Title:
CANDLES AND MANUFACTURE THEREOF
United States Patent 3844706


Abstract:
A candle having a shaped, thermoplastic blend with a wick extending therethrough. The thermoplastic blend includes ethylcellulose and at least one glyceride. Preferably the blend is transparent and preferably it also incorporates a minor amount of an additive, such as an oxa- or oxo- group containing compound, or even a heavy petroleum hydrocarbon.



Inventors:
TSARAS E
Application Number:
05/411050
Publication Date:
10/29/1974
Filing Date:
10/30/1973
Assignee:
TSARAS E,US
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
44/275
International Classes:
C11C5/00; (IPC1-7): F23D3/16
Field of Search:
44/7.5,7B,7C,7D 431
View Patent Images:
US Patent References:



Primary Examiner:
Dority Jr., Carroll B.
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Hill, Gross, Simpson, Van Santen, Steadman, Chiara & Simpson
Claims:
The claims are

1. A candle comprising a body having therein a wick,

2. from about 6 to 55 weight percent ethyl cellulose and

3. from about 45 to 94 weight percent of at least one glyceride,

4. be impregnated by said blend when said blend is in a heated, liquified form, and

5. provide capillary action for such heated, liquified form of said blend,

6. The candle of claim 1 wherein said wick comprises a plurality of combustible, organic fibrous members disposed in generally adjacent relationship to one another and wherein said body is in a solid or semi-solid form at room temperatures and pressures.

7. The candle of claim 1 wherein said wick and said body are substantially completely combusted as said wick so burns.

8. The candle of claim 1 wherein said blend comprises (a) from about 15 to 45 weight percent of ethyl cellulose having an ethoxyl content of from about 45 to 49 weight percent (total cellulose basis) and a viscosity of from about 50 to 300 centipoises when measured as a 5 weight percent concentration at 25°C in an 80:20 toluene/ethanol solution using a sample dried for 30 minutes at 100°C, and (b) from about 55 to 85 weight percent of at least one triglyceride having a molecular weight above about 650.

9. The candle of claim 4 wherein said triglyceride is castor oil.

10. The candle of claim 1 wherein said body has incorporated thereinto from 0 up to about 40 weight percent (total candle body weight basis) of at least one additive selected from the group consisting of (a) organic compounds containing at least one oxa or at least one oxo group and from about 7 through 50 carbon atoms per molecule, and (b) viscous petroleum hydrocarbons containing at least about 15 carbon atoms per molecule, said additive being further characterized by being soluble in corn oil at the rate of 10 parts additive per 100 parts corn oil and by having when so dissolved in corn oil the capacity to dissolve ethyl cellulose having an ethoxyl content ranging from about 45.0 to 49.0 weight percent total ethyl cellulose basis in such corn oil solution at the rate of about 20 parts by weight of such ethyl cellulose per 100 parts by weight of such corn oil solution at about 180°C within a time interval of about 15 minutes, the total amount of any given such additive used in any given said candle body being generally insufficient to cause either the torch effect, or the bleeding effect.

11. The candle of claim 6 wherein the amount of any given such additive used in any given said candle body is additionally generally insufficient to cause opacity.

12. The candle of claim 6 wherein said additive is employed at the rate of from about 3 to 20 weight percent (total candle body weight basis), the total amount of any given such additive used in any given said candle body being generally insufficient to cause either the torch effect or the bleeding effect.

13. The candle of claim 6 additionally containing less than about 10 weight percent (total candle body weight basis) of an organophosphate.

14. The candle of claim 6 additionally containing less than about 30 weight percent (total candle body weight basis) of a material selected from the class consisting of rosin adducts.

15. The candle of claim 5 wherein said triglyceride is selected from the group consisting of corn oil, soybean oil and safflower oil.

16. The candle of claim 1 wherein said glyceride is selected from the group consisting of semi-drying oils and non-drying oils.

17. The candle of claim 1 wherein said glyceride comprises from about 1 to 30 weight percent of at least one glyceride oil from the group consisting of safflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, and olive oil mixed with a balance up to 100 weight percent of castor oil.

18. The candle of claim 1 wherein said body is substantially transparent.

19. The candle of claim 6 wherein said body is substantially transparent.

20. A process for making a candle comprising the steps of:

21. be impregnated by said blend when in a heated, liquified form, and

22. provide capillary action for such heated, liquified form of said blend, and

23. The process of claim 15 wherein from about 15 to 45 weight percent ethyl cellulose having an ethoxyl content of from about 45 to 49 weight percent (total cellulose basis) and a viscosity of from about 50 to 300 centipoises when measured as a 5 weight percent concentration at 25°C in an 80:20 toluene/ethanol solution using a sample dried for 30 minutes at 100°C, is dissolved in from about 55 to 85 weight percent of at least one triglyceride having a molecular weight above about 650 (total 100 weight percent composition basis).

24. The process of claim 17 wherein said triglyceride is castor oil.

25. The process of claim 16 wherein said glyceride initially has dissolved therein from 0 up to about 40 weight percent, total compsition weight basis, of at least one additive selected from the group consisting of (a) organic compounds containing at least one oxa or at least one oxo group and from about 7 through 50 carbon atoms per molecule, and (b) viscous petroleum hydrocarbons containing at least about 15 carbon atoms per molecule, said additive being further characterized by being soluble in corn oil at the rate of 10 parts additive per 100 parts corn oil and by having when so dissolved in corn oil the capacity to dissolve ethyl cellulose having an ethoxyl content ranging from about 45.0 to 49.0 weight percent total ethyl cellulose basis in such corn oil solution at the rate of about 20 parts by weight of such ethyl cellulose per 100 parts by weight of such corn oil solution at about 180°C within a time interval of about 15 minutes, the total amount of any given such additive used in any given said composition being generally insufficient to cause either the torch effect/or the bleeding effect.

26. The process of claim 19 wherein the amount of any given such additive used in any given said composition is additionally generally insufficient to cause opacity in the resulting cooled such composition.

27. A process for making a candle comprising the steps of:

28. be impregnated by said blend when in a heated, liquified form, and

29. provide capillary action for such heated, liquified form of said blend,

30. The candle of claim 1 wherein said ethyl cellulose is substantially ashless.

31. The candle of claim 6 wherein said ethyl cellulose is substantially ashless.

Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Historically, a candle is formed of a solid or semi-solid body of tallow, or wax, especially paraffin wax or bees wax, containing imbedded therein a loosely twisted fibrous (e.g., cotton or linen) wick which when burned gave light, although candles having a liquid body are known.

