Title:
Reversing control mechanism
United States Patent 2433235


Abstract:
This invention relates to controls for engines, and more particularly to remote control means associated with the power transmissions and throttle mechanisms of engines as used in conveyances such as vessels. The invention is concerned with a control representing an improvement upon that disclosed...



Inventors:
Panish, Erwin J.
Application Number:
US64412646A
Publication Date:
12/23/1947
Filing Date:
01/29/1946
Assignee:
Panish, Erwin J.
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
33/199R, 318/266, 318/475
International Classes:
F01L13/00
View Patent Images:
US Patent References:
2387343Clutch control1945-10-23
2314019Control system1943-03-16
0844662N/A1907-02-19
0654130N/A1900-07-24



Description:

This invention relates to controls for engines, and more particularly to remote control means associated with the power transmissions and throttle mechanisms of engines as used in conveyances such as vessels.

The invention is concerned with a control representing an improvement upon that disclosed and claimed in my application Serial Number 408,726, filed August 29, 1941, now Patent No. 2,387,343, granted October 23, 1945, controls of 1 this type being used particularly in connection with vessels such as Coast Guard cutters operated directly from the bridge or pilot house and requiring a high degree of maneuverability.

These vessels are equipped with mechanical power transmission means including a clutch and reversing mechanism termed a "reverse gear" wherein a control shaft is rotatably movable between two limits, one limit representing the "ahead" coupling between the engine and propeller, the other limit, the "astern" coupling, and a position intermediate the limits the disengaged or "neutral" condition wherein the engine and the propeller are disconnected from each other.

In my above-referred-to patent a remote control device is provided wherein a manually operable lever is mechanically connected to operate the throttle of the engine, and electrically connected to control a reversible electric motor coupled to operate the reverse gear control shaft.

The electrical circuits between the lever and the reversible motor include a number of relays, some of which handle the motor current, switching the motor from forward to reverse and vice versa. These motor-switching relays are provided with holding contacts so that when initially energized their energization may be maintained automatically.

While these holding contacts and main contacts may be initially satisfactorily adjusted with respect to each other, after extended periods of use subsequent adjustments must be made, due to the different loads which the contacts carry, and to their different rates of wear, and this subsequent readjustment has been a troublesome factor in preventing attention-free operation during long periods of use.

An object of the present invention is to provide a simple and improved electrical control system between the manually operable lever and the reversible motor coupled to the reverse gear wherein the above disadvantages are obviated, so that the control is reliable in operation at all times, throughout an extended period of use.

In the specific embodiment of the invention illustrated herein as exemplary thereof, this object is accomplished by a novel and simple circuit and control organization in which there is a pair of main motor-controlling and reversing relays, each with double windings, and in which the auxiliary control relays of the organization are so connected and arranged that, in addition to controlling the main relays they take over the function of the holding contacts of these relays.

As a result, there is obviated the condition wherein heavy-motor-energizing circuits and light, holding circuits are controlled by a single relay armature. Instead, the auxiliary or control relays handle the small-current, control and holding circuits, and the wear of the contacts in these circuits is more nearly equal and uniform, so that readjustment at intervals is not required.

The main relay contacts may therefore be used wholly for the heavy motor circuits, and the wear of these contacts will not upset an adjustment established for the holding contacts of the system. Except where signals may be desired, for operation from the main relays, the contacts of 80 the latter are independent of contacts carrying small currents, and independent of other contacts which might render the system inoperative.

Due to the circuit arrangement employed, a simplified type of torque-responsive automatic control may be utilized, enabling the cutting-out of the control to be advantageously accomplished by use of a switch in a single line or wire located adjacent the engine. This is an important factor where several engines are to be operated from a single manual control on the bridge, and where, in the engine room, it is found necessary to separate one engine from the bridge control, as in an emergency.

The control system of this invention is so organized that, when necessary, a "liqhtning" changeover may be made from full speed ahead to full speed astern in the extremely short time of approximately 3/5 of a second. This is a very Sadvantageous feature of the invention, since it permits a maximum degree of maneuverability of the vessel to meet sudden emergencies, encountered for instance under combat conditions.

The control lever when operated in the normal more deliberate manner functions to automatically throttle and therefore decelerate the engine when changing from full ahead or full astern to neutral position, after which deceleration the reverse gear transmission is operated to disengage the engine and propeller. When changing from neutral to full ahead or full astern, the trans- ] mission or reverse gear is first operated, and the throttle of the engine automatically opened after the propeller is coupled with the engine. These same operations, except for the deceleration of the engine, occur in the same sequence when the manual lever is quickly moved without stopping, from full ahead through neutral to full astern, or vice versa, because of the extreme rapidity with which the control responds. During such quick movement of the manual control lever, the momentum of the engine does not permit its slowing down to any appreciable extent during the short interval that the throttle is retarded, and this is extremely advantageous since it prevents the engine from stalling as the sudden increased load is imposed on it due to the reversing of the transmission. The electric control portion of the device, comprising the relays and the driving motor for the reverse gear control shaft, operates with such rapidity that there is no noticeable lag in the response of the control, regardless of the speed of manipulation of the manual control lever.

Detent means are associated with the control lever so that an operator may know by feel as well as by sight the throttled neutral, and the forward and astern positions of the lever necessary for operating the transmission between the engine and propeller.

Other features and advantages will hereinafter appear.

In the accompanying drawings; Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the control system of this invention, used in conjunction with a single engine and propelling means.

Fig. 2 is a view, partly in elevation and partly in section, of the manual control station of the system.

Fig. 3 is a vertical section taken on line 3-3 of Figure 2, and Fig. 4 is a fragmentary section of the drive coupling for operating the transmission or reverse gear, and of the torque switch operator or control.

