Title:
Fluoroscopic detection apparatus
United States Patent 2398194
Abstract:
The present invention relates to apparatus for the detection on a person of concealed objects, such as arms, tools, cameras, or any metal or other relatively opaque articles, quickly, without physical search, and, if desired, without the knowledge of the individual being examined. The invention...


Inventors:
Henry, Sicular
Application Number:
US43869642A
Publication Date:
04/09/1946
Filing Date:
04/13/1942
Assignee:
Henry, Sicular
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
378/190
International Classes:
G01N23/04
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Description:

The present invention relates to apparatus for the detection on a person of concealed objects, such as arms, tools, cameras, or any metal or other relatively opaque articles, quickly, without physical search, and, if desired, without the knowledge of the individual being examined.

The invention is adapted and intended for use in such places as large industrial plants engaged in defense work, military stations and all other places where people come and go and where it may be desirable to check quickly the contents of pockets, lunch pails, and everything capable of being concealed by clothing, or packages, in order to detect the presence of instruments of destruction being carried into a protected area, or valuable tools or the like being smuggled out.

It is the object of the present invention to provide apparatus to facilitate the thorough and rapid fluoroscopic examination of a person throughout the entire length of his body and 2 without inconveniencing the person examined or necessarily apprising him of the fact that he is being subjected to examination.

A further object of the invention is to provide a combination of X-ray tubes with an examination station, a fluorescent screen and an observation station which makes possible rapid scanning of the fluoroscopic image of the entire person by the observer, whose presence may be concealed from view and who may inspect the ; person secretly during the performance of some conventional act or duty which compels the person to remain relatively still for a few seconds.

Other objects and advantages of the invention :5 are made apparent in the following specification, wherein a typical apparatus embodying the invention is described in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

In the drawings: Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view of an apparatus embodying the present invention; Figure 2 is a section taken on the line 2-2 of Figure 1, showing the construction of a platform upon which the person being examined stands, and the arrangement of an electric switch therewith, and Figure 3 is a horizontal sectional view taken on the line 3-3 of Figure 1.

According to the present illustration, the invention comprises, as seen in Figures 1 and 3, a chamber 10 which contains a battery of X-ray tubes II supported by a partition 12 in the chamber, the partition being provided with orifices 13, one for each of the tubes, so as not to in- 5.5 terrupt the rays which emanate from the tubes in diverging paths, as indicated by the dotted lines 14. The X-ray tubes I I are mounted in vertical alignment, and while four are shown, a greater or lesser number may be employed under certain conditions. The tubes are connected as by conductors, such as indicated at 15, with a high tension transformer 16 and filament transformers 17, the construction and arrangement of which is conventional and, therefore, need not be specifically set forth herein.

Spaced from the chamber 10 a sufficient distance to provide a convenient passage or gateway through which persons may pass, is an observation chamber 18. In this passageway is provided a platform or examination station 19, upon which a person must step in order to pass between the chambers 10 and 18. This platform 19 is positioned directly in the field of the !0 X-rays which emanate from the tubes 11, and the outer wall 20 of the chamber 10, which forms one wall of the passageway, is a sufficient distance from the tubes I ( to insure merging of the divergent paths of their rays so that the entire . area of the passage may be flooded with X-rays to insure the full image of a person on the platform 19 being projected upon a fluoroscopic screen 21 which forms a portion of the wall of the observation chamber 18 and is in direct line J with the X-ray tubes and the platform 19. This fluorescent screen 21 is protected on its outside by a wood panel 22 and on its inner side by a pane of lead glass 23, which serves to protect an observer behind the screen from the detrimenI tal effects of the X-ray. The lead glass, however, may be omitted and the chamber lined with lead, using lead glass only in a small pane to protect the observer using a sight opening.

In order to insure the full image of a person on the platform 19 being projected on to the fluorescent screen 21, the platform is raised to a position with its upper surface in the plane of the center of the ray pattern of the lowermost tube II so that the diverging pattern will not cause the projection of any part of the body below the bottom of the screen 21. This may also be accomplished by lowering both of the chambers 10 and 18 a sufficient distance below ground level so that it is unnecessary to raise the platform 19. Where the platform is raised, however, inclined ramps shown at 24 and 25 in Figures 2 and 3,may be employed to facilitate approaching the platform.

In the chamber 18 a mirror 26 is preferably arranged to reflect the image projected on the flu2 -- 1 oroscopic screen at right angles and toward an observer's station 27 which may, if desired, be separated from the major portion of the chamber 18 by the partition 28, which is provided with a hooded observation opening 29. The mirror 26 serves to protect the observer in the event of any leakage of X-rays through the protective lead glass23. The mirror may, of course be omitted, in which case the observer's station would be directly behind the fluoroscopic screen. The observer's station may be fully lighted, or, if desired, may be dark or semi-dark to effect the continuous accommodation of his eyes to the ideal conditions for fluoroscopic examination.

