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Title:
STRUCTURAL MEMBER
United States Patent 3656270
Abstract:
A structural member is disclosed having a male member of generally U-shaped cross section. The male member is provided with a pair of opposed male webs to provide opposed male contact surfaces. A male flange connects one end of each of the male webs and an external reinforcing flange projects outwardly from the other end of each of the male webs. A female member is adapted to fit inside the male member and is provided with a pair of opposed female webs to provide female contact surfaces. Each female contact surface is adapted to be disposed adjacent a registering male contact surface. An adhesive is disposed between each of the registering male contact surfaces and the female contact surfaces to bond the female member to the male member.


Application Number:
05/012373
Publication Date:
04/18/1972
Filing Date:
02/18/1970
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E04C3/07; E04C3/08; E04C3/04; (IPC1-7): E04B1/38; E04C3/04
Field of Search:
52/593-595,634,639,642,690,691 287
View Patent Images:
US Patent References:
3029914Laminated tubular section structural membersMay 1962Macomber
2386019Truss structure and parts thereofOctober 1945Watter
1884221Light metallic truss structureOctober 1932Ragsdale
Primary Examiner:
Murtagh, John E.
Claims:
I claim

1. A structural member having:

2. a pair of opposed first webs to provide opposed first contact surfaces and having an external reinforcing flange projecting outwardly from one end of one of said first webs,

3. a first flange connecting one end of each of said first webs, and

4. a pair of opposed second webs to provide second contact surfaces, each second contact surface being adapted to be disposed adjacent a registering first contact surface, so that only a portion of said second contact surface registers with said first contact surface, and

5. a second flange connecting one end of each of said second webs,

6. The structural member recited in claim 1 wherein said second member has an internal reinforcing flange projecting inwardly from one of said second webs, and said internal reinforcing flange has a second lip.

7. The structural member recited in claim 1 wherein said second member has an edge contact portion secured to said first flange by an adhesive.

8. The structural member recited in claim 1 wherein one of said second webs is generally arcuate.

9. The structural member recited in claim 1 wherein said external reinforcing flange is substantially straight.

10. The structural member recited in claim 4 wherein said one of said second webs is generally concave.

11. The structural member recited in claim 4 wherein said one of said second webs is generally convex.

12. The structural member recited in claim 1 wherein said first member is a chord member of a truss.

13. The structural member recited in claim 1 wherein said second member is a diagonal member of a truss.

14. The structural member recited in claim 2 wherein said second web member has a generally flat corrugated cross sectional shape and is provided with a flat contact surface.

15. The structural member recited in claim 2 wherein said second reinforcing flange is substantially straight.

Description:
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Heretofore, girders, trusses, and the like have been constructed as by welding, riveting, or the like, strips and hot rolled structural shapes, such as angles, beams, or the like, together to form the desired structural member. The yield strength of about 33,000 to about 36,000 psi of each of the component members is limited by the shape of the conventional components themselves. Such limitations are undesirable in many industrial structures where high ratios of loading capacity to dead weight are economically and architectually desirable.

Conventional structural members are shown in the following patents:

U.S. Pat. No. Inventor Issued 23 2,556,011 Swayze et al. 6/5/51 2,556,470 Del Mar 6/12/51 2,608,500 Del Mar et al. 8/26/52 2,644,777 Havens 7/7/53 2,907,127 Waugh et al. 10/6/59 3,249,659 Voelker 5/3/66 3,283,464 Litzka 11/8/66 3,300,839 Lichti 1/31/67

OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION

It is the general object of this invention to avoid and overcome the foregoing and other difficulties of and objections to prior art practices by the provision of an improved structural member which:

