Title:
VALVE FOR ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION APPARATUS
United States Patent 3556122


Abstract:
A valve for an artificial respiration apparatus formed by a tubular member and wall members extending radially therefrom and forming an annular chamber at one end of the tubular member. A diaphragm is secured within the annular chamber and extends across the tubular member, within the tubular member the diaphragm has a wedge-shaped configuration with a slot at its end. Exhaust openings are provided through the wall members. When the valve is used in administering oxygen to a person, the slit in the diaphragm opens permitting the oxygen to flow therethrough. However, when the person exhales, the slit in the diaphragm is closed and the exhaled air passes between the diaphragm and the tubular member into the annular chamber and then out through the exhaust openings. The exhaust openings are provided with covers at the exterior of the valve so that air can only pass outwardly.



Inventors:
LAERDAL ASMUND SIGURD
Application Number:
04/812557
Publication Date:
01/19/1971
Filing Date:
03/26/1969
Assignee:
ASMUND SIGURD LAERDAL
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
128/205.24, 137/512.3, 137/559, 137/846, 137/859
International Classes:
A61M16/20; A62B9/02; (IPC1-7): A61M16/00; F16K15/16
View Patent Images:
US Patent References:
3242921Breatching control valve1966-03-29Seeler
3228409Compensated action non-return valve, more particularly for respiratory mask1966-01-11Godel
3124124N/A1964-03-10Cross
3086542Air valve1963-04-23Mosier
2941541Resilient packing rings for fluids under pressure1960-06-21Peras
2940464Anti-syphoning fitting1960-06-14Moen
2867213Flutter valve for drainage of the pleural cavity1959-01-06Thomas
2292373Self-policing air valve with back pressure control1942-08-11Groeniger



Primary Examiner:
O'dea, William F.
Assistant Examiner:
Gerard, Richard
Parent Case Data:


This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 464,098, filed June 15, 1965, and since abandoned.
Claims:
I claim

1. A valve for an artificial respiration apparatus for supplying air or oxygen into the lungs of a patient, comprising an axially extending tubular member forming a passageway extending between a first opening at one end of said tubular member and a second opening at the opposite end thereof, a first wall member connected to and extending radially outwardly from said tubular member at said one end thereof, a flat second wall member disposed in spaced parallel relationship with and secured to said first wall member and forming therewith an annular chamber laterally encircling said one end of said tubular member and in communication with the passageway therethrough, said second wall member located adjacent to and axially outwardly from the first opening of said tubular member, said second wall member extending transversely across said one end of said tubular member and having at least one centrally located aperture therethrough for admitting air or oxygen into the valve for flow through said passageway, an annular valve seat formed by the juncture of said tubular member and said first wall member, a resilient diaphragm extending transversely across said passageway through said tubular member, said diaphragm having an inactive position and a plurality of valving positions within said passageway, said diaphragm comprising a radially outer annular shaped first section positioned within said annular chamber between the parallel surfaces of said first and second wall members and secured at its radially outer periphery between said first and second wall members and arranged to engage said valve seat in one of said valving positions of said diaphragm and a second section disposed radially inwardly of and attached to said first section and positioned across said passageway in axial alignment with said aperture in said second wall member, at least a portion of the surface of said second section arranged to form a normally closed orifice when said diaphragm is in the inactive position and said second section arranged in one said valving position to be displaced in the direction of said second opening from the inactive position for opening said orifice and in another said valving position to be displaced in the opposite direction from the inactive position for closing said orifice and in such position said first section of said diaphragm is in contact with and supported by said second wall member, exhaust openings in said first wall member communicating between said annular chamber and the exterior of said valve, said diaphragm being responsive to fluid pressure differentials in said chamber for movement between the different valving positions, whereby in the passage of air or oxygen through said aperture in said second wall member to said second opening said diaphragm contacts the valve seat closing off the passage between said second opening and said exhaust openings and opening the orifice in said diaphragm for providing flow of air or oxygen to and through the second opening in said tubular member, and if the flow through the valve is reversed entering said second opening the orifice in said diaphragm is closed and the reverse flow passes through the passageway between the side of said diaphragm facing said second opening and said tubular member and entering into said annular chamber and exiting through the exhaust openings in said first wall member.

2. A valve, as set forth in claim 1, wherein said second section of said diaphragm has a wedge-shaped configuration secured about its radially outer periphery to the inner periphery of said first section and extending therefrom axially through said passageway toward said second opening with said orifice therein located at the end of said second section adjacent said second opening.