In the embodiment of the invention illustrated herein, referring to Fig. 1, the salient parts of the control system comprise a manual control station 10, which may be located on the bridge of the vessel, a reversible electric motor II and a transmission control shaft 12 operating the propeller clutch and transmission mechanism of the vessel, the shaft 12 being coupled to the motor II for operation thereby. The parts further comprise switch banks 13 and 14 associated with cams 13a and 14a of the control shaft 12, a torque-responsive switch operator II associated with the motor I , and banks of main and auxiliary relays I for controlling the power circuit of the motor.

Energy for the system is supplied by a battery 11.

A switch 18, inserted in the main supply wire 19 from the battery, is provided to disconnect the latter when the control system is not in use.

The switch 18 may be advantageously located on a panel, near the vessel's engine, on which the banks of relays 16 may also be mounted.

A switch 20 is also provided, located in the housing 21 of the manual control station 1I on the bridge and connected to the wire Is, Figs. 1 and 3, to enable an operator to cut off the station at the bridge and thereby render the same inoperative when so desired.

To provide an indication of the setting of the main switch 18, and therefore an indication of the condition of energization of the system, a signal bulb 22 is connected across the battery IT and switch 18, as shown in Fig. 1, the bulb being preferably mounted on the panel carrying the relay banks 16.

Referring to Figs. 2 and 3, the double control station 10 shown herein is similar in many respects to the double control station described in my above-referred-to application, and comprises two halves each for controlling a single engine and transmission, each operable by a separate manual lever, the functioning of one lever being similar to the functioning of the other. Only onehalf the station 10 is depicted in Fig. 1 for use with the control circuits shown therein, which apply to a single engine and transmission, it being understood that two or more such circuits may be employed with a corresponding suitable multiple control station.

The control station 10 has a manually operable lever 23 pivotally mounted in the housing 21 to be movable from a neutral position, shown in Fig. 3, either to the right or left to "ahead" or "astern" positions respectively. A plurality of microswitches 24, 25 and 23 are mounted on the inside of the housing 2 for operation by a cam segment 21 secured to the lever 23, the segment at its center being notched so that for the neutral position the switch 25 is closed, as shown in Fig. 1.

For this position of the lever 23 the cam segment 27 does not engage the switches 24 and 21, and the latter are arranged to remain open in such circumstance. When the lever 23 is moved either to the left or right sufficiently to cause the cam segment to fully engage one of the switches 24, 26, the engaged switch will be closed, and the switch 25 will be in open position.

To enable these switch-engaging positions, and also the neutral positipn, to be determined by "feel," and to provide a detent means, a segment S2 is mounted within the housing 21 rigid with 0the segment 21 and lever 23, and a bell crank 29 biased by a spring 30 provided for engagement with notches 31, 32 and 33 in the segment, as shown inFig. 3.

The lever 23 and segments 27 and 28 may be 5moved beyond the positions defined by the notches 31 and 33 for the purpose of in each case advancing the throttle of the engine; however the condition of all the switches is not altered from their initially changed condition by this additional movement of the lever, due to the segment 27 continuing to bear on the switch 25 and on either one of the switches 24, 26 according to the direction of movement of the lever 23.

For controlling the throttling of an engine in response to movement of the lever 23 as indicated above, the segment 28 is provided with a fitting 34 to which is secured a link 35 slidable in a sleeve 36 swivel-mounted at 37 in a cable ferrule 38 70 which is in turn rigidly connected with the housing 21. The link 35 may be coupled by means of a push-pull cable 39 to control the throttle lever 39a of an engine E, Fig. 1. When the lever 23 is swung to either side of neutral position (for which position the throttling of the engine is set at idling), the fitting 34 is moved in an arcuate path which swings the sleeve 36 and link 35, and slides the lattek outward of the sleeve, advancing the throttle lever 39a.

Referring to Figs. 1 and 4, the reversible motor II has a shaft 40 coupled to drive the vessel's reverse-gear or transmission-operating shaft 12, the coupling comprising a countershaft 41 having an overhauling worm 42 meshing with a worm wheel 43 on the shaft 12. To provide for operation of a torque-responsive switch 44, the countershaft 41 is made axially movable as well as rotatable, and for this purpose a toothed coupling 45 is provided between the motor shaft 40 and the countershaft 41, adapted to permit limited axial movement of the latter without disengagement thereof. The countershaft 41 is mounted in journals 46 and 47, and control of its axial movement accomplished by connection, through a thrust ball bearing 48 and fitting 49, to an extension 50 carrying a pair of stop cups 51 and 52 which are slidable on the extension and engage internal shoulders 53 and 54 respectively in a stationary housing 55. The extension 50 is prevented from turning by a screw 56 extending into a slot 51 in the fitting 49.

As shown in Fig. 4, the cups 51 and 52 are confined on the extension 50 by shoulders 58 and 59, and are yieldably held against the latter by a compression spring 60. For actuating the torque-responsive switch 44 a two-faced cam 61 is provided, secured to the extension 50, said cam comprising the switch operator 15.

By this construction, energization of the motor I1 and turning of the shaft 40 will drive the worm 42, worm wheel 43 and reverse gear operating shaft 12, the spring 60 being constructed strong enough so that it does not yield appreciably during the said driving. However, when the shaft 12 has reached the limit of its movement, the motor shaft 40 and countershaft 41 will have not quite reached their limits, because the increased load will cause the worm 42, countershaft 41 and extension 50 to move axially while still turning, 41 thus separating one of the stop cups 51, 52 from its associated shoulder 53 or 54 by compressing the spring 60. The axial movement of the extension 50 displaces the cam 61, actuating the torque switch 44 to separate the contacts thereof. This 54 switch is so connected, as will be later brought out, that when opened it immediately deenergizes the motor 11. Due to the fact that the worm 42 and worm wheel 43 are made overhauling, as soon as the driving force of the motor 11 5 is removed, as by deenergizing the latter, the spring 60 will return the displaced extension 50 and countershaft 41 to normal position as determined by reengagement of the displaced stop cup with its associated abutting shoulder of the hous- 6 ing 55. This return will be accompanied by movement of the cam 61 so as to allow the torque switch 44 to automatically reclose.

