Title:
Lock gate system
United States Patent 2459140


Abstract:
This invention relates to an automatic lock gate system wherein the gate within the lock is raised and lowered by hydraulic means: only on at least a major portion of its travel, and: does' not depend on any special means for shifting the center of'gravity of -the gate' during its movement...



Inventors:
Christian, Arne
Application Number:
US65975346A
Publication Date:
01/18/1949
Filing Date:
04/05/1946
Assignee:
Christian, Arne
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
137/396, 137/409, 405/101
International Classes:
E02B7/20
View Patent Images:
US Patent References:
1559351Water gate1925-10-27



Foreign References:
NL2226C
Description:

This invention relates to an automatic lock gate system wherein the gate within the lock is raised and lowered by hydraulic means: only on at least a major portion of its travel, and: does' not depend on any special means for shifting the center of'gravity of -the gate' during its movement or on changing the. buoyancy of the gate: The invention also relhtes to' control means for operating: the gate and tol a, preferred hinge mounting for the gate.

Locks and lock- gates are used in navigation channels to lower or' raise: a ship, boat or' other object from one level' to- another. The gates are: often heavy, cumbersome objects which, are usually, movedfl by power means: Lock: gate systems have- beeni d'evised in which- the gates: are raised or lowered by shifting the center- of gravity of the gate, or by increasing and decreasing the weight of the- gateĆ½ in' order. to- maker it alternately float and sink.

In the present invention the' lock' gate is controlled by fluid: means- only, and no specific floats: or weights are used' in the gate, unless: desired.

Furthermore there is no delay in: opening or. closing the gate, as the gate- operates: as rapidly as the lock can be filled' and emptied. The in.vention also includes: an: improved valve means that is also operated' solely'by hydraulic: pressure and that requires no mechanical puwer such as: is necessary in the ordinary heavy duty valves used for similar purposes.

The invention comprises broadly a- gate- rotatable about its lower edge andi normally, held; upright when, in clbsed. position by the head ofwater wit'hin the iock in. which the gate is used-.

It includes means for draining- the water" fromn the lock until the water level reaches the point where the gravity moment of the gate overcomes the water head to lower the gate to open position; and means: for applying fluid pressure: to theunder side of the gate for raising the gate toward its closed position. The fluid pressure is normallywater pressure, and after the.gate:-has been raised. toward' its" closed position this water serves to fill the lock. As the lock: fills- the- gate rises- tofully-closed position.

Flow of water into and .out of: the: lock is: controlled by a valve system: that, is- preferably: but; not necessarily operated: by hydraulic: pressure.

The: hydraulic valve system comprises.an'.enclosedd hydraulic line,. a valve therein arrangedifor-movement to open and close. said' lihe; a welL above the valve, with the: valve' being; at. substantially, the. bottom of the! well when: in: closed: position, and means for changing the relative pressure heads within: the, line: and, within tlhe well: tf open and close the' valve. The valve has such a buoyancy that when the head within the well is.greater than the head within the line the valve closes, and& when. the- head! is. greater within the liner than withint the well the, valve opens. The valve: may be- provided. with: any necessary permanent buoyancy tanks or weights; in order to. give it: these desired: operating characteristics. The gate.is preferably mountedi on: an'improved, hinge comprising' hinge plates< held together by a hinge: pin insertable; through openngs- in-l: the hinge plates from' thee bottom of water-tight' access- welll forming a part; of the gate. The. hinge' pin is. inserted through means- adapted to prevent flow, of water around the pin and into the access; well. The pin is engageable with said, means even when withdrawn from the engagement witl the hinge plates. With- this' construction; the gate may be: easily installed or'removed; even when the: lbockisfull of water. Various- embodiments, of the invention are set: out in the accompanying drawings. Of the drawings. PFg. 1; is a' fragmentary plan view. of a pair of lockse with' a lock gate: between them, a filling channel' adacent the locks, and" a hydraulic valve for controlling flow of water through the, channel; Fig. 2 is - avertical section taken albng- line 2--: of Fig. 1;Fi'; 3 is: a firagmentary vertical' sectibn: taken albng- Iihe 3--' of Fig. 1:; Fig. 4- i a view similar to Fig. 2 showing the gate in, partially, closed position; Fig; 5 is' a view similar to Fig. 2 showing- the gate in ful~5 clbsed position; Fig,; 6 is a- view similar to Fig. 354 4 but showing an alternate embodiment of the invention' and a different valve system; Fig: 7 is. a view similar to Fig: 5 showing the gate in completely- opein position: and showing a second all0 ternate valve system;: and, Fig. 8: is- a vertical section through a hinge:for-the gate. In the embodiment shown in Figs. 1 to,5 inclusive the lock gate system comprises an upper lock 10', a lower Iboc I'l, a lock gate 12' there45 between, a water channel 1'3 running beside bothlocks and connected.to a source of water pressure at. least as high as- the hydraulic head in. the upper look 10 when: said- lock is. full of water.

