Title:
Compacting machine
United States Patent 2412398


Abstract:
The present invention relates to compacting machines and more particularly to vibrating compactors suitable for compacting asphalt, cement and similar materials in the surface finishing of canals, irrigation ditches, revetments and the like. In surface finishing various surfaces such as those...



Inventors:
Raymond, Harsch
Application Number:
US55662744A
Publication Date:
12/10/1946
Filing Date:
09/30/1944
Assignee:
Shell, Dev
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
404/114
International Classes:
E01C19/40; E02B5/02; E04G21/06
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Description:

The present invention relates to compacting machines and more particularly to vibrating compactors suitable for compacting asphalt, cement and similar materials in the surface finishing of canals, irrigation ditches, revetments and the like.

In surface finishing various surfaces such as those mentioned above, it has become common practice to apply the finishing materials such as cement, asphalt, asphalt mixes, aggregate, mixes and the like in a semi-liquid or plastic state and then compact the finishing material before it becomes hardened. In road building or other instances wherein a relatively flat surface is to be finished, the compacting is easily and readily carried out by means of road rollers, pneumatic tampers and similar equipment. However, in the surface finishing of canals, irrigation ditches, embankments, sloping walls, in certain types of excavation work and in many other instances the sloping or irregular surfaces render the use of rollers or tampers of the conventional type either exceedingly difficult and time consuming or entirely impracticable for the purpose of compacting the surface finish after it has been applied.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a compacting machinewhich is suitable for compacting finishes applied to any surface contour. A further object is to provide a compacting machine which is readily and easily adjustable to any width of surface which it is desired to compact. Another object is to provide equipment of tle type indicated which may be easily and readily partially disjoined in order to permit the machine to pass large obstacles. A still further object is to provide a compacting machine which automatically adjusts itself to minor unevenness and irregularities in the contour of the surfaces being compacted. Still further objects are to provide a compacting machine which may be readily adjusted to operate on surfaces which are flat or predominantly convex or concave in contour, which is relatively inexpensive and simple in construction, inexpensive to maintain, efficient in action and in which the component parts are readily and easily replaceable.

Other objects, together with some of the advantages to be derived in utilizing the present invention, will become apparent from the following detailed description thereof, taken together with the accompanying drawing forming a part of the specification and wherein: Figure 1 is an end elevation of a compacting machine according to the present invention; Figure 2 is a top view of the machine as shown in Figure 1; Figure 3 is a plan view of a tamping plate suitable for use in the compactor of the present invention; Figure 4 is a side view; and Figure 5 is an end view- of the tamping plate shown in Figure 3.

In Figures 1 and 2 of the drawing, the compacting machine is shown as assembled for use in compacting an asphalt lining on the surfaces of an irrigation ditch having sloping sides and a flat bottom. The compactor comprises a plurality of articulated tamper plates as at 3 which rest on the asphalt lining 2 of the surface I of the irrigation ditch. Each tamper plate 3 is connected to each adjacent tamper plate' by means of a tongue and groove joint, each plate 3 being provided with a projecting tongue 27 at one side thereof and projections as at 29 and 30 defining a groove at the other side thereof. Projections 2, 29 and 30 are provided with longitudinally extending bores as at 28, 31 and 32 respectively. With the tongue of one plate fitted into the groove of the next adjacent plate, a pivot pin 4 is passed through the bores provided and nuts or other securing means 40 placed on each end of pivot pin 4 in order to secure the pin in position. Each tamping plate 3 is thus free to pivot about the pivot pins 4 passing through the sides thereof.

Each tamper plate 3 is further provided with a towing lug 24 on the leading end thereof and a stanchion 25 on the trailing end thereof. Each stanchion 25 serves to support and position a pneumatic vibrator 5 which is provided with a base fitting into the slot provided in the stanchion, a pin then being passed through the- hole 26 in stanchion 25 and through a hole provided in the base of the vibrator. With a sufficient number of tamper plates assembled to form an articulated unit of sufficient length to cover the width of the irrigation ditch, as shown in Figure 1, it will be seen that the pivot linkage between each pair of tamper plates permits the unit to assume a shape fitting the contour of the irrigation ditch.

A flexible conduit 6 extends the length of the articulated unit and serves as an air manifold, small flexible conduits as at 1 providing flow communication between conduit 6 and each vibrator 5. Valve 38 controls the supply of compressed air to conduit 6.

