Title:
Method of and means for printing multicolor images by electric discharge
United States Patent 2451288


Abstract:
This invention relates to improvements in means and method of printing. While the present invention is concerned principally with the art of printing, nevertheless it is Sof such novel and pioneer character that it may be utilized for many other purposes where material or fluid consistency...



Inventors:
Huebner, William C.
Application Number:
US51847044A
Publication Date:
10/12/1948
Filing Date:
01/15/1944
Assignee:
Huebner, William C.
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
101/124, 101/129, 101/136, 101/152, 101/174, 101/DIG.37, 347/117
International Classes:
B41M1/12
View Patent Images:
US Patent References:



Foreign References:
GB214669A1924-04-28
Description:

This invention relates to improvements in means and method of printing.

While the present invention is concerned principally with the art of printing, nevertheless it is Sof such novel and pioneer character that it may be utilized for many other purposes where material or fluid consistency is desired to be deposited on paper or other material either as "images," as hereinafter defined, or in layers or laminations.

For brevity and clarity, the invention will be first described as it pertains to the art of printing and some of its wider applications then Indicated.

Because of the lack of exact terms in the English language to describe some features of the invention, it is necessary to a proper understanding of the invention that certain of the terms hereinafter used, be defined as to their meaning and intended scope in this application.

"Printing" as defined in all recognized dictionaries, assumes the application of ink first to the image areas of a printing plate or form and the subsequent transfer of the ink from such image areas under mechanical pressure to the paper or other impression-receiving material. In the present specification, the term "printing" and related terms are to be understood as involving no mechanical pressure whatsoever in effecting the image impression. Further, it is to be understood that the term "image" and related terms, as herein employed, are used to include letters, words, drawings, pictures, illustrations and all other representations, singly or in combination, and which may be reproduced on the print-receiving material. The print-receiving material, as will be understood by those skilled in the art, may be paper, cloth or other textile, certain metals, or any other material capable of receiving and retaining thereon an image impression. The term "ink," for brevity, is to be understood as comprehending not only ink such as commonly used in the printing art but also pigments, coloring matter, paints and all other fluid consistency materials that may be utilized in creating an impression, coating or lamination.

With the preceding understanding of the terms "printing," "image," "print-receiving material" and "ink," objects of the invention are: To provide improved means and method for producing ink impressions, on print-receiving material, corresponding with image areas of a printing plate or form, by direct deposition of the ink from an ink supply onto a surface of the material without inking of the printing plate or form.

To provide improved means and method for producing ink impressions of images formed on a printing member without any inking of the printing member.

To provide improved means and method for producing a succession or series of impressions on print-receiving material, corresponding to a series of image-provided printing members, without inking of the printing members.

To provide improved means and method for transferring ink from a source of ink supply direct to print-receiving material in accordance with predetermined and desired areas.

To provide improved means and method for passing print-receiving material between an inksupply and a printing member and, during such passage, producing ink impressions on that surface of the print-receiving material remote from the printing member, to correspond with the image areas of the printing member.

To provide improved means and method for passing a print-receiving member successively between a plurality of sets of an ink supply and printing member and, during such passage, producing a series of impressions corresponding to the respective image areas of the several printing " members, on that surface of the print-receiving Smember adjacent the ink supply and remote from the printing member.

To provide improved means and method for depositing material of a fluid consistency, either on predetermined areas only or as a full layer or plurality of layers on the surface of a receiving member, the fluid material being deposited directly from the source of fluid material supply.

To provide improved means and method in accordance with each of the preceding objects of the invention wherein the transference or deposition of the ink or fluid material to the receiving member is effected by lines of force.

A further object of the invention is to provide a simplified printing apparatus which employs a minimum number of parts that can be of light weight construction and wherein the printing member or cylinder performs the function of the supporting member or cylinder for the print receiving material, thus obviating the necessity of employing a plurality of members, cylinders or rolls in each printing couple.

Other objects of the invention will more clearly appear from the description and claims hereinafter following.