More recently, efforts have been made to find materials other than tallow or wax which could be used for the body portion of a solid or semi-solid candle. The incentive for such efforts has come from a variety of sources. For one thing, the currently rising cost and and seamingly increasingly limited availability of paraffin wax helps generate a desire to find substitutes suitable for use in candle body manufacture strong. For another thing, conventional tallows and waxes are inherently opaque or translucent, not transparent, which limits and even prevents their utilization in a solid or semi-solid body portion of a transparent candle, such as is desired for esthetic reasons, or special decorative effects, and the like.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

There has now been discovered a new and very useful candle construction having a solid or semi-solid body whose body portion can be fabricated of readily available and economical materials other than tallow or wax, and which can be substantially transparent. There have also now been discovered methods for making such candle construction.

The candles of this invention can be easily and simply manufactured using commonly available equipment.

A candle of this invention can be made in a form such that the body portion thereof is comprised of combustible solid or semi-solid thermoplastic material which can be, and preferably is substantially transparent, so that a wide variety of candle applications and decorative effects become possible and practical.

An aim of this invention is to provide compositions suitable for use in the body portion of such candles.

Other and further aims, objects, purposes, advantages, utilities, and features will be apparent to those skilled in the art from a reading of the present specification and drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

In the drawings:

FIG. 1 shows a side elevational view of one embodiment of a candle of the present invention;

FIG. 2 shows a similar view of another embodiment; and

FIG. 3 is a simple flow diagram illustrating one technique for making candles of this invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present invention is directed to a candle comprised of a body having therein a wick. The body is preferably shaped, as by molding or the like, and comprises on a 100 weight percent basis a preferably substantially uniform, thermoplastic blend of

1. from about 6 to 55 weight percent ethyl cellulose (preferably about 15 to 45 weight percent) and

2. from about 45 to 94 weight percent of at least one glyceride (preferably about 55 to 85 weight percent).

Which blend is adapted to be in a solid or semi-solid form at room temperatures and pressures.

The wick in such a candle is combustible and can be constructed similarly to those used in prior art candles. A suitable wick can obviously be formed of many different materials and compositions, but presently preferably comprises a plurality of discrete combustible organic fibrous members disposed in generally adjacent relationship to one another. A typical wick thus can be comprised of organic fibers of natural or even synthetic origin which are stable to conditions used in making a candle of this invention and which fibers are preliminarily twisted, woven, braided or the like (e.g., cotten, linen, flax, polyester, etc.). A wick is adapted to

1. be impregnated by a candle body blend used in this invention when such a blend is in a heated, liquified form, and

2. provide capillary action, or equivalent, for such a heated liquified form of such blend.

Preferably, a wick extends longitudinally through one such thermoplastic body. More than a single wick may be used in spaced relationship to each other in a single candle body used in this invention, although it is usually convenient to employ a single wick member centrally disposed in a shaped candle body. One can use a type of wick which has a wire-like metallic member extending therethrough among the organic fibers, such as a small lead wire, or the like. The composition of the metal therein, together with the cross-sectional size thereof, are preferably such that this member melts as the product candle incorporating such burns. The amount of metal thus generated is preferably insufficient to interfere with the normal, desired functioning of such candle.

In a candle of this invention the combination of the body portion and the wick is such that, when an upper end of said wick is in a generally vertical configuration in said body and is ignited, said wick burns with a generally luminous flame, and this ignited wick is adapted to combust gradually, but preferably substantially completely, both said body and said wick.

Most preferably, a candle of this invention has a body which is transparent, or substantially so. A semi-hazy candle body can become substantially completely or partially (in the region of the wick) clear during burning. In such body the ethyl cellulose is preferably substantially completely dissolved in the glyceride. Such body characteristically is in a solid or semi-solid condition whose viscosity is at least such that it cannot be poured, as from a water-glass sized container at room temperature and pressure. Preferably such body is at least sufficiently rigid to support itself in a free standing, unsupported condition in a candle product of this invention.

The Glycerides

Glycerides are esters of glycerol. Glycerides useful in this invention can be partial glycerides (e.g., mono- or diglycerides), but triglycerides are generally preferred. Preferred triglycerides for use in this invention have molecular weights above about 650. Glycerides occur in all forms of animal and vegetable life. Triglycerides of fatty acids in which all the fatty acid radicals are alike are called simple triglycerides. Most natural fats contain only a minor percentage of simple triglycerides, and consist mainly of mixed triglycerides, which have two or three different kinds of fatty acid combined in a single molecule. When only one or two of the hydroxyl groups of a glycerine molecule are esterified with fatty acid, the resulting glycerides are called monoglycerides and diglycerides, respectively. There are two types of monoglycerides, since the fatty acid radical must be attached either at the end or at the middle of the glycerol residue. There are four types of diglyceride structures, simple and mixed, with two possible positions in each case for the unesterified hydroxyl. Preferably monoglycerides are used in combination with di or tri glycerides in this invention.

Triglycerides are found in seeds. Examples suitable for use in this invention include corn, peanut, (groundnut), cottonseed, soybean, rapeseed, coconut, olive, linseed, (flaxseed), sunflower sesame, palm, palmkernel, castor (presently most preferred), Chinawood (tung), and the like.

Glycerides may be classified by any convenient means, such as according to their ability to form dry films by oxidation and polymerization on exposure to air, or according to the specific fatty acids from which they are derived.

In terms of drying capacity, the principal glyceride oils can be grouped as follows:

Group I Drying oils: (Linolenic-linoleic types), Linseed, sunflower, Tung, Walnut, Hempseed, Poppyseed. Group II Semidrying (Oleic-linoleic types), Corn, Cottonseed, oils: Rapeseed, Sesame, Soybean Group III Nondrying (Oleic-acid types), Coconut, Palm oils: Kernel, Castor, Olive, Peanut, Palm, Date.

The glycerides of Groups II and III are a preferred class of glycerides for use in this invention.