Within- the water channel, 13 there, is- located an upper valve: 14 above- the-first lock 1.0 and alower valve 15 between the two' locks'. The valves are used to control the flow of water from- the source' into the locks, and. to- control. the flow of water fromn the upper lock, 101 to- the lower, lock 11. The number of valves will depend-uplonathe number of locks in the system. As shown there are only two locks and two channel valves.

The lock gate is mounted on a hinge 16 along its lower edge, and is mounted so that it slopes toward the center of its lock 10 when in fully closed position (Fig. 1), and sinks into a chamber 17 when in fully opened position. The gate is preferably framed with a main girder 18 across its top and has vertical girders 19 supported on the main girder and on the sill of the gate just I above the hinge. The gate is provided with curved skin plates 20. When the gate is in fully opened position as shown in Fig- 5 it fits tightly within the chamber 17. The gate is provided with a projecting top portion 22 formed preferably by the main girder 18 and extending the full width of the gate and extending toward the middle of the lock when the gate is in fully closed positionThis top portion is cut away at the ends as indicated at 23. The top of the gate is also provided with a second projection portion 24 arranged substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the gate and arranged along the back of the gate.

The front end 25 of the chamber 17 is curved so that when the gate opens there will be a substantially tight seal between this front end 25 and a lateral extension 26 on the front of the first top portion 22 of the gate.

In the drawings only one water channel 13 is shown. Although only one may be used it is preferred that a similar channel and channel valves be provided on the other side of the locks so that the gate may be operated at greater speed.

The channel 13 communicates with a lock 10 by ports 27 leading to the chamber 17 underneath the gate 12 when the gate is in fully opened position. The ports are formed by spaced partitions 28.

The valves 14 and 15 may be ordinary gate valves, but they are preferably hydraulic valves as shown in Fig. 2. The hydraulic valve 15 has a top surface 29 and a bottom surface 30 arranged at an angle to each other, and rotatably mounted on a hinge 31 at substantially the apex of the angle. The hinge 31 is at substantially the top of the water channel 13, and the valve is located at the bottom of a well 32. The valve has an arcuate rear surface 33 so that throughout its movement it will always be in engagement with the rear lower edge of the well 32. The valve is provided with a radial central tank 34 having a restricted neck portion 35 at substantially the center of the valve, and this tank is about half full of water 36, or other liquid, at all times- The valve 15 has a buoyancy such that when the head of water in well 32 is equal to or greater than the head in the channel 13 the valve will remain closed, and when the head is greater in the channel the valve will remain open. The chamber 34 and its contained water 36 aid in maintaining these conditions, as when the valve is closed (Fig. 2) the water is in that portion of the chamber 34 away from the hinge 31, while when the valve is open (Fig. 4) the water is in that portion of the chamber adjacent the hinge 31.

The well 32 is provided with a pipe line 37 extending from the well to the lower lock 11. This pipe line has a valve 38 therein. The well is also provided with a second pipeline 39 extending from the well to a source of water having a pressure head at least as high as the source of water for the upper lock 10. The two sources may be the same if desired. The second pipe line 39 is also provided with a valve 40 to control the flow of water through the line.

