Title:
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR IMPROVED ORTHODONTIC BRACKET AND ARCH WIRE TECHNIQUE
United States Patent 3660900


Abstract:
The method and apparatus for improving orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique where the individual brackets have an inner radius for attachment to a tooth band which conforms to the outer contour of the tooth both vertically and horizontally and has at least one groove therein for the reception of one or more arch wires having a radius for conforming to overall arch wire geometry and wherein the groove is cut with a torquing angle, a tipping angle, an in-out dimension and in some cases, a rotation compensation angle for cooperation with an unbent arch wire in which the various angles built into the bracket result in desired force vectors for movement of individual teeth to a desired position, and in the alternative the variations in dimensions and angles are built into the tooth band.



Inventors:
ANDREWS LAWRENCE F
Application Number:
04/875086
Publication Date:
05/09/1972
Filing Date:
11/10/1969
Assignee:
LAWRENCE F. ANDREWS
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
433/24
International Classes:
A61C7/12; A61C7/14; (IPC1-7): A61C7/00
Field of Search:
32/14A
View Patent Images:
US Patent References:



Primary Examiner:
Peshock, Robert
Parent Case Data:


RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation-in-part of my co-pending application filed Sept. 22, 1967, Ser. No. 669,919, and now U.S. Pat. No. 3,477,128 issued Nov. 11, 1969, for Method and Apparatus for Improved Orthodontic Bracket and Arch Wire Technique.
Claims:
What is claimed is

1. A set of orthodontic brackets comprising:

2. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 1 wherein:

3. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 1 wherein:

4. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 1 wherein:

5. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 1 wherein:

6. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 1 wherein:

7. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 1 wherein:

8. A set of orthodontic brackets comprising:

9. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 8 wherein:

10. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 8 wherein:

11. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 8 wherein:

12. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 8 wherein:

13. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 8 wherein:

14. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 8 wherein:

15. A set of orthodontic brackets comprising:

16. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 15 wherein:

17. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 15 wherein:

18. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 15 wherein:

19. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 15 wherein:

20. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 15 wherein:

21. A set of orthodontic brackets comprising:

22. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 21 wherein:

23. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 21 wherein:

24. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 21 wherein:

25. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 19 wherein:

26. The set of orthodontic brackets of claim 21 wherein:

27. An orthodontic bracket and tooth band combination comprising:

28. The orthodontic bracket of claim 27 wherein:

29. The orthodontic bracket of claim 27 wherein;

30. The orthodontic bracket of claim 27 wherein:

Description:
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for improved orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique and more particularly to a method and apparatus for an improved orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique in which force vectors are built into the individual orthodontic brackets or tooth bands for obviating the necessity of placing bends in the arch wire to produce the desired force vectors and, hence, the desired tooth movement.

PRIOR ART

The prior art method of installing orthodontic brackets and arch wires comprise basically the placement of brackets on bands which are placed on the patient's teeth, each bracket having a groove built therein for the reception of the arch wire. The orthodontist would then mount the arch wire in the individual bracket grooves and place bends in the arch wire which would result in various force vectors for moving the individual teeth to their desired positions. These force vectors are required for tipping the teeth toward or away from the adjacent teeth. Torquing the teeth, i.e., angulating them toward or away from the center of the mouth was accomplished by placing a twist in the arch wire along its longitudinal axis and moving the teeth in and out parallel to themselves toward the center or away from the center of the mouth and forward and back in dental arch. Other required or desired force vectors would be, as in the case of extractions, compensation for tooth rotation resulting in an attempt to move the tooth toward or away from another tooth and tip compensation to avoid the tooth tipping as it is moved toward or away from adjacent teeth. Other considerations involved in making these complex bends in the arch wire would be the compensations for the haphazard mounting of the brackets due to the outer contour of the tooth in two directions, i.e., horizontally and vertically, and general arch wire geometry. As can be appreciated, these complex vectors resulted at best in an approximation of the proper bends to be placed in the wire and depended a great deal on the individual orthodontic skill, dexterity and experience of the operator. This problem is magnified in the case of a partnership practice since few operators have sufficiently identical techniques to maintain a continuity of movement where succeeding arch wires are installed by different operators. This, of course caused considerable jiggling of teeth, i.e., partial retracing of previous movement together with the disadvantages attendant therewith, such as root resorption.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