As those skilled in the art appreciate, the most abundant of the unsaturated fatty acid in glycerides are oleic, linoleic, and linolenic, which are quite distinctive acids because of having one, two and three double bonds, respectively, per molecule. Castor oil is an exception in that it comprises typically about 80 to 90 weight percent ricinoleic acid which is an 18-carbon atom monocarboxylic acid with a double bond in the 9-10 position and a hydroxyl group in the 12 carbon atom position. Among the saturated acids, palmitic is predominant, accompanied usually by a small and not highly significant amount of stearic. For present purposes, glycerides are preferably characterized by the specific fatty acids incorporated thereinto (and from which they are usually derived). As used herein, the term "fatty acid" includes the entire homologous series of normal, odd and even numbered aliphatic acids, homologs and isomers of the unsaturated acids and various substituted acids, from, for examples, acetic to n-octatriacontanoic (C37 H75 COOH). However, for practical purposes, it is preferred to employ, in glycerides used in the present invention, fatty acids containing from about four to 25 carbon atoms per molecule and more preferably from about 12 to 22 carbon atoms per molecule. Glycerides containing lower fatty acids (e.g., certain fatty acids containing below about 12 carbon atoms per molecule) tend to produce in product candles undesirable odors during burning thereof.

One presently much preferred triglyceride is castor oil, which tends to form, when used as the sole component with ethyl cellulose, relatively soft, relatively non-brittle candle bodies. Except for linseed oil and possibly a few other glycerides, most other glycerides tend to form harder and more brittle candle bodies. Also castor oil seems to resist oxidation during aging in candles of this invention.

One presently preferred class of triglycerides whose members behave somewhat similarly in the present invention comprises corn oil, soya bean oil, and safflower oil and like oils. Castor oil in combination with ethyl cellulose has the capacity to form two-component single-phase compositions which are well suited for use in the shaped body portion of a candle of the type of this invention; such shaped body portions characteristically produce little or no sweating during combustion in a candle and have long storage ability.

Castor oil and such preferred class of corn oil, safflower oil, and soya bean oil is characterized by being in the form (at room conditions) of light yellow, clear, oily liquids. They can have a faint characteristic odor and taste except for castor oil which is available commercially in odorless or nearly odorless, forms. Odorless, or nearly odorless such oils are preferred. They also have a density d2525 in the range of about 0.914 to 0.980, a saponification number in the range from about 170 to 205, an iodine number in the range of about 80 to 150. They usually and preferably contain not more than about 5 weight percent (total weight basis) of unsaponifiable matter. Some glyceride oils used in this group may have an acidic additive therein, owing to their method of manufacture. For example, while higher acid number corn oils are known (e.g., having acid numbers greater than two, for example), those skilled in the art will appreciate that such higher acid number corn oils have a tendency to contain more than a single type of glyceride component and also non-glyceride components.

All glycerides, with the possible exception of castor oil, or some combination of castor oil with another glyceride, are presently generally somewhat prone, when combined only with an ethyl cellulose and used in a candle body in accord with the teachings of this invention, to display, when in such a two-component system, a tendency to exude, sweat, or bleed the glyceride oil from the candle body composition as when being combusted in a lighted candle, or even, sometimes, when the product candle is in storage, particularly for prolonged periods. In addition, such a two-component system can display an initial tendency to embrittlement, which is generally undesirable from the standpoint of candle handling, storing and shipping, but later in storage, the embrittlement tends to gradually diminish.

Mixtures of different glycerides are desirable as a means of obtaining some particular intended result, such as a lower cost for starting materials, or as a technique for using generally less desirable glycerides with more desirable glycerides, or as a technique for obtaining special aromatic effects during burning of a product candle, or as a technique for avoiding or as a means for minimizing oil bleeding, or the like. For example, from about 1 to 30 weight percent of at least one glyceride oil selected from the group consisting of safflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil and olive oil mixed with a balance up to 100 weight percent (e.g., 70 to 99 wt. percent of a given composition of castor oil provides a useful class of glyceride mixtures for use in this invention. Olive oil, for example, by itself used as the glyceride tends to produce candle body compositions which are somewhat brittle and semi-opaque; yet, in such a combination with castor oil, useful and desirable candle body compositions characteristically result.

Glycerides which are liquid at room temperature and pressure are generally preferred for use in making candles of this invention, although amounts of up to about 30 weight percent of glycerides which are solid at such conditions, such as hydrogenated glycerides, can generally be incorporated with such a liquid glyceride and the preferred transparent candles of this invention can still be produced.

In general, heat treated glycerides of the drying oil type appear to be generally less desirable for use in this invention than are the corresponding raw glycerides. However, the opposite situation may prevail with respect to glycerides of the semi-drying oil type.

The Ethyl Cellulose

Ethyl cellulose is a cellulose ether made, for example, by reacting ethyl chloride with alkali cellulose. Any one or more of a wide variety of different such ethyl celluloses is useful in this invention.

The structure most widely accepted for the cellulose molecule, as those skilled in the art appreciate, is a chain of β-anhydroglucose units joined together by acetal linkages. Each anhydroglucose unit has three replaceable-OH groups, all or a part of which may be replaced with ethoxy units. Complete substitution of all three-OH groups gives a triethyl ether having a substitution value of 3, or 54.88 per cent ethoxyl. The completely substituted triethyl cellulose has little value in the present invention because it lacks thermoplasticity and has limited compatibility and solubility.

Preferred ethyl celluloses for use in this invention have a substitution value between about 2.15 and 2.60 ethoxyl groups per anhydroglucose unit, or about 43 to 50 per cent ethoxyl content. More preferred ethyl celluloses have about 45.0 to 49.0 percent ethoxyl content (same total ethyl cellulose weight percent basis).

Similarly, the ethyl cellulose used in this invention can have a very large molecular weight, but a preferred class of ethyl cellulose materials has a molecular weight such that the viscosity thereof ranges from about 3 to 350 centipoises when measured in a 5 weight percent concentration at 25°C. in an 80:20 toluene/ethanol solution using a sample dried for 30 minutes at 100°C. More preferred ethyl celluloses have a viscosity of from about 50 to 300 centipoises when so measured. Different viscosity types of starting ethyl cellulose can be blended to produce a product ethyl cellulose of a desired viscosity, using the Arrhenius equation which relates viscosity and concentration, for use in making candles of this invention.