According to the present invention a novel system is provided for remotely controlling at will 6 the energization of the motor II by movement of the combination throttle and transmission control lever 23, and for automatically controlling the motor deenergization by the drive-force or torqueresponsive switch 44 and also by the switch banks 7 13 and 14 responsive to the positioning of the reverse gear actuating shaft 12. In this novel system the heavy current contacts of the relays in the motor circuit are not associated with holding circuit contacts which carry small current, to 7 cause trouble or require attention after extended use due to unequal wearing away of the contacts.

Instead, the holding circuit contacts are associated with relay-control contacts of auxiliary relays which control the energization of the motor-energizing relays. Thus, since both the holding circuit contacts and the relay-control contacts carry but small current, their rate of wear is very nearly equal, and they do not require readjustment after an extended period of use.

Also, the comparatively greater wear of the heavy-current contacts of the motor relays is not so likely to render the system inoperative or require frequent readjustment, since these heavycurrent contacts are not now associated with light-weight contacts essential to the operation of the system.

Referring to Fig. 1, essentially this system comprises a novel circuit arrangement including pairs of motor-reversing relays 62, 63 and control and holding servomotors or relays 64, 65, and pairs of mechanically coupled, oppositely acting switches 66, 67 and 68, 69, the switch pairs comprising respectively the switch banks 13 and 14 which are under the control of the cams 13a and 14a carried by the reverse gear operating shaft 12. The above parts are so interconnected, and connected with the torque switch 44 and with the switches at the control station 10 so as to produce a reliable, attention-free control having desirable characteristics and advantages.

Figure 1 shows the positions of the parts when the control is set for neutral. Considering first the energization for the motor II, the motor power circuit may be traced as follows: the relay 62 has groups of mechanically coupled contacts 70, 71, and the relay 63 groups of mechanically coupled contacts 72, 73, the respective groups being connected together by wires 74, 75 as shown.

The wire 75 is connected by a wire 76 to one terminal of the battery 17, and the wire 74 connected by a wire 7 the moto her field 78 which latter is connected by a wire 79 to the supply wire 19 from the battery. The motor armature 80 is connected by a wire 81 to the contact groups 73 and 70, and connected by wires 82 and 83 to the contact groups 71 and 72. This is the conventional reversing circuit for a series motor; when the relay 62 is energized, the contact groups 70, 0 71 will be closed and the motor driven in one direction, and when the relay 63 is energized, the contact groups 72, 73 will be closed and the motor S1 driven in the opposite direction.

Control of the motor-reversing relays 62, 63 is 5 accomplished by the control relays 64 and 65 in the following manner. The relay 62 has two separate energizing windings 84 and 85, either of which when energized may operate the contact groups of the relays, the winding 84 being under the control of the control relay 64, and being 0 energized only when the manual control lever 23 is moved from neutral position to "ahead" position. Similarly the relay 63 has two separate windings 86 and 87, the latter winding being energized only when the control lever 23 is moved from neutral to "astern" position.

The control relays 64 and 65 have pairs of smallcurrent contact groups 88, 89 and 90, 91 respectively, all the groups being connected by a wire O 92 to the wire 79 energized from the battery lead 19.

Considering the relay 62, the winding 84 is connected by a wire 93 to the wire 16 from the battery, and by a wire 94 to a contact group 89 r5 of the holding relay 64. Thus when the relay 64 is energized or deenergized, it energizes or deenergizes the winding 84 of the relay 62.

The energization of the winding 95 of the relay 64 is under the control of three switches which are connected to said winding in a series circuit, and such energization may be effected only when all three switches are closed. These switches are the switch 26 at the control station 10, the switch 66 operated by the cam 13a of the reverse gear operating shaft 12, and the torque switch 44 operated by excess driving force from the motor 1.

As shown, the torque switch 44, which in practice is closely adjacent the engine E, is connect! by a wire 96 to a cut-out switch 96a which also may be mounted at the engine E, the purpose of which latter switch will be brought out later. From the switch 96a a wire 96b extends to the wire 76 from the battery; and the other terminal of the torque switch 44 is connected by a wire 97 to the relay coil 95, the latter being connected by wires 98 and 99 through the switch 66 to the switch 26 at the control station 1C. The switch 26 is in turn connected by a wire 100 to the off-and-on switch 20 for the station.

Control of and connection for the relay 65 are somewhat similar, but arranged for reverse or "astern" operation. The coil 101 of the relay 65 is connected by a wire 102 to the wire 97, and connected by wires 103 and 104 through the switch 69 to the switch 24 at the control station 10, the latter switch being connected with the wire 100. Thus all three switches 44, 69 and 24 must be closed to effect energization of the relay coil 101. The coil 87 of the motor reversing relay 63 is connected by a wire 87a to the return wire 96b, and by a wire 87b to the contact group 91 of the holding relay 65, so as to be under the control of the latter.

After either one of the relays 64, 65 has been initially energized, its energization is maintained independently of the switches at the control station 10 and at the switch banks 13 and 14 by holding contact groups 88 and 90 which are connected to bridge said switches. Thus, after initial energization of either of the relays 64 and 65, deenergization may be accomplished only by opening the torque switch 44.

As shown, the contact group 88 is connected by the wires 92 and 98 to effect bridging of the switches 66 and 26, and the contact group 90 con-. nected by the wires 92 and 103 to effect bridging of the switches 69 and 24.