According to the invention, the bracket or tooth band for each individual tooth has a plurality of dimensions built in which, when coupled to an unbent arch wire, result in the desired force vectors being applied to the tooth. At the present time, there are a total of eight dimensions being taken into consideration. The first two to be considered is the curvature on the band side of the bracket which consists of two radii at right angles to each other, taking into consideration the outer contour of the individual tooth since this varies from tooth to tooth, e.g., from the central incisor to a molar. This contour consideration gives meaning to the other built-in force vectors since it supplies a consistent starting point. The prior art haphazard mounting of the bracket to the band results in the absence of this consideration.

The next dimension takes into consideration the arch wire geometry, i.e., the radius of curvature of the arch wire at the point of contact with the individual bracket. The other angles are built into the groove which receives the arch wire or to the tooth band. These angles result in torquing, and tipping forces, and an in-out force. In the extraction case, tip compensation and rotation compensation angles are also built into the arch wire grooves or tooth band. Relative thickness of the bracket from the tooth to the inner face of the groove determines the in-out force.

It has been found that at least 90 percent of the malocclusions fall into three basic types which can be accommodated by nine basic sets of appliances. These can be subdivided into finer sets taking into consideration extraction and non-extraction cases. With these basic sets, a saving of from 15 to 75 minutes for each arch wire installation is made by each orthodontist, as well as an improved result by removing the guess work from the installation of the brackets and bands because the built-in angles in the brackets or bands predetermine their final arrangement.

An object of the present invention is the provision of a method and apparatus for an improved orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique.

Another object is to provide a method and apparatus for improved orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique for providing uniform results regardless of individual skill.

A further object of the invention is the provision of the method and apparatus for improved orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique which is faster and more uniform in results.

Still another object is to provide a method and apparatus for improved orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique having desired force vectors built into the orthodontic bracket or tooth band.

Yet another object is to provide a method and apparatus for an improved orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique which obviates or minimizes the necessity of placing bends in the arch wire.

Other objects and many of the attendant advantages will be readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings in which like reference numerals designate like parts throughout the figures thereof and wherein:

FIG. 1 is a front elevation view of a typical prior art orthodontic bracket and arch wire installation;

FIG. 2 is a front elevation view of a typical installation of the orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique of the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a top view of a typical prior art orthodontic bracket and arch wire installation;

FIG. 4 is a top view of a typical installation of the orthodontic bracket and arch wire technique of the present invention;

FIG. 5 is a perspective view of the preferred embodiment of a typical orthodontic bracket according to the present invention;

FIG. 6 is a top view showing a schematic representation of a typical orthodontic bracket and arch wire installation according to the present invention;

FIG. 7 is a top view showing a schematic representation of the present invention as applied to an extraction case; and,

FIGS. 8-19 show various views of orthodontic brackets according to the present invention having various corrective force vectors built in as applied to different teeth in a typical case;

FIGS. 20-28 illustrate various views of tooth bands according to the present invention, having various corrective force vectors built in as applied to different teeth in a typical case.

Referring to FIGS. 1 and 3, a plurality of teeth is shown each having a tooth band 22 mounted thereon to which an orthodontic bracket 23 is attached. Each orthodontic bracket 23 has a groove which receives arch wire 25. Arch wire 25 has a plurality of bends 26.

Referring to FIGS. 2 and 4, a plurality of teeth 21 is again shown each carrying a tooth band 22. An orthodontic bracket 24 is attached to each tooth band. Each orthodontic bracket 24 has grooves with built-in angles substantially parallel to effect passage of an unbent arch wires 25, 25B and 25C therein.

Referring to FIG. 5 an orthodontic bracket 24 has arch wire grooves 51, 52, and 53 with a back portion 28 adapted to conform to the contour of a tooth band.