One class of ethyl celluloses which is now preferred for use in the present invention combusts without leaving substantially any ash. Such a material is available commercially, for example, the material sold the trade designation K--200 from Hercules, Inc. of Wilmington, Del., and such a material can be made by the following procedure:

About 100 grams of ethyl cellulose are mixed and wetted with 2 liters of deionized, or preferably distilled water, after which about 20 cubic centimeters of glacial acetic acid are added and mixed therewith. The mixture is steeped for 2 to 3 hours at a temperature in the range of from about 60° to 80°C., and then the aqueous phase is decanted. The remaining solids are repeatedly washed with water to remove all acetic acid, and then these washed solids are dried in an oven at about 105°C until completely dry. Such procedure serves to remove substantially all sodium ions from the ethyl cellulose.

Additives

Preferably, a candle body of this invention has additionally incorporated thereinto preferably uniformly an amount ranging from 0 up to about 40 weight percent, or even somewhat higher (total candle body weight basis), of at least one compound selected from the group consisting (a) organic compounds containing at least one =C-O-group or at least one =C=O (e.g., at least one oxa or oxo group) and from about 7 through 50 carbon atoms per molecule, and (b) viscous petroleum hydrocarbons containing at least about 15 carbon atoms per molecule. Organic compounds of such type (a) have the carbon atom adjacent the oxygen atom bonded to one or more atoms, such as especially carbon. Such an additive compound is additionally further characterized by being soluble in corn oil at the rate of 10 parts additive per 100 parts corn oil and by having when so dissolved in corn oil the capacity to dissolve ethyl cellulose in such corn oil solution at the rate of about 20 parts by weight of such ethyl cellulose having an ethoxyl content in the range from about 45.0 to 49.0 weight percent total ethyl cellulose basis per 100 parts by weight of such corn oil solution at about 180°C. within a time interval of about 15 minutes (with mixing). The quantity of any given additive compound used in any given candle body composition is preferably so chosen as not to interfere with the normal and desired properties of the product candle. Usually, and more preferably, the total amount of such additive compound(s) employed in a given candle body falls in the range from about 3 to 20 weight percent (total candle body weight basis).

Such an additive compound functions as a sort of plasticizer with one or more of the following capacities: Hardness control agent; clarification control agent; dissolution rate accelerator (or dissolution time shortener) of the ethyl cellulose in the glyceride; combustion control agent; oil exudation or sweating control agent; or the like. Thus, such an additive compound can either strengthen or soften a candle body, depending upon concentration, can lessen the tendency of a candle body to exude oil during burning or storage, can shorten the dissolution time of ethyl cellulose in glyceride and thus reduce and minimize discoloration in a candle body caused by the initial heating and dissolution of ethyl cellulose in glyceride, can contribute to the clarification desired in a dissolved blend of ethyl cellulose and glyceride, and/or the like.

One suitable class of additive compounds is characterized by the generic formula

R1 -X 1.

where:

R1 is a hydrocarbon radical containing from about 5 through about 37 carbon atoms and X is selected from the group consisting of hydroxyl, carboxyl, the radical ##SPC1##

the radical ##SPC2##

and the radical ##SPC3##

Y is hydrogen, or the radical ##SPC4##

n and m are each integers of from about 1 through 50, and

R2 is hydrogen or a hydrocarbon radical containing from about 5 through 20 carbon atoms.

R1 and also R2 can each be a straight or a branched chain, and contain cyclic hydrocarbon structures, and R1 and R2 can each be saturated or unsaturated. R1 and R2 can each contain one or several functional groups, such as hydroxyl or carboxyl.

Another suitable class of additive compounds is characterized by the generic formula ##SPC5##

where:

R3 is the same as R2 in formula 1, and

p is an integer of from 1 through 18

The sebasic and phthalate esters are typical and prefered members of the formula (2) compounds. The ##SPC6##

chain can be straight or branched, and may sometimes include unsaturated moieties. R3 can be the radical of the type ##SPC7##

where k is an integer of from about 4 through 18; in this class, a formula 3 compound can include a polyethylene, or a polypropylene, or a mixed polyolefin chain terminating the ends of the dicarboxylic acid - type material.

Yet another suitable class of additive compounds includes the polyolefin glycols, such as those of polyethylene, polypropylene or mixed systems.

Although polyolefin glycols having a molecular weight of about 200 are compatible as additives, these materials have a tendency to be hydroscopic and may eventually absorb into a candle body sufficient moisture from the atmosphere to result in generally undesired effects after manufacture.

Also, rosin and rosin adducts are known to possess high molecular weight acid components and this circumstance may explain their usual characteristically high compatibility with an ethyl cellulose/triglyceride mixture. The same is true of the natural resins such as gum, gum elemi, vinsol (a pine resin), and the like. Although many natural gums are compatible with ethyl cellulose, only a few are compatible with both ethyl cellulose and glyceride in combination. An example of this type of incompatibility is the gum pontianac.

The compatibility of phenolic resins with candle body compositions is somewhat different; many of them are compatible, but they tend to discolor on heating, and they also tend to produce candle flames that smoke. Styrenated alkyds are compatible also, but likewise are prone to produce candle flames that smoke.

Typically, not all additives are useful over the entire above indicated weight percentage ranges because of various undesired side effects sometimes produced by particular additives in particular candle body systems. For example, certain additives if used in relatively high amounts can sometimes produce a candle body which ignites and burns as a sort of torch (called herein the "torch effect"). Illustrations of such additives in particular candle bodies are shown in Table I below. ##SPC8##

Footnotes for Table I:

1. The glyceride used here was castor oil.

2. The composition also included 15 wt. percent K--200 type ethyl cellulose from Hercules, with the balance up to 100 weight percent being corn oil.

3. Composition included 20 percent ethyl cellulose and 40 percent safflower oil (100 weight percent basis).

4. Composition included 15 percent ethyl cellulose and 45 percent safflower oil (100 weight percent basis).

5. Composition included 15 percent ethyl cellulose and 55 percent safflower oil (100 weight percent basis).

6. Composition 15 percent ethyl cellulose and 45 percent corn oil (100 weight percent basis).

7. Composition included 15 percent ethyl cellulose, 45 percent corn oil (100 weight percent basis).

The torch effect is eliminatable either by using a torch effect-prone additive at a level which does not cause this effect or by using a different such additive altogether, as respects a given candle body.

As a class, the well-known organophosphates appear to be generally compatible with the ethyl cellulose/glyceride candle body compositions used in this invention. Because of their (known) flame flow retardant properties, such organophosphates can be employed to supress such a torch effect in a candle body of this invention. Suitable organophosphates include triphenyl phosphate, tricresyl phosphate, crysel diphenyl phosphate and the like. Usually amounts less than about 5 or even 10 weight percent thereof (total candle body weight basis) are sufficient, provided the amount of the flame-causing additive present in a given candle body composition is not large enough to overcome the suppressant effect of the quantity of organophosphate employed and this latter value can vary from one candle to another, but is usually less than about 25 weight percent (total weight basis).