In the drawings forming a part of this specification, Figure 1 is a side elevational view, partly broken away, illustrating conventionally a four color press embodying the invention. Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view, upon a larger scale, corresponding substantially to the broken out portion of the press shown in Figure 1. Figure 3 is a part side elevational, part diametrical sectional view of one of the image-provided cylinders of the improved printing apparatus. Figures 4, 5 and 6 are fragmentary sectional views through the image carrying cylinder with the discharge and attraction elements or blades shown in elevation; said views showing respectively the image areas of the cylinder as formed for relief, planographic or intaglio printing while the nonimage areas are shown in an exaggerated manner as coated with a material impermeable to electro lines of force.

In said drawings, the improved press is shown as having a main frame 80 provided with four sets of uprights 81-81, one set for each of the different color printing stations. Mounted within the frame 80 is an endless conveyor belt 82 which passes over idlers 83 and 84 and travels in the direction indicated by the arrow a. The idlers 84 are mounted in adjustable bearing blocks 85 so that the belt may be kept to the desired degree of tautness as will be understood.

The belt and the four image-provided cylinders will be driven in proper timed relation to insure the desired register of the several impressions by any suitable or conventional driving means, not deemed necessary to illustrate, it being understood that the belt preferably is driven independently of the cylinders but in timed rela"tion to'the movement of the cylinders.

In Figure 1, the press is shown as adapted for printing of an endless web of paper 86 passing from the supply roll 87 over and along with the travel of the upper horizontal reach of the belt 82 to the take up roll 88. It will be understood that suitable driving means known in the art will be provided for the supply roll 87 and the take-up roll 88 and that drying means may be interposed between the take-up roll 88 and the last printing couple as will be understood in the art. As will be understood by those skilled in the art, however, the press may be adapted for sheet feeding by providing the belt 82 with suitable gripping and registering devices in combination with sheet feeding mechanism.

Inasmuch as the means and method employed at each of the four stations of the press are the same, a detailed description of one will suffice.

Referring now to Figures 2 and 3, the imageprovided cylinder is designated generally by the reference character B. At each end, the cylinder is provided with a non-rotatable or fixed sleeve 1 , the latter being suitably mounted in the press frame 80. Affixed to the sleeves II-II are collars 12, one at each end of the cylinder.

Mounted on each collar is a ball race 13 and to the latter are secured the cylinder ends 14 so that, as will be evident, the cylinder may be rotated freely about the fixed sleeves 11-I1 when driven through the gear 16.

Detachably mounted on each cylinder end 14 is an insulating ring 16, the latter being adapted to be locked with its corresponding end 14 by a plate 17 provided with dowels 18 insertable within corresponding dowel holes 19 and 20 in the ring 16 and cylinder end 14, respectively. Each of the plates 17 is provided with a hub 21 rotatable on and slidable lengthwise of the sleeve II to permit removal of the rings 16 and plates carried thereby. The image plate 22 of the cylinder B will be provided on the outer surface thereof with the desired images to be printed as indicated conventionally at 23.

Extended axially of the cylinder B, is an insulator hollow tube 38 supported in the fixed sleeves I1-1II. Straddling the tube 38 at relatively close intervals substantially the entire length of the cylinder on its interior, is a series of U-shaped magnet cores 39-39 securely clamped to the tube 38 by a suitably notched, preferably plastic, bar 40 which in turn is secured to the tube 38 by screws 41-41. Each core 39 is provided with right and left windings or spools 42-42, all connected to a suitable source of electric current as will be understood.

Secured to the outer ends of the arms of the cores 39 by screws 43-43 are longitudinally extending, specially shaped magnetic field bars 44.

The latter are formed with cylindric outer surfaces 45 disposed closely adjacent the inner surface of the cylinder, as shown. The bars 44-44 are further so designed that the same are formed with more or less knife-like edges 46--46 extended toward each other and leaving only a relatively narrow gap therebetween extending lengthwise of the cylinder and of the attraction blade 41 and also directly opposite a discharge blade 35 about to be described.

The attraction blade 47 extends longitudinally of the tube 38 and is secured thereto by angle plates 48 and screws 49, the latter extended to the interior of the tube 38 and in electrical circult with a high potential rod or conductor 50.