1. PROVIDES AN EXTREMELY HIGH RATIO OF LOADING CAPACITY TO DEAD WEIGHT;

2. POSSESSES A HIGH YIELD STRENGTH;

3. IS ADAPTABLE TO A RELATIVELY INEXPENSIVE ADHESIVE BONDING TECHNIQUE; AND

4. PROVIDES RELATIVELY LARGE ADHESIVELY BONDABLE CONTACT AREAS BETWEEN THE COMPONENT MEMBERS THEREOF.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The aforesaid objects of this invention, and other objects which will become apparent as the description proceeds are achieved by providing an improved structural member having a male member of generally U-shaped cross section. The male member is provided with a pair of opposed male webs to provide opposed male contact surfaces. A male flange connects one end of each of the male webs and an external REINFORCING flange projects outwardly from the other end of each of the male webs. A female member is adapted to fit inside the male member and is provided with a pair of opposed female webs to provide female contact surfaces. Each female contact surface is adapted to be disposed adjacent a registering male contact surface. An adhesive is disposed between each of the registering male contact surfaces and the female contact surface to bond the female member to the male member.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS

For a better understanding of this invention, reference should be had to the accompanying drawings wherein like numerals of reference indicate similar parts throughout the several views and wherein:

FIG. 1A is a longitudinal sectional view of one embodiment of a male member;

FIG. 1B is a horizontal sectional view of one embodiment of a female member of the improved structural member;

FIG. 2A is a fragmentary side-elevational view of a truss embodying the male member as a chord member and a plurality of female members utilized as diagonal members;

FIG. 2B is an enlarged fragmentary bottom view taken along lines 2B--2B of FIG. 2A in the direction of the arrows and showing in detail the contact surfaces and the adhesive between the male member and the female member;

FIG. 2C is a vertical-sectional view of the truss shown in FIG. 2A taken along the lines 2C--2C in the direction of the arrows;

FIG. 2D is an enlarged side-elevational view of the joint between the male member and the female member and showing, in addition to the usual male and female contact surfaces between the male member and the female member, a top peripheral edge contact surface on the female member adhesively bonded to the male flange of the male member;

FIG. 2E is a view similar to FIG. 2D but eliminating the top peripheral edge contact surface on the female member and showing the top surface of the female member cut off substantially at right angles to the sides of the female member;

FIG. 3A is a fragmentary side-elevational view of a girder utilizing the male members as top and bottom flange members thereof and employing a corrugated web-type female member as the plate or web member of such girder;

FIG. 3B is a vertical-sectional view of the girder shown in FIG. 3A and taken along the lines 3B--3B of FIG. 3A in the direction of the arrows;

FIG. 3C is another vertical-sectional view of the girder shown in FIG. 3A taken along the lines 3C--3C of FIG. 3A in the direction of the arrows;

FIG. 4A is a view similar to FIG. 1A showing two alternative embodiments of the male member wherein the left-hand male web is provided with a serrated contact surface and the right-hand male web is provided with a corrugated contact surface;

FIG. 4B is a view similar to FIG. 1B showing an alternative embodiment of the female member wherein the left-hand female web is provided with a serrated contact surface and the right-hand female web is provided with a corrugated contact surface;

FIG. 5A is a view similar to FIGS. 1A and 4A of a further alternative embodiment of the male member wherein the left-hand male web is provided with a convex arcuate contact surface and the right-hand male web is provided with a concave arcuate contact surface;

FIG. 5B is a view similar to FIGS. 1B and 4B showing another alternative embodiment of the female member wherein the left-hand female web is provided with a convex arcuate contact surface and the right-hand female web is provided with a concave arcuate contact surface;

FIG. 6A is a fragmentary side elevational view of an alternative embodiment of the male reinforcing flange shown with a generally serrated form;

FIG. 6B is a fragmentary plan view of a female reinforcing flange having a generally serrated form;

FIG. 7A is a view similar to FIG. 6A showing a corrugated male reinforcing flange;

FIG. 7B is a view similar to FIG. 6B showing a female reinforcing flange having a generally corrugated shape;

FIG. 8A is a view similar to FIGS. 6A and 7A and showing a generally convex arcuate male reinforcing flange;

FIG. 8B is a view similar to FIGS. 6B and 7B of a generally convex arcuate female reinforcing flange;

FIG. 9A is a view similar to FIGS. 6A,7A and 8A and showing a generally concave arcuate male reinforcing flange;

FIG. 9B is a view similar to FIGS. 6B,7B and 8B of a generally concave arcuate female reinforcing flange; and

FIG. 10 is a fragmentary side-elevational view of an alternative embodiment of a truss having a male member and a female member with sloping contact surfaces and an adhesive with spacer beads therein thus facilitating the positioning of the female member within the male member without removal of the adhesive.