Another example of a generally undesired side effect occasionally seen with additive usages is the so-called "bleeding effect." Thus, a freshly made candle made with certain glycerides can tend to bleed within about 24 hours of initial fabrication. This bleeding effect can be promoted or suppressed through the use of additives. Also, a candle of this invention can sometimes show a tendency to bleed during normal burning, particularly in the region where the candle body is warmed by the flame about the wick. After the wick is extinguished, the exuded oil may be reabsorbed by the candle body. It appears common that candle body structures with components (i.e., too little ethyl cellulose, too much additive, or the like) exhibit oil exudation within 24 hours after manufacture.

In general, candle body structures that tend to bleed oil upon being manually squeezed between a pair of fingers at room temperature and pressure also tend to bleed oil during burning, although it appears that most if not all such oil so bled from such candle body structure is absorbed back into the candle bodies upon cooling after the wicks are extinguished. Castor oil, for example, seems to give candle body structures which when balanced (a generally optimized blend of ethyl cellulose, glyceride and/or additive of the latter is present) apparently exude substantially no oil when pressured manually between a pair of fingers, or when burned, even for indefinite periods of time over the life of a candle. It is possible that a candle body structure which exudes an excessive amount of oil at room temperature and pressure can catch fire after the wick thereof is ignited. Illustrations of such additives in particular candle bodies are shown in Table II below. ##SPC9##

Footnotes for Table II:

1. Composition included 15 weight percent ethyl cellulose and 55 weight safflower oil (100 weight percent basis).

2. Composition included 15 weight percent ethyl cellulose and 61 weight corn oil (100 weight percent basis).

3. Composition included 15 weight percent ethyl cellulose and 65 weight castor oil (100 weight percent basis).

4. Composition included 15 weight percent ethyl cellulose and 65 weight castor oil (100 weight percent basis).

5. Composition included 15 weight percent ethyl cellulose and 75 weight corn oil (100 weight percent basis).

6. Composition included 15 weight percent ethyl cellulose and 55 weight corn oil (100 weight percent basis).

The bleeding effect is eliminatable by using a mixture of additives, by reducing the amount of bleed-producing additives or by using a different such additive altogether, or by increasing relatively the total amount of ethyl cellulose present, as respects a given candle body composition.

Certain rosin adducts such as the glycerol ester of pentaerythritol, for example, inhibit the bleeding effect and are highly compatible with the glyceride and ethyl cellulose mixture. Usually amounts less than about 30 weight percent of such a compatible rosin adduct additive (total candle body weight basis) are sufficient to inhibit bleeding in a candle body composition, provided the amount of the bleed-causing glyceride component present in a given candle body is not large enough to overcome the inhibiting effect of the particular quantity of such rosin adduct present.

Some additives especially when used in higher amounts within the additive ranges indicated herein can sometimes produce opacity in a candle body used in this invention (herein termed for convenience the "opacity effect"). In general, if an additive is used in an amount beyond its solubility limits at a given temperature and pressure in a given glyceride system, then the resulting candle body can become opaque at least when cooled. Some candle bodies will remain opaque until the candle is lighted, then, as the body warms by the flame about the wick, the region warmed becomes transparent for so long as the body remains suitably so warmed.

Hydrogenated glycerides by themselves can tend to result in opacification of a candle body, apparently. In addition, additives such as saturated fatty acids and alcohols, higher esters such as those of the spermacetti type, and monoesters of saturated long-chain acids can tend to cause opacity in a candle body of this invention when used in amounts typically above about 5 to 15 weight percent (total weight basis), the exact amount depending upon the individual candle body involved (similarly to the additives causing the torch effect and the bleeding effect). Illustrations of such additives in particular candle bodies are shown in Table III below. ##SPC10##

Footnotes for Table III:

1. Balance included 15 percent ethyl cellulose, 70 percent corn oil (100 weight percent total weight basis).

2. Balance included 62 percent corn oil, 15 percent ethyl cellulose (100 weight percent total weight basis).

3. Balance included 15 percent ethyl cellulose, 73 percent corn oil (100 weight percent total weight basis).

4. Balance included 15 percent ethyl cellulose and 75 percent corn oil (100 weight percent total weight basis).

5. Balance included 30 percent ethyl cellulose, 59 percent castor oil (100 weight percent total weight basis).

6. Balance included 63 percent castor oil, 10 percent safflower oil, 15 percent ethyl cellulose. (100 weight percent total weight basis). All ethyl celluloses used here in Table III are Hercules K--200 type.

The opacity effect is eliminatable by minimizing the use of opacifying additives, by non-use thereof, and/or by using mixtures of, different additives with a glyceride, as those skilled in the art will appreciate. As indicated earlier, candles of this invention preferably have their body portions in a transparent condition (as at room temperatures and pressures) so it is preferred to avoid the opacity effect or opacification in candles of this invention.

In general, a given candle body of this invention contains a quantity of a given additive compound which does not produce a deleterious or unwanted side effect, such as the torch effect or the bleeding effect, and which also preferably does not produce opacification. Owing apparently to the complex nature of the glyceride and ethyl cellulose materials employed in the candle bodies utilized in this invention, it is unfortunately not possible to make sweeping quantitative generalizations about the optimum quantity of some particular additive compound which should be used in some particular ethyl cellulose/glyceride system, or even about the maximum or minimum quantity of such additive compound which could or should be used in such system in all circumstances. The best that can be done is to indicate the levels at which identified classes and types of; additive compounds may be employed in candles of this invention, and also to indicate the known types of problems which can occur with the use of such additive compounds, all of which has been earnestly undertaken herein to the best of currently available technical information. It is preferred to dissolve additive compounds in the glyceride before adding the ethyl cellulose to the glyceride.

Preparation Procedures

A candle of this invention can be prepared by any convenient procedure, as those skilled in the art will appreciate. One preferred procedure is illustrated in FIG. 3 which shows a self-explanatory process flow diagram. In this procedure, one initially dissolves at a temperature ranging from about 100° to 200 °C (preferably 160° to 195° C) the ethyl cellulose in the glyceride desired to produce a uniform, heatfused liquid blend.