When the well 32 is full of water with the water level at 41, and the upper lock 10 is full of water, with the water level at 42, the valve 15 will be held closed by the water 36 in the valve chamber 34, and the gate 12 will be held in closed position by the water head within lock 10. The water level in the lower lock II will be at some low point such as is indicated at 43. In order to lower the gate 12 to open position the valve 38 in water 0 line 37 is opened. This causes the water in the well 32 to flow into the lower lock II. When the water level within the well 32 has fallen from 41 to some lower point, such as 44, the pressure of water within the channel 13 causes the valve 5 15 to open (Fig. 4). As soon as this valve is opened water flows from the upper lock through the ports 27, through the channel 13, and through a set of similar ports into the lower lock II. As the water in the lower lock rises from -o 43 to 45 the water in the upper lock will fall from 42 to 46, and the water level in the well will rise to 45a. At this point the pressure head 55 (Fig. 4) on the gate 12 is insufficient to hold the gate in fully closed position (shown in dotted lines in ^ Fig. 4), and the gate begins to turn around its hinge 16 and open with the gradually receding pressure head in the upper lock and water level 45 in the lower lock II approaches water level 46 in the upper lock 10. When the gate has Sreached the position shown in full lines in Fig. 4 the projectihg portion 24 at the top of the gate will dip below the water surface 47 which is now the level of water in the upper lock 10. Then onehalf of the water head 48 will flow over the lock , gate and thereafter the water stage in both the upper and the lower lock will be the same, at 49, and flow from the upper lock to the lower lock will stop. Air trapped under the gate will escape through vent holes 62 provided in the top 40 portion 22.

As the gate 12 sinks into the chamber 17 it will move as fast as the water flows from the chamber and out through ports 27. When the gate is fully opened and the levels in the two 45 locks are the same, boats and the like may pass freely from one lock to the other.

Under these conditions the level of water 49 will be the same in the upper lock 10, the lower lock I , and the well 32 (Fig. 5).

50 When it is desired to close the lock gate the valve 38 in pipe line 37 is closed and the well inlet valve 40 is opened- The water will then enter the well through the inlet line 39 and fill the well. When the water in the well reaches its full 55 level 41 the pressure on the valve 15 will be greater than the pressure of the water within the channel 13 and the valve will turn in a downward direction to fully closed position (Fig. 5).

The upper valve 14 in the channel 13 is then 60 opened, and water flows through the channel 13 and through the ports 27 into the chamber 17 on the under side of the gate 12 and raises the gate from the chamber I7.

After the top edge of the gate 12 is above water 65 level 49 the front projecting portion 22 will emerge from the chamber 17 and water will enter the lock through the opening 50 (Fig. 5) between the top front edge of the chamber 17 and the lateral extension 26. The cut-away ends 23 of 70 the projecting portion 22 are provided so that water will first enter the lock at the lower corners thereof. This causes the flow of water to run lengthwise along the bottom of the lock.

When the water level in lock 10 rises to the 75 point indicated at 51 the gate will be held up by the static pressure head 52 in a position some-, what higher than that shown in Fig. 4 when the gate was open. From that point upward the increasing head within the lock 10 will gradually bring the gate to its fully closed position, as shown in Fig. 2. Here the gravity moment of the gate is balanced by the static pressure head 53 from stage 54. All water stages above 54 will hold the gate tightly closed. Stage 53 that is reached while the gate is closing is less than water head 55 reached while the gate was opening, but head 53 is applied to a greater surface of the gate so that the two conditions produce the same moment.

As can be seen from the above description, the gate 12 is opened and closed entirely by decreasing and increasing pressure heads in front of the gate. For example, for a gate 50 feet high, 110 feet wide, weighing 300 tons, and serving to maintain a 12 foot channel, the head 48 (Pig. 4) will be about one foot when the gate dips under the surface 47 upon opening. This head may be further reduced by means of buoyancy means operating on the gate. The gate, however, does not require any internal control means to change the buoyancy of the gate in order to make it open and close.

The valve 15 as described also has an overflow function for the upper lock 10. If the level of water gets above the high water stage at 42 the pressure within the channel 13 will be increased while the pressure within the well remains constant. This increased pressure will tend to open the valve until the water in the lock returns to its former level 42, when the valve will again be closed.