The attraction blade 47 is extended radially between the sets of magnet spools 42 and the -eld bars 44, terminating in a sharp or knife-like edge, as shown. The field windings may be radially adjusted by means of set screws 91 as shown in Figure 3 to thereby adjust the focal point where the magnetic field provides the maximum concentration of lines of force passing between the discharge and attraction blades. It will be observed that due to the use of the insulating ring 16 and the insulating tube 38, each cylinder and its associated attraction blade 47 and electromagnets are electrically insulated from each other and from the frame of the apparatus.

To provide a controlled and conditioned supply of ink to the print-receiving paper or other material, the following construction is preferably employed. Positioned above and extending lengthwise of the cylinder B is a container 25 to which the ink is supplied from a main tank, not shown, through supply pipe 26. Along the bottom of the container 25 is a longitudinally arranged series of nozzles 31-31 each with a control valve 32. To insure a steady uniform supply of ink through the nozzles, air pressure may be employed, the same being admitted through pipe 33 which is in communication with a pressure gage 34.

The ink from nozzles 31 is deposited first on an inclined plate 70 and flows down the latter to its lower edge where it flows onto the side of a discharge blade 35 mounted on a hollow insulator tube 138 and secured thereto by screws 136 which are extended to the interior of the tube to make electrical contact with a conductor 150. Said discharge blade which is thus electrically insulated from the frame of the apparatus may be of desired form such as a comb, solid plate with knife-like lower edge or series of closely arranged needles. To maintain the desired fluidity of the ink, strip electric heaters 31 may be secured to the under side of the plate 70.

The discharge blade 35 and attraction blade 47 76 are electrically connected in circuit with a source of high potential electrical energy, electronic and/or electrostatic and in such manner that the lines of force pass therebetween and act to carry the ink in a direction from the discharge blade 35 toward the attraction blade 47.

As will be apparent from the preceding description, a powerful induced field of force may thus be produced in the concentrated zone between the discharge blade 35 and the attraction blade 47 with the lines of force effective to discharge or impel ink from the discharge blade and toward the cylinder B except as to such non-image areas of the plate 22 as are made to neutralize or intercept the lines of force. To accomplish the latter result, the plate 22 may be constituted to have its image areas permeable to the lines of force and its non-image areas impermeable to the lines of force. This can be done by covering the non-image areas on either or both sides of the plate with suitable material that is impermeable to the lines of force. In my copending application Serial No. 518,469 now Patent No. 2,408,144, issued September 24, 1946, the image carrying member is disclosed as having the image areas formed thereon for either relief, intaglio or planographic printing, and the image carrying member in the present disclosure similarly may have the image areas formed in accordance with the type of printing desired, i. e., relief, intaglio, or planographic, (see Figs. 4, 6 or 5).

In Pig. 4 the image carrying member 22 is of the type employed for relief printing, i. e., the image areas 23 are raised with respect to the non-image areas 22a. The plate itself will preferably be of iron and the desired image areas thereon etched In relief in the usual manner.

The relief areas may then be covered with nonconducting material; the plate then immersed in an electrolytic bath and a thin layer of brass or 4 other material for intercepting lines of force, deposited in the recessed or non-image areas of the plate. The insulating material initially placed on the relief areas for the electrolytic bath is then removed. The brass coated areas thus act 4 as insulating, neutralizing or intercepting areas to the lines of force. This procedure is followed where suitable ingredients are added to the ink, for instance, various iron compounds responding to magnetic lines of force. However, where elec- 5( trostatic and/or electronic lines of force only are relied upon for selectively deposting the ink in accordance with the desired image areas, any suitable metal plate may be used such as copper, zinc or alloy metals and, instead of using 5G a brass deposit in the non-image areas, chemically prepared compounds may be used.

i It will be understood that when the image carrying member is constructed for intaglio or planographic printing, then the image areas 23 will be depressed relative to the non-image areas 22a as shown in Fig. 6 or will be flush with the nonimage areas 22a as shown in Pig. 5. In either case it will be understood that the image areas are permeable to lines of force (indicated by small dots in Figs. 4, 5 and 6) while the nonimage areas 22a are coated with a suitable material that is impermeable to lines of force.