Although the principles of this invention are broadly applicable to structural members in general, this invention is particularly adapted for use in conjunction with trusses, girders, and the like and hence it has been so illustrated and will be so described.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

With specific reference to the form of this invention illustrated in the drawings and referring particularly to FIG. 2A, a structural member, such as a truss or the like (FIGS. 2A-2E), is indicated generally by the reference numeral 10.

TRUSS 10

The truss 10 has male members or chord members or first members 12 (FIGS. 1A,2A-2E) of generally U-shaped cross section (FIGS. 1A,2A-2E). Each chord member 12 has opposed male or first contact surfaces 16 (FIGS. 1A,2B,2C) on each male web 14 (FIGS. 1A,2A-2E). For the purpose of connecting one end of each of the male webs 14, a male or first flange 18 (FIGS. 1A,2A-2E) is disposed therebetween. The means utilized to provide structural rigidity to the male member 12 are external or male first reinforcing flanges 20 (FIGS. 1A,2A-2E) projecting outwardly from the other or free end of each of the male webs 14. The male external reinforcing flanges 20 are further reinforced by male or first lips 22 (FIGS. 1A,2A-2E) projecting upwardly, as shown in FIG. 1A or downwardly (not shown), or angularly (not shown), from the male external reinforcing flanges 20.

A female or diagonal or second member 24 (FIGS. 1B,2A-2E) is adapted to fit inside the male member 12 and is provided with a pair of opposed female or second webs 26 (FIGS. 1B,2A-2E) which female webs 26 are provided with female or second contact surfaces 28 (FIGS,. 1B,2A-2E). Each female contact surface 28 is adapted to be disposed adjacent a registering male contact surface 16 (FIGS. 2A,2B,2D,2E) to provide a relatively large contact area between the male member 12 and the female member 24. In order to bond the female member 24 to the male member 12, an adhesive 30 (FIGS. 2B,2D) such as, for example, the type EC1838 ambient temperature setting adhesive, manufactured by Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, St. Paul, Minnesota, is disposed between each of the registering male contact surfaces 16 and the female contact surfaces 28.

As shown particularly in FIG. 1B, the female member 24 is provided with a female or second flange 32 (FIGS. 1B,2A-2E), which female flange 32 connects one end of each of the female webs 26. To provide structural reinforcement with the female member 24, an internal female or second reinforcing flange 34 (FIGS. 1B,2A-2E) projects inwardly from the other or free end of each of the female webs 26 and is provided with a female or second lip 36 (FIGS 1B,2A-2E) on the inner ends of each internal female reinforcing flange 34. The lips 36 may extend upwardly (FIGS.1B,2C) or downwardly (not shown) or angularly (not shown) from the flanges 34.

ALTERNATIVE EMBODIMENTS

It will be understood by those skilled in the art that for the purpose of providing additional bonding between the male member or chord member 12 and the female member or diagonal member 24 of the truss 10, as shown in FIG. 2D, the female member 24 may be provided with a top peripheral edge contact surface 38, which surface 38 is adhesively bonded, as explained above, to the male flange 18 of the male member 12.

FIG. 2E shows an alternative embodiment of a female member, such as the female member 242E, provided with a top peripheral edge contact surface 382E disposed substantially at right angles to the sides or female flange 32, of the female member 242E. In this embodiment the top peripheral edge contact surface 382E (FIG. 2E) does not contact the male flange 18 of the male member or chord member 12.

GIRDER 103

The structural member 103, such as the girder shown in FIGS. 3A-3C, utilizes male members 123, as flange members disposed in adhesive engagement on either side of a female member 243 in the form of a corrugated web member. The corrugated web member 243 is provided with a plurality of alternating female contact surfaces 283 which are adhesively bonded, as explained above, to the contact surfaces 163 of the male webs 14 of the flange members 123.