Within the observer's station is a control box 30 which is of the conventional type employed for the regulation of the voltage and current in the tube circuits. Also within the observer's station is a manual control 31, shown as a selective switch by means of which the observer may en- 2( erizee the X-ray tubes one after the other in succession. This successive operation of the timed sequence by suitable mechanism, if desired.

Thus, while it is impractical for this purpose to '2 operate simultaneously a battery of four tubes, tubes, quickly scan the entire body which is included in the range of their combined X-ray patterns.

Various methods may be employed for informin the observer that a person to be examined is approaching the examination station, such, for example, as a small signal light in the observer's tastion, which ama be energized by opening onf the gate or operation of a turnstile or even by the interception of a light beam projected upon a photo-sensitive cell, all of which methods are well known and form no part of the present invtins also possible that the first of the X-ray tubes may be energized by the approach of the weight of the person on the platform 19. For this latter purpose a switch, indicated at 32 in Figures 1 and 2, may be disposed beneath and operated by depression of the platform, which may be supported by springs 33 contained in telescoping tubular legs 34.

In case such a switch is used, the observer will be apprised of the presence of the person to be examined by the projection on the screen of the fluoroscopic image produced by the uppermost of the X-ray tubes. The observer may then, through manipulation of the controls 31, scan the entire body of the person. While the observation may be made very rapidly to detect the presence of any tools or arms on the body of the person standing on the platform, it is necessary that the person be detained for a period of E few seconds, and this may be accomplished ir several ways. For example, a swinging gate such as shown at 35 in Figures 1 and 3, may b employed to detain the person being examined and this gate may be locked by any conventiona means not shown, such as a mechanically or elec trically releasable lock which is under contrc by the observer. It is also possible, and desirabl in many cases, to have no physical barrier acroe the passage, in which case persons entering c leaving may be requested to sign a register or card, and the register or card may be so pos: tioned that the person signing the same will I compelled to stand upon the platform while thf write their name, or if a longer time for inspei tion is required, while they 1fill in a blank requesting any written information, such as the time of their coming or going and the purpose or the nature of their business.

In practice, one or more units of the apparatus herein disclosed may be provided, as the only point of entrance and exit for the area or plant to be protected and large numbers of persons coming and going may be very easily but minutely inspected for articles which they are not authorized to carry. Furthermore, while it may be impractical to maintain the use of this apparatus entirely secret, it is desirable that the observer and all operative parts be hidden from view so that where many thousands of persons are passing to and from a protected area, there is no way for them to gain knowledge as to whether the actual X-ray mechanism is installed at any particular entrance, or whether there is an observSer on duty. As a consequence of this arrangement the psychological effect upon the persons under inspection is a deterrent to the unauthorized transportation of articles to and from a prowhich enclose the mechanism and shield the observer from view are always in evidence and serve as a constant reminder that a complete fluoroscopic inspection may be in progress at any time.

Having thus described my invention, what I , claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: 1. Apparatus for detecting the presence of concealed objects on a person comprising, a battery of X-ray tubes arranged to project rays to include the full length of the person, a screen to produce Sa fluorescent image, and means to energize said tubes one at a time and successively to enable scanning of the full length of the person's body on said sitcreen.

2. Apparatus for examining a person fluoro40 scopically which comprises, a battery of X-ray tubes arranged to project rays in diverging patterns, a fluorescent screen intercepting said rays, a partition between the tubes and the screen confining the person to be examined to an area where 45 the ray patterns overlap, and means for energizing said tubes one at a time in order to examine the full length of the body of the person.

3. Apparatus for examining a person fluoroscopically which comprises, a battery of vertically 50 aligned X-ray tubes, a fluorescent screen intercepting the rays from said tubes, a mirror behind said screen for reflection thereof to a point out of the path of said X-rays, and an observer's station in alignment with the reflection from said 55 mirror, and a control at the observer's station for energizing said tubes one at a time.

4. Apparatus for detecting the presence of concealed objects on a person comprising a passageway through which a person may walk, a fluoresS60 cent screen adjacent said passageway of substanI tially the full height of a normal adult person's body, X-ray means for projecting a fluorescent S image of a person in the passageway against the 1, screen, and means for concealing an observer in 1 65 a position from which he may examine said screen.

d1 5. Apparatus for detecting the presence of cone cealed objects on a person comprising a fluores;s cent screen of substantially the full height of a r '70 normal adult person's body and of sufficient width a to receive a projected image of a normal adult i- person's body, means for projecting X-rays )e against said screen, a station for a person to be ey examined adjacent the screen and within the 75 path of said rays, and an observer's station from ewx itne Iful length of the screeen may be examined.

6. Apparatus for detecting the presence of concealed objects on a person comprising a fluorescent screen of substantially the full height and width of a normal adult person's body, means including a battery of X-ray tubes to project rays in diverging overlapping patterns toward said screen, a station for a person to be examined adjacent the screen and within the overlapping portions of said rey patterns, and a protected observer's station from which the screen may be observed.

HENRY SICULAR.