A pair of telescopic struts as indicated generally at A and B each comprise 4 telescoping sections 8, 9, 10 and II. Section 8 is constructed as a cylinder, the end of section 9 extending thereinto oeing fitted to serve as a piston. Conduit 14, valve 15 and conduit 16 provide flow communication between conduit 6 and piston section 8. Conduit IT and valve 18 provide an air vent from piston section 8 to atmosphere. Each of telescopic sections 9, 10 and I, with the exception of that part of section 9 serving as a piston, is provided with a plurality of spaced holes as at 12, the sections being secured in position with respect to each other by aligning a hole" in an outer section with a hole in a telescoping section and passing a pin therethrough. A single hole 13 is provided through the upper end of cylinder section 8 in order to rigidly position sections 8 and 9 with respect to each other if desired. The lower end of each strut is pivotally attached at 20 to a stanchion as at 19, which is rigidly mounted on a support plate 21. Support plate 21 extends over the width of four tamper plates 5 at the center of the articulated unit and is attached to the tamper plates by means of four pins as at 23, each of which passes through the vibrator support stanchion 26, support plate 21 and tow lug 24.

The upper end of each strut is attached to an endmost tamper plate by means of tie rods 34 and 35, which are attached to eye fasteners 36 and 37 respectively, a pivot pin 40 passing through the eye fasteners and the end of the tamper plate.

When utilizing the machine for tamping convex surfaces, such as road crowns, dams and the like, telescopic struts A and B are removed and the articulated unit is placed across the surface to be tamped after application of the finishing material. The length of the articulated unit is readily adjusted by removing one or more of pivot pins 4 and deleting one or more of the tamping plates 3 from the unit, the air conduits as at 7 leading from vibrators 5 to conduit 6 being disconnected at a union provided in each conduit 7 as at 42 and valves 41 closed. In the same manner the length of the articulated unit may be increased by adding additional tamper plates. When using the machine on certain types of surface finishes which are readily compacted, it is not necessary to provide a vibrator on each tamper plate, a vibrator on every second or third tamper plate being sufficient to provide satisfactory tamping in many instances.

With the machine adjusted to the required length, tow cables are attached to a suitable number of tow lugs 24 and compressed air admitted to conduit 6 through valve 38 from a suitable compressor source. As the vibrators operate, the vibrations are transmitted to the tamper plates which act to compact and con- 6 dense the surface finish, the machine being intermittently or continuously moved as a unit by means of a tractor or winch pulling on the two cables attached to tow lugs 24. The speed at which the machine is moved will, of course, vary 6 with the particular type of surface finish which is being compacted, a speed of approximately 1 foot per minute being suitable for compacting the conventional asphalt surfacing applied to canal banks and the like, for example. The lead- 7' ing edge of the tamper plates adjacent the tow lugs is preferably shaped in a curve as a skid face, as shown at 33 in Figure 4,-in order to expedite travel of the machine over the surface finish. 7 When the machine is employed to compact surface finishes on surfaces having a generally concave contour with relatively steep sloping sides, as for example as shown in the irrigation ditch illustrated in Figure 1, there is a tendency for the tamper plates on the sloping sides to move downwardly as the machine operates due to the considerable weight of the tamper plates and their vibrating motion. This action results in uneven compacting, particularly at the base of the slopes, and is generally undesirable. In such applications, telescopic struts A, and B serve to prevent such action in the following manner.

When the machine has been positioned and before operation is started, telescopic struts A and B are adjusted and locked in place as shown in Figures 1 and 2, the struts serving to maintain the endmost tamper plates at the same distance from the center tamper plates during operation as before operation. Support plate 21 distributes the downward forces exerted by the struts over the four center tamper plates, thus avoiding the tendency for the two center tamper plates to compact more deeply than the other tamper plates, as would be likely to occur when compacting relatively soft and plastic surface finishes if the lower end of each strut is mounted on a single tamper plate.

In those instances wherein the surfaces to be compacted are exceptionally irregular due to constantly changing slope angle, numerous curves and bends or if desired for any other reason, the rigidity of telescopic struts A and B may be reduced and the machine as a unit rendered more flexible by pulling the pin passing through hole 13 in strut section 8 and through strut section 9.