FIG. 4A shows a male member 124 in which the left-hand male web 144A is provided with a generally serrated male contact surface 164A. The right-hand male web 144B is provided with a generally corrugated male contact surface 164B.

FIG. 4B shows a female member 244 having a left-hand female web 264A provided with a generally serrated female contact surface 284A. The right-hand female web 264B (FIG. 4B) is provided with a generally corrugated female contact surface 284B.

In FIG. 5A the left-hand male web 145A has a generally convex arcuate male contact surface 165A and the right-hand male web 14 5B is provided with a generally concave arcuate male contact surface 165B.

FIG. 5B shows a female member 245 having a left-hand female web 265A provided with a generally convex arcuate female contact surface 285A and a right-hand female web 265B provided with a generally concave arcuate female contact surface 285B.

It will be understood to those skilled in the art that the arcuate forms shown in FIGS. 4A-4B, 5A-5B may be generally circular, parabolic, hyperbolic, elliptical or the like.

FIG. 6A shows a generally serrated external male reinforcing flange 206A. FIG. 7A shows a generally corrugated external male reinforcing flange 207A. In FIG. 8A, the external male reinforcing flange 208A is generally convex arcuate in form. FIG. 9A shows a generally concave arcuate external male reinforcing flange 209A.

FIG. 6B shows a generally serrated internal female reinforcing flange 346B. In FIG. 7B, the internal female reinforcing flange 347B is generally corrugated in form. In FIG. 8B a generally convex arcuate internal female reinforcing flange 348B is shown. FIG. 9B shows a generally concave arcuate internal female reinforcing flange 349B.

In FIG. 10, the adhesive 30 is provided with a mono layer of mini balls formed of glass, sand, silica particles or the like functioning as spacers 40; the contact surfaces 1610 (of the male member 1210) and 2810 (of the female member 2410) are tapered; and the contact surfaces 1610, 2810 are spaced a distance d slightly greater than the diameter or width of the spacers 40. When the female member 2410 moves from the dotted-line position to the solid-line position adhesive contact and removal is minimized.

The male lips 22 and female lips 36 may also be serrated, corrugated concave arcuate or convex arcuate.

It will be understood to those skilled in the art that alternatively the following ambient temperature setting adhesives, thermally setting adhesives and adhesive films 30 may be employed:

Trade Name or Trade Mark Manufacturer "Surlyn A" conomer resin E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. "USS Nexus P-0003" thermoplastic adhesive United States Steel Corp. "USS Nexus S-8002" thermosetting epoxy based two-component adhesive (ambient cured) United States Steel Corp. "USS Nexus S-8002" thermosetting epoxy based two-component adhesive (ambient cured) United States Steel Corp. " USS Nexus S-8005" thermosetting epoxy based two-component adhesive (ambient cured) United States Steel Corp. "USS Nexus S-8007" thermosetting epoxy-based two-component adhesive (elevated temperature cured) United States Steel Corp. "USS Nexus P1003" adhesive film United States Steel Corp. "USS Nexus P1006" adhesive film United States Steel Corp. EC2086 thermosetting adhesive Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company Type EC2214 heat curing adhesive Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company Type EC2086 thermosetting adhesive Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company Type XA3428 deaerated glass bead adhesive Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company Type EC2328 deaerated glass bead adhesive Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION

It will be recognized by those skilled in the art that the objects of the invention have been achieved by providing an improved structural member, such as the truss 10 (FIGS. 2A-2E) and the girder 103 (FIGS. 3A-3C) which provide an extremely high ratio of loading capacity to dead weight, possess a high yield strength, are adapted to a relatively inexpensive adhesive bonding technique, and provide relatively large adhesively bondable contact areas between the component members 12,24 (FIGS. 2A-2E) and 123 ,243 (FIGS. 3A-3C) thereof.

While in accordance with the patent statutes, preferred and alternative embodiments of this invention have been illustrated and described in detail, it is to be particularly understood that the invention is not limited thereto or thereby.