Referring to FIG. 6, a typical patient's mouth is shown having central incisors 31, lateral incisors 32, cuspids 33, first bicuspids 34, second bicuspids 35, first molars 36 and second molars 37. Each of these teeth has an orthodontic bracket 24 attached thereto (by a tooth band not shown). Each of said orthodontic brackets 24 has grooves for receiving arch wires 25 and 25B therein.

Referring to FIG. 7, an extraction case is illustrated wherein a space generally shown at 41 is to be filled by tooth 42 by moving it parallel to itself toward tooth 43. Here bracket 24 has an angle E built in which compensates for rotation in the direction of arrow 44 and accomplishes a movement of the tooth 42 linearly in the direction of arrow 46. A tipping compensation angle B or B' (FIGS. 10, 16, 12 and 18) would also be utilized.

Referring to FIGS. 8-13, typical angles, radii and dimensions are shown on brackets 24 for a patient's right upper teeth. These angles are shown as A, A', B, B' and D. The radii are shown as R, R' and R" and one critical dimension is shown at C (FIG. 11).

Referring to FIGS. 14-19, a group of orthodontic brackets 24 are shown for the left upper teeth complementing the set shown and described with reference to FIGS. 6-11. Again, angles A, A', B, B', and D are shown together with radii R, R', R" and dimension C (FIG. 17).

Angles A and A' represent torquing angles, B and B' represent tipping angles and dimension C results in an in-out force vector. Radii R and R" correspond to the outer contour of the tooth and are at right angles to each other. Radius R' conforms to the radius of curvature of the arch wire geometry at that point. The following chart tabulates typical dimensions and angles for a set of these brackets, where dimensions C, R, R' and R" are in inches and angles A, A', B, B' and D are in degrees. The dimensions and angles shown cover right uppers and left lowers in this exemplary set. The left uppers and right lowers would have the same figures but would constitute a mirror image of the right uppers and left lowers.

The angles shown would apply to all of the grooves in the brackets, i.e., front grooves 51, top grooves 52, and bottom grooves 53. It is pointed out that in orthodontic arch wire techniques as set out in this application, it is contemplated that top or bottom grooves 52 or 53 would be utilized either alone or in conjunction with front groove 51. Where front groove 51 is not utilized, the in-out dimension and resulting force is determined by the distance from the inner side of the top and/or bottom groove 52 or 53 and the tooth. It will be seen below this can be varied by varying the dimensions of the bracket and/or modifications to the tooth band. ##SPC1##

Referring to FIG. 20, tooth band 54 is shown in spatial relationship with wedge members 56 and 57. Through the utilization of wedge members 56 and 57, a laminate structure is added to tooth band 54 which effects the same torquing angle as shown in FIG. 7.

Referring to FIG. 21, tooth band 54 is shown in spatial relationship with wedge 58. It is contemplated that wedge 58 would be supplied separately to the orthodontist and would be attached to the tooth band in place of the laminate structure shown in FIG. 20.

Referring to FIGS. 22, tooth band 54 has a stamped protrusion 59 which effects the same angulation or torque as the structure of FIGS. 20 and 21.

Referring to FIG. 23, wedges 61 and 62 are shown in spatial relationship with tooth band 54 and are angulated for effecting a torquing force vector.

Referring to FIG. 24 a single wedge member 63 is shown in spatial relationship with tooth band 54. Wedge member 63 takes the place of laminates 61 and 62 of FIG. 23.

Referring to FIG. 25, a stamped-out raised portion 64 is shown on tooth band 54 which effects the same torquing force vector as in FIGS. 23 and 24.

Referring to FIG. 26, laminates 66 and 67 are shown in spatial relationship with tooth band 54 for effecting an in-out force which would substitute for varying the thickness of the bracket itself.

Referring to FIG. 27, laminates 66 and 67 are replaced with a single build-up member 68, also for effecting the in-out force vector.

Referring to FIG. 28, stamped raised portion 69 is shown on tooth band 54 also for effecting an in-out force vector.

It should be understood, of course, that the foregoing disclosure relates to only a preferred embodiment of the invention and that it is intended to cover all changes and modifications of the examples of the invention herein chosen for the purposes of the disclosure which do not constitute departures from the spirit and scope of the invention.