Title:
SUCTION DRAINAGE DEVICE
United States Patent 3783870


Abstract:
A suction drainage device having a drainage collector chamber for connection to a pleural cavity, a series liquid seal chamber connecting the collector chamber with a pressure regulating manometer chamber, and a second manometer connected to the collector chamber in by-passing relation with the seal chamber having calibrations providing an indication of the pressure within the collector chamber, the pressure regulating chamber being connectable through a restricted orifice to the source of negative pressure to reduce the bubbling of air through the reservoir portion of the manometer.



Inventors:
SCHACHET E
Application Number:
05/212075
Publication Date:
01/08/1974
Filing Date:
12/27/1971
Assignee:
SHERWOOD MEDICAL IND INC,US
Primary Class:
International Classes:
A61M1/00; (IPC1-7): A61M1/00
Field of Search:
128/276-278
View Patent Images:
US Patent References:
3659605PNEUMATIC SUCTION SYSTEM1972-05-02Sielaff
3559647CONTROLLABLE UNDERWATER DRAINAGE APPARATUS1971-02-02Bidwell et al.
3363627Underwater drainage apparatus1968-01-16Bidwell et al.
3363626Underwater drainage apparatus1968-01-16Bidwell et al.
1955140Wound treatment1934-04-17McKesson



Foreign References:
IT341263A
DE1112252B
Primary Examiner:
Rosenbaum, Charles F.
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Stanley, Garber Et Al N.
Claims:
We claim

1. In a suction drainage device including a pressure regulating liquid manometer including a chamber for receiving a liquid, said chamber being connected in fluid communication between an outlet adapted for connection in fluid communication with a source of negative pressure and atmosphere for controlling the negative pressure at the outlet, a drainage collector chamber connected to an inlet which is adapted to be connected in fluid comminication with a body cavity to be drained, and liquid seal means connected between the collector chamber and the outlet for passing gas from the collector chamber to the outlet, the improvement comprising a fluid pressure limiting member connected to said device in series fluid communication between the source of negative pressure and the outlet, said member having a restricted orifice therethrough for effecting a fluid pressure drop thereacross to substantially limit the fluid pressure at the outlet, and a second liquid manometer connected in fluid communication with the atmosphere and said inlet in by-passing

2. The device according to claim 1 wherein said member is removably disposed in said outlet.

3. The device according to claim 2 wherein said orifice has a diameter of between about 0.016 of an inch and 0.028 of an inch.

4. The device according to claim 1 wherein said liquid seal means is disposed in series relation between said collector chamber and said outlet.

5. The device according to claim 1 wherein said pressure limiting members comprises a tube connector having a first portion removably secured in sealing engagement in the outlet and a second portion for frictional sealing engagement with a tube for connecting the outlet in fluid communication with the pressure source.

6. In a suction drainage device including a pressure regulating liquid manometer including a chamber for containing a liquid and connected in fluid communication between an outlet adapted for connection in fluid communication with a source of negative fluid pressure and atmosphere for controlling the negative pressure at the outlet, and an inlet which is adapted to be connected in fluid communication with a body cavity to be drained, the combination therewith comprising a drainage collector chamber connected to the inlet, liquid seal means connected between said drainage collector chamber and said outlet for passing gas between said drainage collector chamber and said outlet, and a second liquid manometer connected in fluid communication with said inlet and in by-passing relation with said liquid seal means, said second manometer having calibration marks thereon providing a visual indication of the level of liquid therein and the pressure at said inlet.

7. The device according to claim 6 wherein said second manometer includes first and second channels for receiving a liquid, each having an upper end and a lower end, said lower ends being interconnected in fluid communication, the upper end of said first channel being connected in direct fluid communication with said inlet, and the upper end of said second channel communicatating with atmosphere.

8. The device according to claim 7 wherein said liquid seal means includes a compartment adapted to receive a liquid and which extends below said dtainage chamber and is disposed laterally between said regulating manometer and said second manometer.

9. The device according to claim 7 further including restricted orifice means disposed between said regulating manometer and the source of negative pressure for limiting the negative pressure applied to said regulating manometer.

10. The device according to claim 9 wherein said orifice means includes a tube connector adapted for connection between said outlet and said regulating manometer.

11. The device according to claim 7 wherein said first channel has a transparent wall with said calibration marks thereon.

12. The device according to claim 11 wherein said lower ends are interconnected by a liquid reservoir chamber.

Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to suction drainage devices and more particularly to suction drainage devices of the type which are connected to a negative pressure source during operation.