If desired the pipe 37, which empties into the lower lock 11, may be led into the next well below. If this is done, and the control valve 38 is opened, then the flow of water will close the lock valve below corresponding to lock valve 15, open lock valve 15, close the lock gate below, open lock gate 12, and transfer water from lock 10 into lock I1.

In order to make the lock valve 15 respond more quickly to changes in volume of water within well 32 the well may be partially filled with concrete blocks 56 or the like (Fig. 7). With this construction changes of the volume of water within well 32 cause faster changes in the pressure head within the well.

In Fig. 6 there is shown a lock valve 115 which operates like valve 15 but is constructed differently. This new valve does not have an internal tank, but stability is secured by making the lower face 130 of smaller area than the upper face 129. Thus when the level 41 of water within the well 32 is substantially equal to the level 42 within the upper lock 10 there will be greater total pressure on the upper surface of the valve tending to hold it in closed position.

In Fig. 7 there is shown another embodiment of a control valve. This valve 215 is arranged to operate vertically within the well 32 and rolls on side rollers 57. Stability in this valve is obtained by having the horizontal projection of the upstream bottom area 230 of the valve smaller than the horizontal projection of the upper surface 229 of the valve. The horizontal plate 58 on the bottom of the valve serves only to make a smooth channel when the valve is in its fully opened position.

In Figs. 6 and 7 there is shown a different form of lock gate. This lock gate 212 is shaped similarly to the one shown in Figs. 1 to 5. The alternate lock gate, however, has a V-shaped sag pipe 59 at the front of the gate with the apex of the pipe in downward position when the gate is in fully opened position. With this construction the gate traps air at 60 when the gate moves from closed position toward an open position. The air escapes out the sag pipe 59 and the pipe immediately fills with water, as shown in Fig. 7. When it is desired to raise the gate toward open position compressed air is pumped through pipe 61 to the under side of the gate. The air is trapped there, as it is unable to escape through the water filled sag pipe 59. This compressed air will lift the top of the gate above the water stage 49, and from that point on the gate will be closed by an increasing head in the lock chamber as has been described. As the gate approaches completely closed position the water will drain from the sag pipe 59, leaving it ready for another cycle of operation. This construction is especially recommended where the lock is so deep that no chamber IT is necessary.

An improved hinge construction for the new gate is shown in Fig. 8. The gate is provided with enclosed access wells 63 at each edge of the gate with the hinge 16 at the bottom of a well.

The hinge is formed of a pair of fixed parallel plates 64 mounted on a base plate 65 anchored to the bottom of the lock. The gate is provided with a second corresponding set of parallel plates 66 designed to fit between plates 64. All plates have aligned holes 67 arranged to receive a pin 68 that completes the hinge. The pin 68 has a pointed end so that it may be easily inserted in the holes 67. The inner plate 66a is part of the well 63 so that the pin may be inserted or withdrawn from within the well. The pin is usually inserted and withdrawn by means of a jacking attachment and a ring 69 is provided on the inner end of pin 68 while another ring 70 is provided on the side of the well opposite the first ring 69.

These aid in withdrawing the pin. The pin 69 is preferably surrounded by a stuffing box TI to prevent water leaking around the pin and into the well 63. When the pin is to be withdrawn or inserted the lock need not be emptied of water so long as the end of pin remains within the stuffing box. This construction makes it possible to mount and dismount the gate without i0 draining the lock of water. This hinge assembly may be used on any underwater hinge.

The gates described herein are primarily suited for use as intermediate or lower gates. The upper gates, such as the upper gate for lock 10 (not shown) may be any type described. One such type is the lock gate shown and described in my Reissue Patent No. 22,745.

Having described my invention as related to the embodiments shown in the accompanying draw00 ings, it is my intention that the invention be not limited by any of the details of description unless otherwise specified, but rather be construed broadly within its spirit and scope as set out in the accompanying claims.