According to the above circuit arrangement, with the switches 18,and 20 closed, if the control lever 23, Fig. 1, is moved from its neutral position shown to an "ahead" position wherein the detent notch 31, Fig. 3, is engaged, or beyond this position, the switch 25 will be opened and the switch 26 closed. This latter will cause the relay 64 to be energized through the switches 66 and 44, and accordingly will energize the relay 62 and drive the motor 11 forward. The latter will drive the shaft 12 and cams 13a and 14a counterclockwise, opening the switch 66 and closing the switch 67. Opening the switch 66 does not now affect the energization of the relay 64 because of the holding contacts 88 of the latter.

The motor II will drive the shaft 12 to the limit of the latter's movement, whereupon the increased load on the motor will cause displacement of the cam 61 and opening of the torque switch 44 controlling the circuit of the relay 64. Therefore the relay 62 and the motor II will be deenergized.

The spring 60 will now become operative to reclose the torque switch 44, but since the switch 66 remains open, no further energization or operation results.

The reverse gear or transmission of the vessel has now been engaged for forward movement, and the lever 23 may be moved back and forth along its arc of travel to the right of the neutral position, Fig. 1, to control the engine throttling without further operating the transmission. In this circumstance it will be noted that the control system itself, omitting the pilot light 22, is electrically deenergized, that is, drawing no current from the battery 17.

Considering again the neutral position of Fig. 1, but with the switches 18 and 20 closed, if the control lever 23 should be moved from the neutral position to an "astern" position wherein the detent notch 33 is engaged, or beyond this position, the switch 25 will be opened and the switch 24 closed. This latter switch will cause energization of the relays 65, 63, and reverse energization of the motor II, so that the shaft 12 and cams 13a and 14a will be driven in a clockwise direction. The switch 69 will now be opened and the switch 68 closed by the cam 14a, and, as the shaft 12 reaches the limit of its movement, engaging the transmission for reverse or "astern," the increased load on the motor will result in displacement of the cam 61 and opening of the torque switch 44. This will deenergize the system in a manner similar to that already explained, and the cam 61 will be returned by the spring 60, allowing the switch 44 to reclose. However, the system still remains deenergized, and the control lever 23 may be moved back and forth along its arc of travel to the left of the neutral position (Fig. 1) to control the throttling of the engine.

The disengagement of the transmission or "reverse gear" by return of the shaft 12 to neutral from either the "ahead" or "astern" position, to which it has been driven by the motor II is accomplished by energization of the relays 62, 83 through the coils 85, 86 thereof. Energization of one or the other of these coils is accomplished through circuits energized by returning the control lever 23 to neutral position, the selection of the correct relay coil being automatically effected by the switches 67 and 68 of the switch banks 13, 14 under the control of the cams 13a and 14a.

The circuits for effecting energization of the coils 85, 86 to the shaft 12 to neutral are as follows: Both coils have a common connecting wire 105 which is connected by a wire 106 to the switch 25 at the station 10. The coil 85 is also connected by wires 107 and 108 through the switch 68 to the return wire 96, and the coil 86 connected by wires 109 and 110 through the switch 67 to the wire 108 and thence to the return wire 96.

Assuming the control is being operated in the "ahead" position wherein the lever 23 is to the right of neutral (Fig. 1), the switch 25 will be open and the switch 26 closed. For this condition, the shaft 12 and cams 13a and 14a will have been rotated counterclockwise from the positions shown, so that the switch 66 is open and the switch 67 closed. If now the lever 23 is returned to centralized or neutral position, the switch 25 will be closed, and a circuit completed through the same, the relay coil 86 and the switch 67.

The relay 63, being energized, will connect the motor 11 for operation to return the shaft 12 to neutral position. Immediately before the shaft 12 and cams 13a and 14a reach neutral, the switch 67 will be permitted to again open, thereby 2,433,32 9 deenergizing the relay 63 and therefore the motor s II. The inertia of the latter will carry the shaft d 12 and cams beyond the cut-off point, however, e to approximately the neutral position again, the f circuits of the control being as shown in Fig. 1, 5 c wherein they do not draw current from the battery 17.

Similarly, if the control is operating in the t "astern" position wherein the lever 23 is to the i left of neutral as viewed in Fig. 1, the switch 25 10 being open, and switch 24 closed, and the switches 68 and 69 respectively closed and open due to the cam 14a and shaft 12 having been rotated clockwise, shifting of the lever 23 to neutral will close the switch 25, energize the relay coil 85 through 15 the switch 68, and cause rotation of the motor II to drive the shaft 12 and cam 14a counterclockwise. The switch 68 will then be operated to break the relay circuit so that the shaft 12 and cams 13a and 14a come to rest in the neutral 20 position shown.

An extremely advantageous feature of the control system of this invention is that the combination of throttle control and transmission control as set forth enables a "lightning" change being 25 made from full speed ahead to full speed astern or vice versa, in approximately 3/% of a second, Such a change is made by sweeping the lever 23 from one extreme position through neutral to the opposite extreme position. During such 30 movement the throttle of the engine is first closed and then again fully opened, and since the time is extremely short, the inertia of the engine does not permit it to decelerate appreciably. The response of the relays to the quick movement of the 35 lever 23 is extremely rapid, as is the response and operation of the motor 1. However, the closing of either of the holding relays 64 and 65 when the shaft 12 and cams 13a and 14a pass through neutral always occurs before the opening of the 40 associated one of the relay energizing switches 66 and 68, due to the power and.the small inertia of the relays as compared with the position of the cams 13a, 14a and their speed.

As a result, during such quick operation of the 45 control lever 23 it is impossible for the motor II to be left deenergized before it has completed the reverse coupling between the engine and the propeller. Thus a situation could not exist due to such rapid change where the engine has a wide 50 open throttle and the transmission is in neutral position.

