment fittings 27 can be placed in any of four positions 90° apart.

The users of these devices become very familiar with them and can quickly decide at which angle to insert the attachment fitting 27 so that the stacker key thereon will be in line with the oblong opening in the bottom of each of the lower corner fittings 24. Thus when the containers 22 and 23 are placed in position the arrangement of each of the stacker keys will be as shown in FIG. 2 so that a holding pin 39 can be inserted through the openings 40 on the ends of the lower corner fittings 24. Such insertion is made with the locking fingers 41 and 42 in their upward position at 180° from that shown in FIG. 2. After insertion these fingers 41 and 42 are turned downwardly and the inner finger 42 by cooperation with the lower edge 43 of the corner fitting will prevent the removal of the locking pin. This pin passing through an aperture 44 in the stacker key secures the container against upward movement.

Referring to FIG. 5 the socket and attachment fitting arrangement is revised somewhat so as to mount the socket flush with the surface of deck 20. The body member 26a of the socket is made flat and flange 28a is made cylindrical and projects through the deck opening 45 to but not above the deck upper surface. These parts are welded as indicated at 46 and 47 to the deck. The structure of the undercut arcuate lugs 29 is the same as previously described, and the attachment fitting 27 can be applied and removed in the same way as described. A cover member 48 may be applied for inactivating the deck socket when it is not to be used. Cover 48 is held in place by lugs 37a which are similar to lugs 37 of attachment fitting 27 and cooperate in the same way with lugs 29 of the socket.

In FIGS. 6 and 7 there is illustrated a modification of the device of the invention which is convenient where an extremely strong base is desired for use with unusually heavy containers or other loading, and yet accept the standard attachment fitting such as 27 when required.

This device is mounted flush with the surface of deck 20 in much the same way as the device of FIG. 5 but its body member 26b is extended a greater distance below the deck and is provided with two circular series of undercut arcuate lugs, one above the other, i.e. a double deck form. One of these series consists of lugs 29 as indicated which are arranged on the upper level. The lower second series (which is below lugs 29) consists of lugs 29a which correspond in shape with lugs 29 but are located somewhat nearer the center of the deck socket as shown in both FIGS. 6 and 7. Their end edges are in vertical alignment.

An attachment fitting to engage the deck socket just described is constructed with undercut arcuate lugs similar to lugs 27 previously described, and it has a second series of such lugs for co-action with the lower series of lugs 29a of the deck socket illustrated in FIG. 7. When it is not necessary to anchor extremely heavy loading, an attachment fitting such as 27 is used and its lugs engage only the upper series of lugs 29 as shown in FIG. 7. Cover member 48 may be placed on the deck socket of FIG. 7 when this socket is not in use.

In FIG. 8 there is shown a deck socket 21b which may be similar to deck socket 21 of FIGS. 2-4 or deck socket 21a of FIG. 5. However, the attachment fitting 27a, instead of mounting a stacker key as shown in FIGS. 2 and 4, has secured to it a special form of D-ring 49. The inner or lower portion of this ring is pivoted beneath a member 50 which is welded or otherwise secured to fitting 27a. The inner portion of ring 49 has an inward protuberance 51 which insures that a lashing hook 52 must be so connected that the pull of the hook will be applied to one side or the other of the center of the attachment fitting.

It will be understood that if desired the cooperating undercut arcuate lugs of any of the devices of the invention may be arranged so that the fitting is locked in position on the socket by either clockwise or counter-clockwise rotation. In the drawings clockwise rotation is understood when the fitting is to be locked in position, and counter clockwise when it is to be removed. The device of FIG. 8 is made for attaching the fitting 27a by clockwise rotation and detaching it by rotating it in the opposite direction. Accordingly when a hook 52 is applied as shown the pull will be in a direction to maintain the fitting 27a in locked position. Such a hook may be used in connection with a lashing cable or rod 59 such as shown in FIG. 1.

In FIGS. 9-11 there is illustrated an attachment fitting 27a on which is mounted a standard D-ring 53. When a lashing hook is applied to this D-ring it engages the center of the ring and may tend to rotate the attachment fitting in either direction. In order therefore to maintain the inter-engaging undercut arcuate lugs on the attachment fitting and on the deck socket 55 in locked engagement, a latching lever 56 is pivoted at 57 on attachment fitting 27b and may be shifted from its upper or dotted position of FIG. 10 to its lower or full line position and, when in such lower position it engages the side walls of a notch 58 in deck socket 55. The undercut arcuate lugs 29b on attachment fitting 27a of this device are similar in all respects to lugs 29b as described in connection with FIGS. 2-4. Also the cooperating lugs on deck socket 55 are similar to those described previously.