Then, by one (preferred) process, one deposits the so-heated and so-produced liquid blend in a mold cavity of predetermined dimensions. This cavity is equipped with a wick extending usually through a mid region thereof in one direction. If the candle body solidifies, next, one cools such so deposited blend in such cavity at least until said liquid blend solidifies, and, finally, removes, if desired, such so solidified blend with said wick therein from such mold cavity, thereby separating the desired candle from such cavity.

By another process, the so-heated and so-produced liquid blend has a wick inserted or immersed thereinto, the wick being in an extended condition. Thereafter, one removes such so immersed wick from such liquid blend with a portion of said liquid blend deposited thereon. Next, one cools such so deposited blend while maintaining such resulting wick in a generally vertical configuration at least until such liquid blend solidifies. Finally, one sequentially repeats the preceding steps until a candle body of desired dimensions is built up about such wick. This is one method of making multicolored multilayered candles (each being the same or different in composition).

Preferably the ethyl cellulose used is preliminarily dried, as in an oven at about 100°C for about 1 hour. Glass-lined blending kettles or stainless steel kettles are preferably used to avoid or minimize discoloration in candle bodies. Also direct heating as with a flame should be avoided for the same reason. Steam-heated, or gas-fired varnish type kettles provided with adequate stirring are presently preferred kettle types. The thicker candle body compositions containing higher ethyl cellulose contents can be handled better in a heated Banbury mill than in a simple stirred kettle, and then a blend is conveniently made with the ethyl cellulose, the additive and the glyceride oil within transformed to a desired homogeneous colloid. The product is passed conveniently through a hot two-roll mill before being molded into a candle body.

Candle Products

Candles of the present invention, as those skilled in the art will appreciate, can have any convenient form or shape as is true of conventional candles formed of wax. Fluid candles can be made if desired, but candles with solid bodies are much preferred. A particularly preferred candle shape is in the conventional cross-sectionally circular, cylindrically tapered form such as is depicted in FIG. 1, accompanying this application.

The burning characteristics of the candles of the present invention are somewhat different from those of conventional paraffin, tallow or Beeswax candles. Thus, while conventional candles are comprised of materials which produce highly luminous flames, in contrast, vegetable and animal oils, although used since antiquity for illumination, produce less luminous flames.

The rate of burning of the conventional candles seems to be generally higher than that of a candle of similar hardness of the present invention. Generally, just as the rate of burning of a conventional candle is affected by the melting point of its constituents so is the rate of burning of the candles of this invention affected by the amount of ethyl cellulose present. Thus, for one class of three component candle bodies of this invention the higher the amount of ethyl cellulose, the slower the rate of burning. This phonomenon occurs for two reasons; first, because the softening point of the higher ethyl cellulose composition is higher; and, second, because although ethyl cellulose burns, it does so with a shorter, not as highly luminous flame compared, for example to a flame from a paraffinic candle.

Conventional candles generally have sharper melting and setting points, and seem to conduct heat not as readily as those of the present invention. Thus, if one takes a parafin wax candle having a certain type of wick and a candle of the same size of the present invention equipped with the same wick and burns therein for the same length of time one will notice that the sides of this candle of this invention are warmer than those of the conventional wax candles. This fact makes it possible for conventional waxes to form "Petals" or produce "foliating" or "angel winged candles." "Petals" are formed, as those skilled in the art appreciate, when a candle mass has an undersized wick relative to its mass diameter. During burning a thin wall of unburned wax is formed at the sides of the candle. When this wass becomes too thin, it buckles outwardly, splits down from its own weight and starts the "petal" formation. The candles of the present invention are warmed uniformly in region of burning generally apparently moreso than a conventional candle and when in a "petal" situation they appear to tend to buckle inwardly. A candle of this invention tends to burn generally downwardly forming a hole of about 5 to 15 times that of the diameter of the wick (although I do not wish to be bound by this estimate) while the conventional candles generally characteristically burn across their top surface. This characteristic makes possible the use of multiple wicks in candles of this invention.

One can formulate candles of the present invention which are initially hazy, semi-hazy and all-together opaque and will become completely clear upon burning. Certain of the additives listed elsewhere herein such as the saturated higher alcohol and acids, hydrogenated glycerides, and the like, if used at a relatively high concentration will form such hazy candle body compositions. These bodies when warmed somewhat, such as occurs during the normal burning of a candle, turn completely clear. If suspended inert decorative objects are positioned in the candle mass (coins, metalic flowers, and the like during fabrication), these objects will appear a few minutes after illumination starts apparently because the rise in temperature throughout the mass of the candle and especially the top portion, during illumination extends the limits of solubility of that particular additive in the rest of the ingredients, although I do not wish to be bound by theory herein. Generally candles of this invention lend themselves to creations not possible with conventional paraffinic candles. For one thing, conventional paraffinic candle bodies typically could not be perfumed with more than about 2 to 3 weight percent perfume oil without the appearance of esthetically unpleasant bleeding. It is now possible to make candles that contain several times higher weight percentages of perfume oil concentrations using the present invention. Also, due to the fact that candles of this invention burn downwardly rather radially symmetrically, outwardly with the wick vertically positioned, one could use various different perfumes and even colorants at various portions of the candle structure. It is thus possible and practical to have several multicolored, multiperfumed regions or layers in a structure. Because the amount of ethyl cellulose used in a candle controls somewhat the rate of burning, it is possible to create softer compositions around a wick which are, in turn, encircled with a higher softening point composition, all compositions being as described in this invention. The later or radially outward portions can be decorated with inert decorative objects such as coins, pearling agents, and the like which can be suspended in a candle body during the molding process.

One preferred form of candle of the present invention has a small solid body, or a plurality of solid small bodies imbedded within the clear ethyl cellulose and glyceride composition, so that a special decorative effect may be achieved, such bodies being introduced into the candle body during the molding process. Such a decorative candle of the present invention is illustrated in FIG. 2.