Although, during such rapid change from full speed ahead to full speed astern or vice versa, a heavy load is imposed on the engine due to the 55 reversing of the propeller, the engine will not stall because of its inertia plus the fact that it has wide open throttle when the load is imposed.

The response and operation of the control Is so rapid that for all practical purposes no lag may 60 be observed in the operation of the transmission.

The detent notches 31, 32 and 33 in the segment 28 of the control station 10 function, when the lever 23 is operated in the normal slow and deliberate manner, to apprise a user, by feel, of the 65 three different positions of the lever corresponding to the ahead, neutral and astern conditions of the reverse gear or transmission.

An important feature of the control system of the present invention is the provision of the single 70 conductor or lead 96, 96b and the cut-out switch 96a in said lead, located at the engine E. If for any reason, as when an emergency arises, ft is necessary to remove the engine E from the control of the system, and operate the reverse gear 7I haft 12 by hand, the engineer at the engine may lo this by merely opening the switch 96a and operating the usual manual control (not shown) or the shaft 12. Where two engines are being perated simultaneously from the bridge of the ressel by two control circuits, it is a simple and ;onvenient matter for an engineer stationed at he engines to disconnect either one or both from ;he bridge control, and operate the reverse gears manually should this be necessary at any time.

For the purpose of providing a signal to indicate when the transmission is in operation, a buzzer 11 is employed, connected by a wire 112 to the wire 19 and by a wire 113 to contact groups 114 and 115 associated with the relays 62 and 63 respectively, the contact group 114 being connected with the wire 16 and the contact group 115 by a wire 116 to the wire 81a.

Whenever either of the relays 62, 63 is energized, the buzzer will sound. The operation of the system is so rapid, however, that the buzz produced by the buzzer is of extremely short duration.

Variations and modifications may be made within the scope of this invention and portions of the improvements may be used without others.

I claim: 1. In a control system, an instrumentality movable between two positions; electric motive means for driving said instrumentality between said positions; power-operated reversing switch means for connecting said motive means for forward and reverse movement; manually operable switch means located at a point remote from the motive means and instrumentality; means including a relay under the control of said manual switch means for actuating said reversing switch means when the instrumentality is in one position, thereby to energize the motive means and drive the instrumentality toward the other position, said relay having automatic holding means for maintaining said actuation independently of the said manual switch means to enable the motive means to complete driving of the instrumentality to the other position; automatically restorable means for rendering ineffective the control of the manual switch means over the relay after the instrumentality has been moved from its initial or starting position; means, including solely one conductor and an automatically restorable cut-out switch in said conductor, for rendering inoperative said holding means as a result of the instrumentality being driven against its other position, thereby to release the reversing switch means and render the motive means inoperative; means under the control of the manual switch means for actuating the reversing switch means to cause return of the instrumentality to its starting position; and means responsive to positioning of the instrumentality for rendering inoperative said said last-named means when the instrumentality returns to starting position, thereby to deenergize the motive means and halt the instrumentality.

2. In a control system, an instrumentality movable between two positions; electric motive means for driving said instrumentality between said positions; power-operated reversing switch means for connecting said motive means for forward and reverse movement; a manually I operable, reversibly movable member located at a point remote from the motive means and instrumentality; means including a relay under the control of said member for actuating said reversing switch means when the instrumentality i is in one position, thereby to energize the motive means and drive the instrumentality toward the other position, said relay having automatic holding means for maintaining said actuation independently of said member to enable the motive means to complete driving of the instrumentahty to the other position; automatically restorable means for rendering ineffective the control of the manually operable member over the relay after the instrumentality has been moved Irom its initial or starting position; means ] for rendering inoperative said holding means as a result of the instrumentality being driven against its other position, thereby to release the reversing switch means and render the motive means inoperative; means under the control of the manually operable member for actuating the reversing switch means to cause return of the instrumentality to its starting position; and means responsive to positioning of the instrumentality for rendering inoperative said lastnamed means when the instrumentality returns to starting position, thereby to deenergize the motive means and halt the instrumentality.

3. In a control system, an instrumentality movable between two positions; an electric motor for driving said instrumentality between said positions; power-operated reversing switch means for connecting said motor for forward and reverse rotation; a manually operable, reversibly movable lever located at a point remote from the motor and instrumentality; means including a relay under the control of said lever lor actuating said reversing switch means when the instrumentality is in one position, thereby to energize the motor and drive the instrumentality toward the other position, said relay having automatic holding means for maintaining said actuation independently of the lever to enable the motor to complete driving of the instrumentality to the other position; automatically restorable means for rendering ineffective the control of the lever over the relay after the instrumentality has been moved from its initial or starting position; torque-responsive means for rendering inoperative said holding means as a result of the instrumentality being driven against its other position, thereby to release the reversing switch means and render the motor inoperative; means under the control of the lever for actuating the reversing switch means to cause return of the instrumentality to its starting position; and means responsive to positioning of the instrumentality for rendering inoperative said last-named means when the instrumentality returns to starting position, thereby to deenergize the motor and halt the instrumentality.

4. In an electric control system, an instrumentality movable between two positions; electric motive means for driving said instrumentality between said positions; reversing relays for connecting said motive means for forward and reverse movement; a manually operable, reversibly movable member located at a point remote from the motive means and instrumentality; means including an auxiliary relay under the control of said member for actuating one of said reversing relays when the instrumentality is in one position, thereby to energize the motive means and drive the instrumentality toward the other position, said auxiliary relay having automatic holding means for maintaining said actuation independently of the said.member to enable the motive means to complete driving of the instrumentality to the other position; automatically restorable means for rendering ineffective the control of the manually operable member over the auxiliary relay after the instrumentality has been moved from its initial or starting position; means for rendering inoperative said holding means as a result of the instrumentality being driven against its other position, thereby to release the said one reversing relay and render the motive inoperative; means under the control of the manually operable member for actuating the other reversing relay to cause return of the instrumentality to its starting position; and means responsive to positioning of the instrumentality for rendering inoperative said lastnamed means when the instrumentality returns to starting position, thereby to deenergize the motive means and halt the instrumentality.