In FIG. 12 there is illustrated an attachment fitting 60 which may or may not be used with a deck socket such as those previously described. There is shown four off-center chain link sockets 62 on a flange 61. The sockets are configured to receive a link-type chain lashing. When adjacent interlocked links such as 66 and 68 of the lashing chain 64 are received within the vertical gap 70 and the horizontal gap 72 in the manner shown in FIG. 13, the chain length is conveniently and adjustably engaged for lashing purposes. The chain link sockets 62 are spaced off the center of the attachment fitting and are preferably equally spaced 90 degrees apart from each other on the fitting. Each socket is oriented perpendicularly to adjacent sockets as shown to facilitate lashing in several directions. The forces transmitted from the multi-directional lashing, combined with the distance to the center of the fitting, causes a rotational moment to be applied to the attachment fitting which prevents the fitting from being released from the socket member. The lashing angles which most effectively prevent rotation of the attachment fitting are preferably within the angular ranges shown in FIG. 12 and defined by identifing lines C, D and E. The cross-sections of the vertical and horizontal gaps, 70 and 72, are arcuately configured as shown so as to engageably receive at least two interlocked chain links as shown in FIG. 13. The vertical gap 70 substantially divides the chain-receiving socket into two half sections, while the horizontal gap extends through the central portion of the socket and has an internal arcuate configuration for engageable reception of the horizontal chain link 60 shown in FIG. 13. As it is preferred the attachment fitting may or may not include interlocking arcuate lugs for use with a deck socket device as previously described.

In FIG. 15 there is illustrated an attachment fitting 82 which is also intended for use with a deck socket of the type previously described. There is either an S or a reverse-S shaped hook receiving member 84 having two reversed off-center open arcuate sections 86 and 88 with arcuate inner surface portions 87 and 89 configured to engageably receive up to two lashing hooks such as the Bulb Hook 90 shown in FIG. 14. The hook 90 has a curved hooking portion 92 attached to a stem portion 94, with a substantially cylindrical anchor member 96 affixed to, and perpendicular to the lower end of the stem. When the cylindrical member is inserted within the open portion of the arcuate hook receiving member 84, the stem 94 of the hook 90 is engageably nestled within the arcuate inner surface portion (87 or 89, depending on the orientation of the hook) and the hooking portion may be used for lashing purposes. The angle of lashing in a horizontal plane, is preferably within the range of 120° as shown for each arcuate member 86 and 88 by lines F, G, H and J in FIG. 15, so that the displacement from the center of the attachment fitting, combined with the angle and magnitude of the lashing forces, will prevent relative rotation of the attachment fitting out of the deck socket. The lashing angles above the horizontal plane may be within a range up to about 80° as shown for example by line K in FIG. 15. Either the S or the reversed-S configuration could be used as required in a particular application depending upon the required lashing angles and directions. Further, it can be seen that by rotating the attachment fitting 90° within a deck socket, the arcuate hook receiving members will also be rotated 90° to accomodate additional lashing direction requirements for a specific application requirement.

It will be understood that although the devices shown in the drawings are provided with four cooperating undercut arcuate lugs in each instance, the number of these lugs can be made to suit any particular desired conditions. For example in some instances it may be preferable to use only three such lugs instead of four. In no case however will a 360° rotation be required to effect locking or unlocking.

The deck socket and fitting combination of the present invention is simple in construction and operation, and inexpensive to manufacture. The deck socket represents a low profile and, in its simplest form requires no cutting of the deck. It is merely a question of selecting the desired positions and then welding the deck sockets in place. The use of these devices under many circumstances provides ample restraint for containers and eliminates lashing. The unit tightens when an effort is made to turn it, for example, in the clockwise direction, and this can be taken advantage of as a hold-down for a cable or rod where the load can be applied somewhat off-center and in a direction tending to turn the attachment fitting clockwise; however, the device may be made to lock in a counter-clockwise direction. The undercut arcuate lugs of the device are constructed to provide a broad surface against a broad surface so that the device has substantial load-bearing capability. As indicated previously double rows of lugs provide a very strong base for use with extremely heavy loading, and yet standard fittings with only a single row can be used when required. Alternate attachment fittings can be used with the deck sockets such as posts for trailer support, barrier posts to retain cargo in place, net tie-down points, etc.

It will be understood that the foregoing description is of preferred embodiments of the invention and is therefore merely representative. In order to appreciate more fully the spirit and scope of the invention, reference should be made to the appended claims.