Characteristically, candles of this invention display an aging tendency because of oxidation of the glyceride portion thereof due to the action of ultraviolet light and atmospheric oxygen which combination serves to induce the well-known free-radical oxidation of olefinic double bonds (such being present in typical candle bodies used in this invention). The effects of such oxidation can sometimes be determined in about a month's time following fabrication if a candle is continuously open in air and in daylight. However, if the sample is maintained in air but is not exposed to daylight, then the effects of such oxidation can sometimes be determined in about four months time following fabrication. As a result of the effects of oxidation, those candle body compositions which are brittle tend to soften with age, and those body compositions which display an initial tendency to exude glyceride oil (as when manually squeezed) seem to loose this tendency, or to have a reduced such tendency, with aging in air. In addition, the burning rate of an aged candle of this invention tends to be somewhat suppressed compared to that of a freshly made, or adequately preserved, candle, and, also, a certain blackness can develop in an aged, combusting candle body owing to the above-indicated oxidation. Such blackness appears to be more pronounced with the drying and semidrying oil type glycerides than with other types. Oxidation may progress to such a degree as to make a candle of this invention seem to burn only with difficulty when a wick is ignited. This oxidation, however, seems to take place only at the surface of a candle body mass. Thus, if a portion of the film formed on the body surface by scraping or the like, especially around the wick, the resulting candle burns with a flame comparable to that of a freshly made candle. Apparently the film formed around the body mass sort of seals the rest of the candle body from atmospheric oxygen and thus retards further oxidation during actual combustion.

To offset such oxidation effects, conventional, compatible u-v absorbers may be incorporated into the formulation of a candle body of this invention. Suitable UV absorbers are known to the prior art and include benzophenone type materials (such as 2,4 dihydroxybengophenone or 2-Hydroxy-4-n-octyl Benzophenone). Such absorbers are usually employed in amounts less than about 5 weight percent (total candle body weight basis). Besides UV absorbers, common antioxidants of the phenolic type, such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA), diamyl phenol, 2, 6-tertiarybutyl-para-cresol, and the like, can be used, usually at levels of about 3 weight percent or less (same basis). UV absorbers and antioxidants are preferably added to a completely dissolved mixture of glyceride and ethyl cellulose to avoid potential discoloration problems.

EMBODIMENTS

The present invention is further illustrated by reference to the following Examples. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that other and further embodiments are obvious and within the spirit and scope of this invention from the teachings of these present Examples taken with the accompanying specification and drawings.

Examples 1

A series of candles of the present invention are prepared. For each candle, the procedure followed involves first heating the glyceride to a temperature in the range from about 160° to 200°C. Then ethyl cellulose is gradually added until dissolution and homogeneity are obtained. Since dissolution and homogeneity are facilitated through the use of mixing, in these examples, a so-called "lightening mixture" is utilized to mix together the glyceride and the ethyl cellulose within the temperature range indicated. In general, the ethyl cellulose swells as it dissolves, and the more it swells, the clearer the resulting mixture becomes. Bubbles characteristically form during this mixing process, but these bubbles usually collapse substantially completely at the end of the dissolution process; in fact, the collapse of bubbles may be taken as a sign that dissolution is substantially complete. Near the completion of ethyl cellulose dissolution, the mixture temperature is reduced to a level about 160°-170°C to avoid and minimize any discoloration in the product composition, such as seems to be sometimes induced by overheating when all or substantially all the bubbles have been eliminated. Finally, the product composition is cast into a glass or polyolefin mold each having a diameter of 1 to 2 inches of predetermined cylindrical dimensions. Each mold is equipped with a wick axially located in said mold.

After solidification, the resulting candle is ready for use. Unless otherwise noted, or unless the mold is glass, the candle is removed from the mold and burned. The results are summarized in Tables IV through VI below. ##SPC11## ##SPC12##

*FOOTNOTES - TABLE IV

1. Weight percent Glyceride based on 100 weight percent total candle body composition.

2. Weight percent Ethyl cellulose based on 100 weight percent total candle body composition.

3. Ethoxyl content based on 100 weight percent total ethyl cellulose.

4. Viscosity in centiposes measured as a 5 weight percent concentration at 25°C. bases in a 80:20 toluene/ethanol solution using a sample dried for 30 minutes at 100°C. ##SPC13## ##SPC14## ##SPC15## ##SPC16##

*FOOTNOTES- TABLE V

1. same as footnote 1 of Table 1.

2. Same as footnote 2 of Table 1.

3. Same as footnote 3 of Table 1.

4. Same as footnote 4 of Table 1. Each of the ethyl celluloses used in this Table is a Hercules material; the 200 cps material is always the Hercules K200.

5. weight percent additive based on 100 weight percent total candle body composition.

6. Structure of resulting candle is soft, pliable, sticky esthetically unacceptable. Because the high viscosity ethyl cellulose is difficult to dissolve the finished product is highly discolored. Flame stops in 30 minutes due to accumulation of oxidation products around the wick.

7. Same as the above.

8. Candle structure is soft, clear, exudes oil in 24 hours, and exhibits the torch effect after 3 minutes of burning.

9. Candle structure is not soft as that of example 18, but it is still soft. It exhibits the torch effect more reluctantly, but it still catches fire. It exudes less oil than example 18.

10. Candle structure is harder than that of 18, 19; still rather soft. It burns without exhibiting the torch effect although a minimum oil exudation occurs after 3 days.

11. Structure a bit soft, but burns well. Suitable for a candle that is enclosed in a glass container.

12. Soft structure, bleeds oil in 24 hours, exhibiting the torch effect in 3 minutes.

13. Light color, no bleeding at room temperature, very good structure, burns very well. Some oil exudation occurs during burning, but practically all of this oil is absorbed with several hours after cooling down to room temperature. It produces an odor similar to that of butyric acid on burning due to a probable degradation of isostearic acid to butyric acid.

14. Same comments as in comment 13, structure is firmer, harder. All glycerides except castor oil show aging effects due to air oxidation catalized by U.V. light. Remedies for this are discussed in the section that deals with preservatives.

15. Same comments as in comment 13, except there is not butyric acid odor on burning.

16. Firmer structure than example 25, again no butyric acid odor, both examples 25 and 26 are good free standing candles.

17. Lighter color than example 23, and also a bit softer than example 23. Other comments: the same as comment 13.

18. A bit lighter color than example 23, also softer than example 23. It exhibits a shorter dissolution time.

19. Examples 27 through 31 exhibit very similar properties. They showed good firm free standing structures that burn well with some oil exudation while burning. Most of this oil is absorbed back upon cooling except some at the base.

20. same as the preceeding.

21. same as the preceeding.

22. Firmer than example 23, but a bit hazy, also it burns with a smaller flame. Apparently tall oil fatty acids do not have quite the same synergistic effect that isostearic acid, oleic acid, and soya fatty acids have when combined with a triglyceride and ethyl cellulose.