5. In an' electric control system, an instrumentality movable between two positions; electric motive means for driving said instrumentality between said positions; reversing relays for connecting said motive means for forward and reverse movement; manually operable switch means located at a point remote from the motive means and instrumentality; means including an auxiliary relay under the control of said switch means for actuating one of said reversing relays when the instrumentality is in one position, thereby to energize the motive means and drive the instrumentality toward the other position, said auxiliary relay having automatic holding means for maintaining said actuation independently of said switch means to enable the motive means to complete driving of the instrumentality to the other positions; automatically restorable means for rendering ineffective the control of the said switch means over the auxiliary relay after the instrumentality has been moved from its initial or starting position; means for rendering inoperative said holding means as a result of the instrumentality being driven against its other position, thereby to release the said one reversing relay and render the motive means inoperative; means under the control of the said switch means for actuating the other reversing relay to cause return of the instrumentality to its starting position; and means responsive to positioning of the instrumentality for rendering inoperative said last-named means when the instrumentality returns to starting position, thereby to deenergize the motive means and halt the instrumentality.

6. In a control system, an instrumentality movable from an intermediate position to either of two limits; an electric motor for driving said instrumentality between said limits; power-operated reversing switch means for connecting Go said motor for forward and reverse rotation; a manually operable, reversibly movable lever located at a point remote from the motor and instrumentality; means including relays under the control of said lever for reversibly actuating said reversing switch means, said relays having automatic holding means for maintaining said actuation independently of the lever to enable the motor to complete driving of the instrumentality against one of said limits; automatically restorable means for rendering ineffective the control of the lever over the relays after the instrumentality has been moved from its intermediate position; means for rendering inoperative said holding means as a result of the instrumentality being driven against a limit, thereby to release the reversing switch means and render the motor inoperative; means under the control of the lever for actuating the reversing switch means to cause return of the instrumentality to its intermediate position; and means responsive to positioning of the instrumentality for rendering inoperative said last-named means when the instrumentality returns to intermediate position, thereby to deenergize the motor and halt the instrumentality. 1 7. In a control system, an instrumentality movable from an intermediate position to either of two limits; an electric motive means for driving said instrumentality between said limits; power-operated reversing switch means for con- 1 necting said motive means for forward and reverse rotation; manually operable switch means located at a point remote from the motive means and instrumentality; means including relays under the control of said manual switch means for 2 reversibly actuating said reversing switch means, said relays having automatic holding means for maintaining said actuation independently of the switch means to enable the motive means to complete driving of the instrumentality against 2 one of said limits; automatically restorable means for rendering ineffective the control of the manual switch means over the relays after the instrumentality has been moved from its intermediate position; means, including solely one conductor and an automatically restorable cutout switch in said conductor, for rendering inoperative said holding means as a result of the instrumentality being driven against a limit, thereby to release the reversing switch means and render the motive means inoperative; means under the control of the manual switch means for actuating the reversing switch means to cause return of the instrumentality to its intermediate position; and means responsive to positioning of the instrumentality for rendering inoperative said last-named means when the instrumentality returns to intermediate position, thereby to deenergize the motive means and halt the instrumentality.

8. In an electric control system for a reversible drive mechanism wherein a reversible movable member when moved to either of two limits operates the mechanism for forward or reverse drive respectively, and wherein the member when moved to a predetermined intermediate position disengages the mechanism, a reversible electric motive means coupled to the movable member; a position-responsive switch associated with the movable member and motive means, adapted to be actuated when the latter drives the member to either of its limits; means including a pair of independently operable relays for controlling the forward and reverse energization of the motive means; a manual control lever movable from forward through neutral to reverse positions and vice versa; means connected with the positionresponsive switch and including switches operable by the manual lever, for connecting one or the other of the relays to a source of energy when the lever is moved from neutral to forward or reverse position respectively, so that the motive means is correspondingly energized for forward or reverse and drives the movable member from its intermediate position to a corresponding one of its limits, said position-responsive switch being actuated to release the relay when the movable member has reached its limit of movement; and separate means, including switch means operable by the movable member and by the manual lever, for connecting the relay not previously energized to a source of energy when the lever is returned to neutral position and while the movable member is out of its intermediate position so that the said motive means is energized for reverse operation, thereby to return the movable member to intermediate position, said switch means operable by the member being actuated as the latter approaches intermediate position 0 to release the said relay and deenergize the motive means.

9. In a control system for a reversible drive mechanism wherein a reversibly movable member when moved to either of two limits operates the mechanism for forward or reverse drive respectively, and wherein the member when moved to a predetermined intermediate position disengages the mechanism, a reversible electric motive means coupled to the movable member; a ,0 torque-responsive device associated with the motive means, adapted to be actuated when the latter drives the member to either of its limits; means including a pair of independently operable relays for controlling the forward and re5 verse energization of the motive means; a manual control lever movable from forward through neutral to reverse positions and vice versa; means including a switch operable by the torque-responsive device, and including pairs of series-conS0 nected switches operable by the movable member and the control lever, for operating one or the other of the relays when the member is in intermediate position and the lever is moved from neutral to forward or reverse position re35 spectively, so that the motive means is correspondingly energized for forward or reverse, the particular switch operable by the member and associated with the operated relay being opened when the member leaves its intermediate posi40 tion; means for holding either of the relays in operative position after its initial operation and after opening of the said switch operable by the movable member, the switch operable by the torque-responsive means being actuated to render 45 said holding means inoperative when the movable member has reached its limit of movement; and means, including separate switch means operable by the movable member and by the manual lever, for operating the relay not previously 50 energized when the lever is returned to neutral position and while the movable member is out of its intermediate position so that the motive means is energized for reverse operation, thereby to return the movable member to intermediate 55 position, said separate switch means operable by the member being actuated when the latter reaches intermediate position to release the said relay and deenergize the motive means.