05 I claim: 1. An automatic gate system comprising a lock, a hinged gate forming at least a part of one side of the lock and normally held upright when in closed position by the head of water within the lock, means for draining the water from the lock until the water level reaches a point where the weight of the gate overcomes the water head to lower the gate toward open position, means for applying fluid pressure to the under side of the gate when in open position for rotating the gate about its hinge toward closed position, and means for refilling the lock, said gate being forced to completely closed position by the rising head of water within the lock and said gate requiring substantially no more time to open and close than the time required for draining and refilling the lock.

2. An automatic lock gate system comprising a lock, a lock gate therein forming at least a part of one side of the lock rotatable about its bottom edge, and inclined toward the center of the lock when the gate is in closed position, a chamber at the bottom of the lock into which the gate sinks when the gate is rotated about its bottom edge to an open position, said gate forming a substantially fluid-tight seal with the chamber and with the side of the lock, means for maintaining a level of water above the gate higher than the level of water below the gate to provide a head tending to hold the gate in upright closed position, means for draining the water from the lock until said head is insufficient to further overcome the weight of the gate whereby the. gate moves toward open position within said chamber, means for applying fluid pressure beneath the gate and within the chamber to raise the gate from open position, and means for refilling the lock above the gate when the gate has been raised to a position where the top edge of the gate projects from the water, said refilling thereby serving to increase the head of water above the gate and raise it to completely closed position.

3. The lock gate system of claim 2 wherein the gate is provided with a projecting top portion across substantially the full width of the gate extending toward the center of the lock with the projecting portion engageable with the corresponding edge of said chamber during movement of the gate to and away from an open position to form a substantially fluid-tight seal therewith.

4. The lock gate system of claim 2 wherein the gate is provided with a projecting top portion across substantially the full width of the gate extending toward the center of the lock with the projecting portion engageable with the corresponding edge of said chamber during movement of the gate to and away from an open position to form a substantially fluid-tight seal therewith, the leading edge of said projecting portion being engageable with said edge of the chamber until the top edge of the gate projects above the water surface when the gate is being closed.

5. The lock gate system of claim 2 wherein the gate is provided with a projecting top portion across substantially the full width of the gate extending toward the center of the lock with the projecting portion engageable with the corresponding edge of said chamber during movement of the gate to and away from an open position to form a substantially fluid-tight seal therewith, the leading edge of said projecting portion being engageable with said edge of the chamber until the top edge of the gate projects above the water surface when the gate is being closed, and said top edge of the gate is provided with a second projecting portion arranged substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the gate and extending substantially the full width of the gate.

6. The lock gate system of claim 2 wherein the gate is provided with a projecting top portion across substantially the full width of the gate extending toward the center of the lock with the projecing portion engageable with the corresponding edge of said chamber during movement of the gate to and away from an open position to form a substantially fluid-tight seal therewith, the leading edge of said projecting portion being engageable with said edge of the chamber until the top edge of the gate projects above the water surface when the gate is being closed, and said top edge of the gate is provided with a second projecting portion arranged substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the gate and extending substantially the full width of the gate, said first projecting portion being sloped inwardly at its two ends so that water flowing under said portion and into the lock will first enter the lock from the two front corners of said chamber.

7. The lock gate system of claim 2 wherein the chamber is provided with water ports through which water flows away from the chamber when the gate is moved to open position and into the chamber when the gate is moved toward closed position.

8. The lock gate system of claim 2 wherein the chamber is provided with water ports through which water flows away from the chamber when the gate is moved to open position and into the chamber when the gate is moved toward closed position, said ports also serving to refill the lock to cause the gate to move to fully closed position.

9. An automatic lock gate system comprising a lock, a lock gate therein rotatable about its bottom edge and inclined toward the center of the lock when the gate is in closed position with said gate normally held in closed position by the head of water within the lock, a chamber at the bottom of the lock into which the gate sinks when rotated about its bottom edge to open position, a filling channel located beside the lock and connected to a source of water having a pressure head at least as great as the head of water within the filled lock, a water flow port connecting the channel with the lock and having its lock end in the chamber under the gate when the gate is in open position, a valve in the channel above the port, and a second valve in the channel below the port, said valves controlling the flow of the water in the intermediate portion of the channel.