23. Olive oil and tung oil do not produce clear structures with fatty acids. Apparently the synergistic effect does not work in these two cases.

24. In example 33, comment 23, it was noted that olive and tung oil do not produce clear structures with fatty acids. If a blend of olive oil with other oils like corn, safflower, etc. is made the synergistic effect of the fatty acids appears again. This structure is as good as 23 or 25.

25. Structure is a bit hazy, exudes oil on squeezing. Esters like isopropyl stearate, isopropyl isostearate, isopropyl palmitate, behave similarly. The synergistic effect shown by fatty acids is not as pronounced here. Although esters-triglyceride-ethyl cellulose compositions are better that the two component triglyceride-ethyl cellulose, the combination of esters-fatty acids-triglycerides-ethyl cellulose give certain special effects to candles that possess such combinations, like higher flame. The fatty alcohols act very similarly to esters. Both esters and fatty alcohols combine very successfully when the triglyceride is castor oil. For as it is mentioned elsewhere castor oil does not produce brittle and semi hazy two phase compositions with ethyl cellulose. Brittleness and semi hazy compositions are typical of many non-castor oil containing triglyceride starting systems evaluated. Fatty alcohols and esters do not shorten glyceride dissolution time as much as fatty acids.

26. As noted in comment 25, fatty alcohols and esters do not show the pronounced synergistic effect of the fatty acids. Combinations of fatty acids--fatty alcohols or esters do so, however. This is a light, clear, firm structure.

27. Very good, very hard structure, good flame, it smokes here and there. Glycerol, pentaerythritol, ethylene glycol and methyl esters of rosin exhibit a synergistic effect which is not as pronounced with ordinary fatty esters. The glycerol ester of rosin seems to be better in this respect than the rest of the esters. As opposed to fatty esters--fatty acids compatibility, however, there is incompatibility between rosin esters-non-rosin-fatty acids as seen below, especially at low ethyl cellulose concentrations (comment 28).

28. Incompatibility, structure bleeds oil.

29. Good structure, compatible, as good as example 37. Rosin esters are compatible with rosin itself (whether hydrogenated, dehydrogenated or disproportionated).

30. Highly compatible, very hard structure, as good as example 37, but harder with smaller flame. Only congo gum at the same concentration is harder. Congo gum is also very dark and thus unsuitable. Singapore damar gum was not as compatible as congo and elemi gum.

31. Castor oil again is our exception in that it makes a soft composition with gum elemi, as well as congo gum, and glycerol esters of rosin. These compositions may be suitable for a glass container not free standing candles.

32. A bit discoloration, as good as 37, good flame. Some oil exudation at the base after burning the candle for some time.

33. Good structure, firmer than example 42, less oil exudation on burning candle than 42.

34. Fair, a bit hazy, but good elastic structure fair flame.

35. Excellent structure, no bleeding, burns heavily around wick. Very good for free standing candle. 10 percent cetyl alcohol seems to be the limit in this formula without causing the opaqueness effect.

36. Very good structure, light color, burns heavily around wick.

37. Very good firm structure, kept in glass container. Good flame.

38. Structure very hard for a two component system. Considerable discoloration due to prolonged heating. Small flame, but candle burned to the end.

39. Very good candle structure, very good flame, burns a little heavily around the wick.

40. Hard structure; exhibits the torch effect.

41. Very hard structure, burns with good flame, minimum oil exudation while it burns. Most of this oil is reabsorbed by the candle structure upon cooling of the candle mass.

42. Composition softer than example 25 Table II. medium flame.

43. Composition a bit hazy. It produces a very good flame. Exuded oil is reabsorbed upon cooling. (Arlamole E is the trade mark for a polypropylene glycol fatty radical made by I.C.I. of America formerly Atlas Chemical. ##SPC17## ##SPC18##

* FOOTNOTES - TABLE VI

1. the designation of A & P disignates Atkins & Pearch company of Cincinatti, Ohio.

Example 68

Composition of candle:

1. Castor oil 64.0

2. Isostearyl alcohol 10.0

3. Santopen 67 (antioxidant) 1.0

4. Safflower oil 10.0

5. Ethyl cellulose 200 cps 15.0 (Hercules K200 type)

Ingredients 1 through 4 are heated to 180°C in a 500 cc glass beaker and ethyl cellulose is added while mixing the mixture with a lightning mixer. Dissolution is complete in about 10 minutes. A glass container of 3 inches diameter and 5 inches height is used to hold the candle contents. The above described hot uniform mixture is poured into the glass up to 1 inch height from the bottom. Then a wire wick is inserted in the center and held there straight. The lower part of the glass container is forcibly cooled in a water bath of 10°C. When the mixture in the glass is semisolid or starts to set two previously polished dimes are inserted in a non-flat position. The cooling continues till the whole mass in the glass has solidified completely. Then more of the molten mass is poured into the glass container up to 2 1/2 inches from the bottom. This new layer is cooled till it sets in a water bath. To the remaining molten mass in the 500 cc glass container is added a red oil soluble color (DuPont) and a perfume composition that is fit for a red color. (imitation carnation) After mixing until uniform at 170°C and after the bubbles rise to the top, the system is poured into a glass mold. The final composition in each glass container contains three layers; the bottom one is light yellow in color with two dimes suspended in it; the second layer is the same color with nothing suspended in it; the third layer is red in color and perfumed with 3 percent perfume. The above described procedure is used to create similar other effects as well as radially layered compositions. Thus a 2 inches × 2 inches candle structure with the above described composition is formed, taken out of the glass mold and placed at the center of a new mold of 3 inches × 3 inches diameter. Then, a harder composition is poured around the 2 inches × 2 inches structure. The temperature of this resulting outside layer on pouring does not exceed the melting point of the inside softer composition. This outside layer comprises:

Components 100 Weight % Total Composition ______________________________________ 1. Castor oil 61.0 2. Cetyl alcohol 7.0 3. Dibutyl phthalate 2.0 4. Ethyl cellulose, 200 cps 30.0 ______________________________________

The above composition is similarly prepared and is poured around the 2 inches × 2 inches structure already made, now in the new 3 feet × 3 feet mold. Pouring temperature is not higher than about 170°C. Metallic flowers are placed between the 2 inches × 2 inches candle structure and the walls of the 3 feet × 3 feet mold, but not touching the walls before pouring the higher softening point composition around the 2 inches × 2 inches candle.