With valve 18 closed and valve 15 open, compressed air is then admitted to the piston and cylinder arrangement formed by the lower end io of strut section 9 and the upper end of strut section 8. Struts A and B thus become resilient support members which will constantly maintain the desired force upwardly against the endmost tamper plates and at the same time will automatically adjust themselves in length to meet varying contour conditions encountered as the machine passes over the surfaces to be compacted. Other suitable means may be employed, if desired, in place of the pneumatic piston ar0o rangement described for the purpose of rendering the telescopic struts longitudinally resilient, as for example a heavy spring member may be positioned in strut section 8 below strut section 9 or a hydraulic piston arrangement such as is 5 commonly employed in activating the various parts of earth moving equipment may be substituted for the pneumatic cylinder system.

For most purposes, however, the resilient strut arrangement is not required as the surfaces which 0 areto be finished are usually ca refully graded before the surface finishing material is applied.

Further, minor irregularities in contour do not cause difficulty in operation of the machine because of the inherent flexibility of the articulated 5 tamper plate assembly.

In the event that large obstructions are encountered which project from the surfaces which are to be compacted, as for example in the case of weirs or projecting conduits or standpipes in 0 irrigation ditches, the machine is partially disjoined by removing one or more tamper plates at a position enabling the machine to pass the obstacle, and the unit reassembled when the obstacle has been passed.

5 It will be appreciated, of- course, that other well known equivalents may be substituted for the pneumatic vibrators shown for purposes of illustration. For most purposes small pneumatic vibrators, such as are commonly employed in screening equipment and the like and which operate at a frequency of the order of 1800 vibrations per minute at an air pressure of approximately 80 lbs./sq. in., are suitable and preferred for the purposes of the present invention. However, similar vibrators which are electrically or mechanically operated may be substituted if desired or preferred.

The invention claimed is: 1. In compacting equipment of the class described, the combination comprising a plurality of temper plates, pivot pin means detachably connecting said tamper plates, said pivotally. connected tamper plates forming an articulated unit, pneumatic vibrators mounted on said tamper plates, a compressed air manifold extending the length of said articulated unit, separate air conduits leading from each of said vibrators through disconnectable connector elements to said air manifold, a support plate mounted on said articulated unit near the center thereof and extending over the length of plurality of said tamper plates, a pair of telescopic struts including pneumatic pistons formed as unitary parts thereof, one end of each of said struts being pivotally mounted on said support plate and the other ends of said struts pivotally engaging opposite ends of said articulated unit and flexible conduit means including a valve leading from said air manifold to each of said pneumatic pistons.

2. In compacting equipment for canal beds and the like, the combination comprising a plurality of identical and interchangeable tamper plates, pivot pin means detachably connecting said tamper plates one with the other, said pivotally connected tamper plates forming an articulated unit, a pneumatic vibrator mounted on each of said tamper plates, a compressed air manifold extending the length of said articulated unit, separate air conduits leading from each of said vibrators through disconnectable connector elements Sto said air manifold and a pair of extendable struts each pivotally connected to opposite ends of said articulated unit and each connected to said articulated unit near the center thereof. 3. In compacting equipment of the class described, the combination comprising a plurality of tamper plates, pivot pin means detachably connecting said tamper plates, said pivotally connected tamper plates forming an articulated unit, pneumatic vibrators mounted on said tamper plates, a compressed air manifold extending the length of said articulated unit, separate air conduits leading from each of said vibrators through disconnectable connector elements to said air manifold, a support plate mounted on said articulated unit near the center thereof and extending over the length of plurality of said tamper plates, and flexible conduit means including a valve leading from said air manifold to each of said pneumatic vibrators.

4. In compacting equipment for canal beds and the like, the combination comprising a plurality of identical and interchangeable tamper plates, pivot pin means detachably connecting said tamper plates one with the other, said pivotally connected tamper plates forming an articulated unit, a pneumatic vibrator mounted on each of said tamper plates, a compressed air manifold extending the length of said articulated unit, sep3o arate air conduits leading from each of said vibrators through disconnectable connector elements to said air manifold.

5. In compacting equipment of the class described, the combination comprising a plurality of identical and interchangeable flexible tampering plates which by their own weight automatically adjust to surface changes, pivot pin means detachably connecting said tamper plates thus forming a variable length articulated unit, pneumatic vibrators mounted at regular intervals on said tamper plates, a flexible compressed air manifold extending the length of said articulated unit and separate air conduits leading from each of said vibrators to said air manifold.

RAYMOND HARSCH.