10. In a control system for a reversible drive 60 mechanism whereini a reversibly movable member when moved to either of two limits operates the mechanism for forward or reverse drive respectively, and wherein the member when moved to a predetermined intermediate position diso5 engages the mechanism, a reversible motive means coupled to the movable member; a yieldable force-responsive device associated with the motive means, adapted to yield when the latter has driven the movable member to either of its 70 limits; means, including a pair of independently operable relays each having double windings, for controlling the forward and reverse energization of the motive means; a manual control lever movable from forward through neutral to reverse 75 positions and vice versa; a cut-out switch operable by the force-responsive device; means connected with the cut-out switch and including switches operable by the control lever, for connecting single windings of one or the other of the relays to a source of energy when the lever is moved from neutral to forward or reverse position respectively, so that the motive means is correspondingly energized for forward or reverse and drives the movable member from its intermediate position to a corresponding one of its limits, said cut-out switch being actuated when the movable member reaches its limit of movement, to release the energized relay; and separate means, including switch means operable by the movable member and by the manual lever, for connecting the unconnected winding of the relay not previously energized to a source of energy when the lever is returned to neutral position and while the movable member is out of intermediate position, so that the motive means is energized for reverse operation thereby to return the movable member to intermediate position, said switch means operable by the member being actuated as the latter approaches intermediate position, to release the said relay and deenergize the motive means.

11. In an electric control system for a reversible drive mechanism wherein a reversibly movable member when moved to either of two limits operates the mechanism for forward or reverse drive respectively, and wherein the member when moved to a predetermined intermediate position disengages the mechanism, a reversible electric motor coupled to the movable member; a yieldable torque-responsive device associated with the motor, adapted to yield when the latter has driven the movable member to either of its limits; means including a pair of independently operable relays for controlling the forward and reverse energization of the motor; a manual control lever movable from forward through neutral to reverse positions and vice versa; means including switches connected in a series circuit, said switches being operable by the movable member, the torque-responsive device and the manual lever respectively, for connecting one or the other of the relays to a source of energy when the member is in intermediate position and the lever is moved from neutral to forward or reverse position respectively, so that the motor is correspondingly energized for forward or reverse, the particular switch operable by the member and associated with the operated relay being opened when the member leaves its intermediate position; means for holding either of the relays In operative position after its initial operation and after opening of the said switch operable by the movable member, the switch operable by the torque-responsive device being actuated to render said holding means inoperative when the movable member has reached its limit of movement; and means, including separate switch means operable by the movable member and by the manual lever, for operating the relay not previously energized when the lever is returned .to neutral position and while the movable member is out of intermediate position, so that the motor is energized for reverse operation thereby to return the movable member to intermediate position, said separate switch means operable by the member being actuated when the latter reaches intermediate position, to release the said relay and deenergize the motor.

'12. In an electric control system for a reversible drive mechanism wherein a reversibly movable member when moved to either of two limits operates the mechanism for forward or reverse drive respectively, and wherein the member when moved to a predetermined intermediate position disengages the mechanism, a reversible electric motive means coupled to the movable member; a switch operator associated with the movable member and motive means, adapted to be actuated when the latter drives the member to either of its limits; means including a pair of Independently operable relays for controlling the forward and reverse energization of the motive means; a manual control lever movable from forward through neutral to reverse positions and vice versa; means including separate sets of series-connected switches, operable by the movable member and the manual lever, and including a cut-out switch operable by the said switch operator and connected to control the energy supply to said sets of series-connected switches, for connecting one or the other of the relays to a source of energy when the member is in said intermediate position and the lever is moved from neutral to forward or reverse position respectively, so that the motive means is correspondingly energized for forward or reverse, the particular switch operable by the member and associated with the energized relay being opened when the member leaves its intermediate position; means for holding either of the relays in energized position after its initial energization and after opening of the said switch operable by the movable member, the cut-out switch being opened to render said holding means inoperative when the movable member has reached its limit of movement; and means, including separate switch means operable by the movable member and by the manual lever, for connecting the relay not previously energized to a source of energy when the lever is returned to neutral position and while the movable member is out of its intermediate position so that the said motive means is energized for reverse operation, thereby to return the movable member to intermediate position, said separate switch means operable by the member being actuated as the later approaches intermediate position to release the said relay and deenergize the motive means.

13. In an electric control system for a reversible drive mechanism wherein a reversibly movable member when moved to either of two limits operates the mechanism for forward or reverse drive respectively, and wherein the member when moved to a predetermined intermediate position disengages the mechanism, a reversible electric motive means coupled to the movable member; a switch operator associated with the movable member and motive means, adapted to be actuated when the latter drives the member to either of its limits; means including a pair of Independently operable relays each having double windings for controlling the forward and reverse energization of the motive means; a manual control lever movable from forward through neutral to reverse positions and vice versa; means including separate sets of series-connected switches operable by the movable member and the manual lever, and Including a cut-out switch operable by the said switch operator and connected to control the energy supply to said sets of series-connected switches, for respectively connecting single windings of one or the other of the relays to a source of energy when the member is in said intermediate position and the lever is moved from neutral to forward or reverse position respectively, so that the motive means is correspondingly energized for forward or reverse, the particular switch operable by the member and associated with the energized relay being open when the member leaves its intermediate position; means for holding either of the relays in energized position after its initial energization and after opening of the said switch I operable by the movable member, the cut-out switch being actuated to render said holding means inoperative when the movable member has reached its limit of movement; and means, including separate switch means operable by the 1 movable member and by the manual lever, for connecting the unconnected winding of the relay not previously energized to a source of energy when the lever is returned to neutral position and while the movable member is out of intermediate 1 position so that the said motive means is energized for reverse operation, thereby to return the movable member to intermediate position, said separate switch means operable by the member being actuated as the latter approaches intermediate 2 position to release the said relay and deenergize the motive means.