Suction drainage devices for removing fluids, for example, liquids such as water and blood, and gases such as air, from the pleural cavity between the lungs and surrounding rib cage are often of the well known "3-bottle" type. This type of drainage device includes a pressure regulating manometer "bottle," a liquid seal "bottle," and a collector or trap "bottle." Where such "bottles"are integrally formed as a unit they may be referred to as "chambers." Several prior art drainage devices of this general type are shown in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,363,627, and 3,363,626 both issued Jan. 16, 1968, and U.S. Pat. No. 3,559,647 issued Feb. 2, 1971. These patents may be referred to for a basic explanation of drainage devices of this type.

The present invention relates to improvements in suction drainage apparatus of the type disclosed in copending application Ser. No. 183,332, filed Sept. 24, 1971, which is assigned to the same assignee as the present application, and which describes a "four-bottle " system providing a secondary water seal.

As is well known to those in the medical field, proper operation of such drainage devices is imperative because air and fluids in the pleural cavity affect the respiratory functions, and improper operation or failure of the device can result in serious complications and danger to the patient.

Some of the problems involved in prior art devices have been, for example, a difficulty in determining at any given time the actual operating negative pressures of the device, and maintaining the desired pressures during operation of the device, which in some cases may be an extended length of time, even days. These problems result from the fact that air bubbles are moving through the pressure regulating manometer not only causing difficulty in reading the manometer but also producing other undesirable effects. For example, over an extended period of time, the large amount of bubbling of air through the manometer causes considerable evaporation of the amount of water and therefore changes the regulating effect of the manometer, and also, in many cases, can result in water being moved from the manometer chamber to another chamber of the device not only affecting the operation of the manometer but affecting the operation of the function of another "bottle" or chamber, such as the liquid seal. Also, excess amounts of bubbling through the regulating manometer causes considerable noise and may cause liquid to enter the vacuum source or pump. Another disadvantage of the prior art devices is that the liquid level in the regulating manometer is not necessarily an indication of the actual negative pressure within the collector or cavity of the patient. For example, the pressure drop across the main water seal affects the pressure in the collector. Also, where a patient has an air leak in his lung, air will pass into the collector or trap chamber and through the liquid seal chamber but the reduced pressure in the collector chamber and in the cavity of the patient due to the leak will not always be apparent from the level of liquid in the regulating manometer. Also, the liquid level in the regulating manometer will change somewhat from its filled level after the device is put into operation due to the displacement of liquid between the columns of the manometer.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to provide a drainage device wherein the above mentioned disadvantages are substantially obviated.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a drainage device wherein the actual negative pressures within the device can be readily ascertained.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a suction drainage device which greatly reduces the amount of air bubbling in the pressure regulating manometer to thereby reduce the amount of liquid evaporation due to bubbling and the possibility of liquid moving from the regulating manometer to another chamber of the device or into the vacuum pump connected therewith.

Another object is to provide a suction drainage device wherein the negative pressures within the collector chamber are readily indicated even where the pressures between the collector and the congested pressure of the regulating chamber are different.

Still another object is to provide a suction drainage device having a second manometer connected between atmosphere and the collector chamber of the device which is capable of reading the actual negative pressure within collector chamber as well as providing a safety vent to atmosphere for the patient in the event the patient builds up a positive pressure within the chest cavity at a time when the outlet is closed to atmosphere such as when the vacuum pump is stopped in a closed condition.

In accordance with one form of the present invention, a drainage device is provided which includes a collector chamber connectable to a patient cavity, a liquid seal connected with the collector, and a manometer connected in series between atmosphere and the collector chamber in by-passing relation to the liquid seal. In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a suction drainage device is provided having a collector chamber adapted for connection to a cavity of the patient, a regulating manometer connected to limit the negative pressures in the collector chamber, and a restricted orifice disposed between the vacuum source and the manometer to reduce the amount of air tra-ersing the manometer liquid from atmosphere.

These, as well as other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description and accompanying will become apparent from the following detailed description and accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is an elevational view of a preferred embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 2--2 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is an enlarged cross-sectional elevational view of the restricted orifice shown in FIG. 1; and

FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional elevational view of the apparatus of FIG. 1 on a reduced scale illustrating liquid levels during operation of the apparatus.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

Referring now to the drawings, and particularly to FIGS. 1 and 2, there is shown a drainage apparatus 10 constructed in accordance with the present invention. Apparatus 10 is shown for illustration as an unitary device with the "bottles" or chambers integrally interconnected, although the device 10 could be formed of a plurality of connectable sections. Device 10 may be formed of a suitable plastic and in two parts or halves that are connected together, such as by welding.