3. A valve, as set forth in claim 1, wherein means are arranged for closing said exhaust openings against the flow of fluid into said chamber from the exterior of said valve but permitting reverse flow through said exhaust openings.

4. A valve as set forth in claim 1, wherein said first and second wall members are formed of a transparent thermoplastic material whereby the disposition of the diaphragm within the chamber formed by said wall members can be viewed from the exterior of said valve.

5. A valve as set forth in claim 1, wherein means are secured to said first and second wall members for attaching an elastic bag of an artificial respiration apparatus thereto for supplying air or oxygen to the aperture through said second wall member for its passage through the valve.

6. A valve as set forth in claim 1, wherein said first and second wall members are threaded into engagement with one another.

7. A valve, as set forth in claim 1, wherein said annular valve seat comprises a protuberance extending in the axial direction of said passageway from said first wall member toward said second wall member.

8. A valve, as set forth in claim 7, wherein said protuberance being positioned adjacent said one end of said passageway and extending therefrom toward said diaphragm.

9. A valve, as set forth in claim 7, wherein the radially inner surface of said protuberance being coextensive with the inner surface of said passageway.

Description:
The present invention relates to a valve for an artificial respiration apparatus which comprises a valve body which has a central inlet passage through which air or oxygen may be conducted in one direction to the lungs of a patient, and which contains a flexible diaphragm for closing this inlet passage when the patient exhales the air through the valve in the opposite direction. Adjacent to this diaphragm, the valve body has at least one lateral opening for discharging the exhaled air, and the diaphragm itself has a normally substantially wedge-shaped extension, the outer end of which forms a narrow edge and is provided with a slot which is normally closed, but opened when air or oxygen entering through the inlet passage passes through this slot toward the lungs of the patient.

There is a known valve of the above-mentioned type which has the disadvantage that, if the breathing passages of the patient are seriously obstructed, the fresh air or oxygen will not pass into the lungs of the patient, but will flow out through the lateral opening which is provided for discharging the air which is exhaled by the patient. The person operating the respiration apparatus may then assume erroneously that the patient is continuously supplied with fresh air or oxygen, although actually this air or oxygen escapes uselessly to the outside.

It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved valve of the above-mentioned type which does not permit the fresh air or oxygen to escape to the outside when the breathing passages of a patient are considerably obstructed, but which insures that, as soon as the patient again starts to breathe, the spent air which the patient exhales will be immediately discharged to the outside. This object is attained according to the invention by providing the valve body adjacent to the substantially wedge-shaped extension of the diaphragm with an annular shoulder in which several outlet apertures are provided through which the air which is exhaled by the patient flows to the outside, and by providing the diaphragm with a corresponding shoulder which extends outwardly from the wedge-shaped extension and is pressed by the pressure of the fresh air or oxygen against the inside of the shoulder of the valve body so that the outlet apertures are thereby closed and the fresh air or oxygen is prevented from escaping to the outside. If the valve according to the invention is, for example, connected to a compressible elastic bag into which fresh air or oxygen is alternately drawn and then expelled therefrom through the valve, this bag cannot be compressed since the air or oxygen cannot escape therefrom if the breathing passages of the patient are too obstructed to permit this air or oxygen to be forced into his lungs. The mere fact that the tightly filled bag cannot be compressed is therefore a clear indication that the breathing passages of the patient are too obstructed to permit fresh air or oxygen to be passed into his lungs, If, however, the patient suddenly starts to breathe and to exhale spent air, the strong pressure of the exhaled air not only closes the slot in the wedge-shaped extension of the diaphragm so that the spent air cannot pass into the elastic bag, but it also lifts the shoulder of the diaphragm off the inner side of the shoulder of the valve body so that the outlet apertures of the latter are uncovered and the air which is exhaled by the patient can flow freely through these apertures to the outside.

The inner edge of the shoulder of the valve body may be designed so as to form a valve seat on which the shoulder of the diaphragm will engage at all times during the operation of the valve, except when the patient exhales, so as to seal the valve chamber tightly toward the outside. According to another feature of the invention, this shoulder of the valve body is preferably designed so that its inner annular edge projects slightly in the axial direction beyond the plane of the inner surface of the shoulder itself and thus toward the shoulder of the diaphragm. This has the advantage that, when fresh air or oxygen passes through the valve from the elastic bag, the shoulder of the diaphragm will not only be applied more reliably against the valve seat itself which is formed by the projecting annular edge of the shoulder of the valve body, but that the shoulder of the flexible diaphragm will then even enfold this projecting annular edge. This is due to the fact that the surface area of the flexible diaphragm which is acted upon by the pressure of the fresh air or oxygen is considerably larger than the surface area of the valve seat. The sealing effect will therefore be attained not only by the engagement of the diaphragm with the actual valve seat itself, that is, the projecting annular end surface of the shoulder of the valve body, but also by the engagement of the diaphragm with the lateral sides of this projecting valve seat. Consequently, there is not possibility that even a part of the fresh air or oxygen from the elastic bag might escape to the outside in the event that it cannot be forced into the lungs of the patient because of a considerable obstruction of his breathing passages.