It is to be understood that the terms "field of force" and "lines of force" are used herein in the same sense as those and related terms are generally employed in writings on electrical and magnetic phenomena to indicate the field, zone or sphere within which electronic, electrostatic and/or electromagnetic forces are sufficiently active or powerful to act upon and effect transference of the ink from one position to another Position across an air gap.

From the preceding descriptioh, it will be seen that desired images or impressions may be made on the paper or other print-receiving material direct from the ink supply without the necessity of inking the press plate at any time and without any mechanical pressure whatsoever at the zone of impression or transfer. This concept, so far as known, is basically new to the printing art. Further, the improved means and method are equally adaptable to any type of press plate, relief, planographic and intaglio. As will be evident to those skilled in the art, unlimited editions may be run from a single press plate, where only one impression is required, or from a single set of plates as in the case of color printing, thus effecting a great saving in costs where long editions are required.

The detailed description has been directed to a single printing station but, as will be obvious, the invention may be incorporated in a multistation press, as for color printing and as indicated in Figure 1 of the drawing. In the case of multi-color printing, another important advantage is inherent'in the present invention in that it is apparent that the several colors may be applied in a single pass of the print-receiving material through the press since there is no pressure applied to the material and hence no danger of smearing.

Still another advantage of the present inven-, tion because of the non-inking of the press plates, resides in the fact that there is no possibility of the plates becoming gummed or fouled, hence eliminating necessity of cleaning. Obviously, also make-ready is eliminated.

While the invention has been described with 0 particular reference to the printing art, nevertheless it is evident that the invention is of greater scope. By suitable modifications of the plate surfaces of the cylinders B, complete or partial laminations of various materials may be deposited on 5 the paper or other receiving material or combinations of part laminations and part desired image impressions.

Although there has been shown and described herein what is now considered the preferred manSner of carrying out the invention, the same is by way of illustration only and all changes and modifications are contemplated that come within the scope of the appended claims.

What is claimed is: 5 1. The herein described improvement in the art of producing a predetermined printed design upon a surface of print receiving material and which includes moving said material relative to an ink discharging element with said surface of the material spaced therefrom, creating an electrO field of force extending from said element through said material and simultaneously causing certain predetermined lines of force of said field of force to deposit ink directly on said surface of the material in areas corresponding to the image to be printed thereon while intercepting the remaining lines of force of said field of force adjacent the opposite and remote surface of the material to render the same ineffective and thus to cause no ink to be deposited on the remaining non-image areas of said surface of the material.

2. In printing apparatus, an element in operative association with an ink supply, a movable member spaced from said element and having image portions permeable to electro lines of force 7.

and other non-image portions impermeable thereto, said member supporting print receiving material passing between it and said element in spaced relation to the latter, means operatively associated with said member for creating an electro field of force between said element and said means and with the lines of force thereof passing only through said permeable image portions of said member, and means for moving said member and material in timed relation relative to said element, wherefore said lines of force transfer ink from said element directly to surface areas of the material correlated to the permeable image portions of said member.

3. In printing apparatus, an ink discharge element in operative association with an ink supply, a movable member spaced from said element and having image portions permeable to electro lines of force and other non-image portions impermeable thereto, said member supporting print receiving material passing between it and said element in spaced relation to the latter, an attraction element operatively associated with said member, means for connecting said elements to a source of high potential electric energy to create an electro field of force between said elements and with the lines of force thereof passing only through said permeable image portions of said member, and means for moving said member and material in timed relation relative to said elements, wherefore said lines of force transfer ink from said discharge element directly onto surface areas of the material correlated to the permeable image portions of the said member.

4. In printing apparatus, a frame, an ink discharge element in operative association with an ink supply, means electrically insulating said element from said frame, a movable member spaced from said element and having image portions permeable to electro lines of force and other nonimage portions impermeable thereto, means electrically insulating said member from said frame and from said discharge element, said member supporting print receiving material passing between it and said discharge element in spaced relation to the latter, an attraction element operatively associated with said member, means electrically insulating said attraction element from said frame and from said member, means connecting said elements with a source of high potential electric energy for creating an electro field of force between said elements with the lines of force thereof passing only through said permeable image portions of said member, and means for moving said member and material in timed relation relative to said elements, wherefore said lines of force transfer ink from said discharge element directly onto surface areas of the material correlated to the permeable image portions of said member.