Drainage device 10 includes a collector or trap chamber 12, a liquid seal chamber 14, a pressure regulating or limiting manometer chamber 16, and a second or direct reading manometer 18.

The collector chamber 12 has an inlet port or opening 20 with a tube connector 21 disposed therein and adapted to receive a tube 22 connected to a catheter (FIG. 4) which is adapted to be in fluid communication with a body cavity, such as the pleural cavity of a patient. The collector chamber 12 is divided by a plurality of partitions or walls into several compartments 23 which fill successively during operation with body drainage liquid. Adjacent the top of the collector chamber is a gas or air outlet 25 connected in fluid communication with an inlet vertical channel or compartment 14a at one side of the liquid seal chamber 14. The other side of seal chamber 14 is connected to the outlet channel 16a of the pressure regulating manometer 16. A wall 27 divides the collector chamber from the seal chamber 14. The wall 27 has an extension 27a extending downwardly into the liquid seal chamber 14. Liquid, such as sterile water, for the seal chamber is indicated at 28 in seal chamber compartment 14b. The chamber 14 is filled only to a point below the bottom side of wall 27 so that during operation any gas or air flowing down channel 14a flows into the liquid and around the extension 27a and then across the top of the liquid in compartment 14b to the pressure regulating channel 16a. The liquid seal chamber is thus in series between the collector chamber 12 and the negative pressure regulating chamber 16 so as to pass gas or air from the pleural cavity to the vacuum source but prevent ambient air flow in the reverse direction to the cavity.

The pressure regulating manometer chamber 16 provides predetermined suction or negative pressure for operating the device. The regulating manometer 16 has an upper opening 31 connecting the upper end of a relatively small vertical channel or column 16b to atmosphere. The bottom end of channel 16b is connected to the bottom end of a relatively large vertical compartment or liquid reservoir 16c of the manometer 16 and which has its upper end connected to the channel 16a. Channel 16a is connected to an outlet port 29 which is connected to a source of suction or negative pressure source shown in FIG. 4. A wall 34 divides the vertical channels 16b and 16c, and a wall 36 divides the vertical channels 16a and 16c. Fluid 37, for example, sterile water, fills the two channels 16b and 16c to a point below the upper extremities of these columns. The outer surface of the reservoir is provided with calibration marks 38 which may give a visual indication of the quantity of water 37, and also calibration marks 39, which indicate the amount of negative pressure. These calibrations may be in centimeters.

The outlet 29 of the regulating manometer is connected to the vacuum source through a restricted orifice 41 (FIG. 3). The orifice 41 is provided in a tube connector 42 which is removably disposed in frictional sealing engagement in the outlet port 29. The connector is provided with external ribs 46 for effecting a good connection with a tube 49 which extends to the vacuum pump.

Generally, the indicated vacuum source in FIG. 4 will connect with a central vacuum pump providing a source of vacuum for a number of uses. For example, it is often connected with a number of rooms of the building. Since loading of the pump or source will effect the negative pressure at a given connecting point, the pressure is generally adjusted to provide a greater than necessary pressure for any given anticipated function. One of the purposes of the regulating manometer is to limit the amount of pressure utilized in device 10. By filling the reservoir to a predetermined level, representative of a desired negative pressure, pressures greater than that desired value cause air to traverse the column of liquid in channel 16c to limit the pressure acting on the collector chamber 12.

The orifice 41 provides a pressure drop so that the negative pressure applied to regulating manometer 16 is closer to the desired operating pressures. In this way there is less bubbling of air through the manometer reservoir 16c. This not only allows the manometer to be readily read but also reduces the evaporation of liquid 37 in the regulating manometer. Also, there is less tendency of the fluid in the manometer to flow out of chamber 16c and into the liquid seal chamber 14 or into the vacuum line. Because there is a lower rate of evaporation and removal of water from the manometer 16, the device operates over a desired length of time more nearly at the desired pressures thus, the operating characteristics of the device remain more nearly constant. The orifice 41 also has the effect of regulating the negative pressure, for example, to avoid extreme changes in negative pressures at the outlet 29 in event of extreme changes in the source pressure. Orifice 41 tends to isolate the device 10 from variations in pressure of the negative pressure source.