10. The lock gate system of claim 9 wherein at least one of the valves is located within the channel and at the bottom of a well with the pressure of water within the channel tending to open the valve and the pressure of water within the well tending to close the valve, and there are provided means for changing at least one of the pressures to open and close the valve.

11. The lock gate system of claim 9 wherein at least one of the valves is located within the channel and at the bottom of a well with the pressure of water within the channel tending to open the valve and the pressure of water within the well tending to close the valve, and there are provided means for changing at least one of the pressures to open and close the valve, said valve being rotatable about a hinge and having a fluid chamber therein containing a fluid and so constructed and arranged that the fluid flows toward the hinge when the valve is opening and away from the hinge when the valve is closing.

12. The lock gate system of claim 9 wherein at least one of the valves is located within the channel and at the bottom of a well with the pressure of water within the channel tending to open the valve and the pressure of water within the well tending to close the valve, and there are provided means for changing at least one of the pressures to open and close the valve.

13. The lock gate system of claim 9 wherein at least one of the valves is located within the 2,459,140 9 channel and at the bottom of a well with the the botton pressure of water within the channel tending to seal with open the valve and the pressure of water within pin insert: the well tending to close the valve, and there are openings provided means for changing at least one of the 5 rounding s pressures to open and close the valve, said valve said pin in being movable vertically within the well to open able with and close the channel and with the horizontal the openis projection area of the upstream bottom surface 19. The of the valve being smaller than the horizontal 10 plate on t projection area of the top surface, said cham 14. A hydraulic valve system comprising an en- 20. The closed hydraulic line, a valve therein arranged extends t for movement to open and close said line, a well within sai above said valve with the valve being at sub- 15 21. In a stantially the bottom of the well when in closed a lock an position, said valve having a buoyancy such that hinge corn it is opened and closed by changing the relative the lock v pressure from the line and well acting upon the within the valve, and means for changing the relative pres- 20 a part of sure heads within the line and within the well above the to open and close the valve, the main t 15. The valve system of claim 14 wherein said plate fixed valve is rotatable about a hinge and has a fluid chamber a chamber therein containing a fluid and so con- 25 hinge plat structed and arranged that the fluid flows toward is in place the hinge when the valve is opening and away chamber from the hinge when the valve is closing, plates, an 16. The valve system of claim 14 wherein said chamber valve is rotatable about a hinge located at sub- 30 of water E stantially the top of the channel with the top pin being and bottom surfaces of the valve being arranged when witl at an angle whose apex is at substantially the plate. hinge and with the bottom surface of the valve being of smaller area than the top surface. 35 17. The valve system of claim 14 wherein said valve is movable vertically within the well to open The foll and close the channel and with the horizontal file of thi projection area of the upstream bottom surface of the valve being smaller than the horizontal 40 projection area of the top surface. Number 18. In a lock system or the like including a 1,559,351 lock and a movable lock gate, an underwater hinge comprising a fixed hinge plate mounted on the lock wall and beneath the surface of water 45 Number within the lock, a corresponding hinge plate on 2,226 Sof the gate and forming a water-tight a water-tight chamber therein, a hinge able from within the chamber through in said hinge plates, and means sur;aid pin to prevent flow of water around ito the chamber, said pin being engagesaid means even when withdrawn from ig in the fixed plate.

hinge of claim 18 wherein the hinge he bottom of the lock forms a part of ber.

hinge of claim 18 wherein the chamber o a level above the high-water level d lock.

lock gate system or the like including d a movable lock gate, an underwater prising a fixed hinge plate mounted on all and beneath the surface of water i lock, a water-tight chamber forming the gate and extending from a point high water level to a point beneath )ody portion of the gate, a second hinge I to the gate and forming a part of the t the bottom thereof, openings in each e adapted to be aligned when the gate , a hinge pin insertable from within the through the openings in both hinge d a stuffing box on the inside of the surrounding said pin to prevent flow iround the pin into the chamber, said engageable with the stuffing box even idrawn from the opening in the fixed CHRISTIAN ARNE.

REFERENCES CITED owing references are of record in the s patent: JNITED STATES PATENTS Name Date Muller ---------- Oct. 27, 1925 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date Netherlands --------------- 1917