The features and advantages of the present invention will become more clearly apparent from the following detailed description thereof which is to be read with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 shows an axial section of a valve according to the invention in the inactive position;

FIG. 2 shows a cross section which is taken along the line II-II of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 shows an axial section of the valve according to FIG. 1 in the position when air or oxygen is being blown through the valve; while

FIG. 4 shows an axial section of the valve according to FIG. 1 in the position when spent air which is exhaled by a patient is being discharged through the valve to the outside.

Referring to the drawings, the valve according to the invention comprises a valve body which consists of two parts 1 and 2 which are screwed together at 3. Both of these parts 1 and 2 are provided with outer angular flanges 4 and 5, the ends of which face each other and are separated by an annular gap 6 into which the edge portion around an opening of an elastic bag of an artificial respiration apparatus, not shown, may be inserted and tightly clamped by the flanges 4 and 5. When this bag is being compressed, the air or oxygen contained therein may normally be expelled through the valve and the connecting tube of a face mask so as to pass into the lungs of the patient carrying this mask. The two parts 1 and 2 of the valve body may consist of a transparent thermoplastic. Part 1 of the valve body is provided with inlet apertures 7 for the fresh air or oxygen which is expelled from the elastic bag, while the part 2 is provided with a tubular extension 8 which is to be connected preferably by a flexible tube, to the face mask which is applied at least over the mouth and nose of the patient. The upper wall of the part 2 which carries the tubular extension 8 forms on the latter an annular shoulder 9 in which a plurality of outlet apertures 10 are provided which are covered on the outer side by an elastic ring 20, for example, of rubber, which is connected at its inner edge to the valve body. The lower inner edge of the wall of the tubular extension 8 and of the shoulder 9 projects slightly beyond the inner surface of the shoulder itself into the valve chamber 12 and forms an annular valve seat 11.

The valve chamber 12 contains a diaphragm of an elastic plastic which is tightly secured and sealed along its peripheral edge at 14 to the lower part 1 of the valve body. This diaphragm 13 has an annular shoulder 15 to which a wedge-shaped extension 16 is connected which terminates into a small slot 17 which is normally closed. When the valve is in its inactive position, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the annular shoulder 15 of the diaphragm 13 engages upon the annular valve seat 11.

If the elastic bag to which the valve is connected is being compressed, the air or oxygen contained in this bag flows in the direction as shown by the arrows 18 in FIG. 3 through the apertures 7 and through the slot 17 which is thereby opened automatically, and then to and through the face mask into the lungs of the patient. The pressure of the air or oxygen not only opens the slot 17 but also presses the annular shoulder 15 against and around the annular valve seat 11 so that not only the inner side of the diaphragm 13 but also the inside of the tubular extension 8 of the valve body are closed toward the outlet apertures 10 and thus to the outside. If the breathing passages of the patient are so seriously obstructed that no air or oxygen will flow into his lungs, the elastic bag will remain in the tightly filled condition. This fact immediately indicates to the person who operates the respiration apparatus that no air or oxygen is forced into the lungs of the patient or is inhaled by the patient.

If, however, the patient again starts to breathe, the spent air which he exhales flows in the direction of the arrows 19, as shown in FIG. 4, and thereby closes the slot 17 and presses the diaphragm 13 downwardly into the position according to FIG. 4, whereby its annular shoulder 15 is separated from the annular valve seat 11 and also from the inner wall of the tubular extension 8 and the shoulder 9 of the valve body so that the spent air may then pass freely through the apertures 10 to the outside by lifting the elastic ring 20. Since the slot 17 is then tightly closed, the spent air cannot pass into the elastic bag to which the valve is connected.

If because of unforeseen reasons an underpressure occurs at the side of the valve which is normally the pressure side, the patient will be protected from inhaling the outside air which might be contaminated or harmful for other reasons, since the outlet apertures 10 through which such air could possibly flow are then covered up and tightly closed by the elastic ring 20.

Although my invention has been illustrated and described with reference to the preferred embodiment thereof, I wish to have it understood that it is in no way limited to the details of such embodiment but is capable of numerous modifications within the scope of the appended claims.