5. In printing apparatus, a frame, an element in operdtive association with an ink supply and supported by said frame, a movable member spaced from said element and supported by said frame and having image portions permeable to electro lines of force and other non-image portions impermeable thereto, said member supporting print receiving material passing between it and said element in spaced relation to the latter, means operatively associated with said member and supported by said frame for creating an electro field of force between said elements and said means and with the lines of force thereof passing only through the said permeable image portions of said member, means electrically insulating said element and said first means from said frame and electrically insulating said member from said frame, from said element and from said first means, and means for moving said member and material in timed relation relative to said element and said first means, wherefore said lines of force transfer ink from said element directly onto surface areas of the material correlated to the permeable image portions of said member.

6. In printing apparatus, an element in operative association with an ink supply, a movable member spaced from said element and having image portions permeable to electro lines of force and other non-image portions impermeable thereto, said member supporting print receiving material passing between it and said element in spaced relation to the latter, electromagnetic means operatively associated with said member for creating an electromagnetic field of force which includes said element and with the lines of force thereof passing only through said permeable image portions of said member, and means for moving said member and material in timed relation relative to said element and said electromagnetic means, wherefore said lines of force transfer ink from said element directly onto surface areas of the material correlated to the permeable image portions of said member. 7. In printing apparatus, an ink discharging element in operative association with an ink supply, a movable member spaced from said element and having image portions permeable to electro lines of force and other non-image portions impermeable thereto, said member supporting print receiving material passing between it and said element in spaced relation to the latter, and attraction element operatively associated with said member, means connecting said elements with a source of high potential electric energy for creating a field of force between said elements, electromagnetic means operatively associated with said member for creating a field of force which includes said discharge element, the lines of force of both fields of force passing only through said permeable image portions of said member, and means for moving said member and material in timed relation relative to said elements and said electromagnetic means, wherefore said lines of force transfer ink from said element directly onto surface areas of the material correlated to the permeable image portions of said member.

8. In printing apparatus as defined in claim 4 and wherein the movable member is a rotatable cylinder within which the attraction element is mounted while the ink discharge element is located externally of the cylinder.

9. In printing apparatus as defined in claim 7 00 and wherein the movable member is a rotatable cylinder within which said attraction element and said electromagnetic means are mounted while the ink discharge element is located exteriorly of the cylinder.

10. In a multicolor straight line printing apparatus, a frame, a plurality of printing couples each comprising an ink discharge element in operative association with an ink supply, means electrically insulating said element from said frame, a rotatable cylinder spaced from said element and having image portions permeable to electro lines of force and other non-image portions impermeable thereto, means electrically insulating said cylinder from said frame and from said discharge element, said cylinder being adapted to support print receiving material passing between the cylinder and said discharge element in spaced relation to the latter, an attraction element mounted within said cylinder, means electrically insulating said attraction element from said frame and from said cylinder, means connecting said elements with a source of high potential electrical energy for creating an electro field of force between said elements with the lines of force thereof passing only through said permeable portions of said cylinder; a conveyor belt extending between the cylinders and the ink discharge elements of the couples and driven independently of said cylinders but in timed relation to the peripheral speed thereof and having one of its surfaces in supporting contact with said cylinders while its opposite surface is spaced from said discharge elements and supports the print receiving material, wherefore said lines of force transfer ink from said discharge element of each couple directly onto surface areas of the material correlated to the permeable image portions of said cylinder of each couple.

11. A method of printing which comprises placing one side of a web in contact with a printing form, supplying ink at a point adjacent to the other side of the web, and establishing an electric field between the point of supplying the ink and the printing form.

WILLIAM C. HUEBNER.

REFERENCES CITED 1 The following references are of record in the file of this patent: UNITED STATES PATENTS Number 15 2,224,391 2,268,594 Number 20 214,669 Name Date Huebner -- ---__ Dec. 10, 1940 Huber --_____----- _ Jan. 6, 1942 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date British --- __.-- __ Apr. 28, 1924