14. The invention as defined in claim 9, in which there is a signal, and in which there is means operative only during energization of a relay, for operating the signal.

15. In a control system for a reversible drive mechanism wherein a reversibly movable member when moved to either of two limits operates the mechanism for forward or reverse drive respectively, and wherein the member when moved to a predetermined intermediate position disengages the mechanism, a reversible motive means coupled to the movable member; a force-responsive device associated with the motive means and biased to a predetermined position, said device being actuated when the driving force of the motive means exceeds normal, and said device returning to its predetermined position when the driving force drops to normal or below; means including a pair of independently operable main relays for controlling the forward and reverse energization of the motive means; a manual control lever movable from forward through neutral to reverse positions and vice versa; means including switches connected in a series circuit, said switches being operable by the movable member, the force-responsive device and the manual lever respectively, for connecting one or the other of the relays to a source of energy when the member is in intermediate position and the lever is moved from neutral to forward or reverse position respectively, so that the motive means is correspondingly energized for forward or reverse, said means for connecting the relays including a pair of holding relays controlled by the said switches, for maintaining energization of the main relays, and the switch operable by the force-responsive device being actuated when the driving force of the motive means exceeds normal, to release a holding relay and thereby deenergize a main relay, the switch operable by the movable member being opened when the latter leaves intermediate position to prevent reenergization of the main relay by return of the force-responsive device; and means, including separate switch means operable by the movable member and by the manual lever, for connecting the relay not previously energized to a source of energy when the lever is returned to neutral position and while the movable member is out of its intermediate position so that the motive means is energized for reverse operation, thereby to return the movable member to interrnediate position, said switch means operable by the member being actuated as the latter approaches intermediate position to release the said relay and deenergize the motive means.

16. The invention as defined in claim 9 in which the manual control lever when in forward or reSverse positions may be moved from adjacent the neutral position to limits remote from the latter, and in which there is an engine having a throttle and means connected with the lever for advancing the engine throttle as the lever is moved from 0 adjacent the neutral position toward either of said limits, and vice versa.

17. In combination with an internal combustion engine having a throttle adjustable between idling and full speed settings, a reverse gear operable from an intermediate position to either of two limits for coupling the engine to a driven member to operate said member in opposite directions and to uncouple the engine and member; a reversible electric motive means for operating i0 said reverse gear; a cut-out switch associated with the reverse gear and motive means, adapted to be actuated when the latter drives the gear against either of its limits; means including a pair of independently operable relays for controlling the 25 forward and reverse energization of the motive means; a manual control lever movable from forward through neutral to reverse positions and vice versa, said lever being connected with the throttle of the engine to advance the latter when 30 the lever is moved from neutral toward either full forward or reverse; means connected with the cut-out switch and including switches operable by the manual lever, for connecting one or the other of the relays to a source of energy when the lever 35 is moved from neutral to forward or reverse position respectively, so that the motive means is correspondingly energized for forward or reverse and drives the reverse gear from its intermediate position to a corresponding one of its limits, said 40 cut-out switch being opened to release the relay when the reverse gear has reached its limit of movement; and separate means, including switch means operable by the reverse gear and by the manual lever, for connecting the relay not previ45 ously energized to a source of energy when the lever is returned to neutral position and while the reverse gear is out of its intermediate position so that the said motive means is energized for reverse operation, thereby to return the reverse 50 gear to intermediate position, said switch means operable by the gear being actuated as the latter approaches intermediate position to release the said relay and.deenergize the motive means.

18. In a control system, an instrumentality 55 movable between two positions; motive means for driving said instrumentality between said positions; power-operated control means for operating said motive means for forward and reverse movement; a manually operable, reversibly mov60 able member located at a point remote from the motive means and instrumentality; means including a servomotor under the control of said member for actuating said control means when the instrumentality is in one position, thereby to energize 65 the motive means and drive the instrumentality toward the other position, said servomotor having automatic holding means for maintaining said actuation independently of the said member to enable the motive means' to complete driving of 70 the instrumentality to the other position; automatically restorable means for rendering ineffective the control of the manually operable member over the servomotor after the instrumentality has been moved from its initial or starting position; 75 means for rendering inoperative said holding means as a result of the instrumentality being driven against its other psition, thereby to release the control means and render the motive means inoperative; means under the control of the manually operable member for actuating the control means to cause return of the instrumentality to its starting position; and means responsive to positioning of the instrumentality for rendering inoperatve said last-named means when the instrumentality returns to starting position, thereby to deenergize the motive means and halt the instrumentality.

ERWIN J. PANISH.

Number 654,130 844,662 2,314,019 2,387,343 Name Date Buck ------------- July 24, 1900 Cutler -----------___ Feb. 19, 1907 Shaw ----------- Mar. 16, 1943 Panish ------------ Oct. 23, 1945 Certificate of Correction Patent No. 2,433,235. December 23, 1947.

ERWIN J. PANISH It is hereby certified that errors appear in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 10, line 60, claim 1, strike out the word "said" after "inoperative"; column 12, line 9, claim 4, after " motive" insert means; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.

Signed and sealed this 6th day of April, A. D. 1948. [UAL] THOMAS F. MURPHY, Assistant Commissioner of Patents.