Connected directly to the upper end of the collector chamber 12, and therefore in direct communication with the pleural cavity of the patient, is the second or direct reading manometer 18. The second manometer chamber includes an inlet passage 48 connected from the upper portion of the collector chamber 12 to the top of a calibrated manometer channel or column 18a. The lower end of column 18a is connected to the lower end of a second manometer column 18b having its upper end connected by an opening 43 to atmosphere. A liquid 44, such as sterile water, fills the lower bottom portion of reservoir 18c of the direct reading manometer 18. A wall 45 divides the two columns 18a and 18b and is provided with an extension 45a which extends into the liquid. The channel 18a is provided with calibration marks 47, which may also be in centimeters.

The manometer 18 not only serves to provide an indication of the actual pressure in the collector chamber 12 and hence in the pleural cavity in the system but also serves as a secondary water seal providing an escape for air should there be an occurence of a large build-up of positive pressure in the pleural cavity. Also, should the vacuum source or pump be shut off in the closed position, that is, with opening 29 sealed from atmosphere, such pressures would, without manometer 18, have to force fluids through the liquid seal 14 up column 16a, and force liquid in columns 16b and 16c out of the device through opening 31. Such pressures and the like, however, are relieved by the escape of air down the second manometer column 18a through the liquid seal at the bottom of the manometer and then up through column 18b to atmosphere. The liquid 44 in the manometer reservoir chamber 18c, of course, prevents ambient air from the port 43 from flowing into the collector chamber 12 and pleural cavity of the patient. Also, the manometer 18 will provide an indication that the regular manometer 16 should be adjusted (by adding more water) to provide a greater negative pressure when the reading of the manometer 18 is substantially lower than that of manometer 16.

A plurality of surge or expansion chambers, indicated at 50, 51, 52, and 53, are provided to prevent any undesirable movement of operating liquid from one chamber to another.

In FIG. 1, the liquid levels in chambers 14, 16 and 18 are examples of the levels to which the chambers are filled before the device 10 is put into operation. In FIG. 4, the liquid levels are indicative of the levels obtained during operation of the device.

In operation, the regulating manometer 16 limits the amount of negative pressure applied to the column 16c which is connected through the primary water seal chamber 14 to the collector chamber 12. This applies a primary water seal chamber 14 to the collector chamber 12. This applies a predetermined suction or negative pressure to the pleural cavity of the patient thereby assisting in the draining of liquids and air from the pleural cavity. Liquids draining from the cavity enter the inlet opening 20 and begin filling the compartments 23 of the collector chamber while the air passes into the column 14a through opening 25 and effects bubbling through liquid 28 in the seal 14 and around the wall extension 27a whereby the air moves into the channel 16a and out the outlet 29 to the vacuum pump. Since the column 18a of the direct reading manometer is connected directly to the inlet side of the water seal chamber 14 or top of the collector and hence directly to the cavity of the patient, the level of liquid 44 in column 18a will be representative of the actual pressure in the pleural cavity. Manometer 18 will provide an accurate reading which as previously mentioned herein may differ considerably from the setting of regulating manometer 16.

The orifice 41 of the removable tube connector 42, as previously mentioned herein, minimizes the amount of bubbling of air through manometer chamber 16 to provide substantially constant operational pressures. Typical negative pressures of operation may be, for example, between 15 and 25 centimeters of water. The source usually employed in hospitals is generally substantially designed to provide greater than the above pressures. It was found that good results were obtained when the orifice was preferably between about 0.016 inch and 0.028 inch in diameter depending upon the magnitude of the source pressure. This provided about 6 to 8 liters/minute through the regulating manometer.

The connector 42 is removable so that the device can be used without it where desired and to permit the manometer to be readily filled with liquid. Connector 21 is also made conveniently removable for filling of the device 10.

The series seal 14 is arranged with its inlet channel 14a extending vertically along the left hand side of the collector chamber 12, as viewed in the drawings, and the liquid reservoir compartment 14b of the seal chamber extends laterally along and below the bottom of the collector chamber with the outlet end of the seal at the right hand side of the collector chamber and which communicates with channel 16a that extends vertically along the side of the collector chamber. This arrangement provides a compact construction with reduced outer dimensions and which permits use of a relatively large volumn of liquid for the seal chamber and provides a lower center of gravity for greater stability.

While a preferred form of the invention has been described herein, it will be apparent that various changes and modifications thereto may be made without departing from the true spirit of the invention or scope of the invention as defined in the claims.

The drainage device 10 may be made of a suitable transparent plastic material and in two parts such as parts 60 and 61 as shown in FIG. 2. Part 60 may be blow molded into the desired configuration and part 61, which is in the form of a flat sheet member may be cemented or welded to the part 61. In this way, at least part of all of the chambers 12, 14, 16 and 18 are integrally connected or formed as an unitary member. The application of the graduation indicia to the flat member is readily accomplished.