Title:
Facepiece
United States Patent 2382364


Abstract:
This invention relates to ah improvement in a facepiece used in breathing apparatus and, more particularly, to the incorporation in the 1rotection material of the body of the facepiece of a construction which renders the material adjustable to the wearer and provides a universally adaptable...



Inventors:
Yant, William P.
Application Number:
US42279141A
Publication Date:
08/14/1945
Filing Date:
12/13/1941
Assignee:
MINE SAFETY APPLIANCES CO
Rudolph, Fink
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
2/428, 128/206.22, 128/206.24
International Classes:
A62B18/02
View Patent Images:



Description:

This invention relates to ah improvement in a facepiece used in breathing apparatus and, more particularly, to the incorporation in the 1rotection material of the body of the facepiece of a construction which renders the material adjustable to the wearer and provides a universally adaptable and comfortably sealed covering and which permits more free movement of the face about the mouth while maintaininng an adequate protective fluid seal.

Protective materials used iin the manufacture of a facepiece are not freely yieldable, especially to the movements of the mouth in speaking or other necessary movements which the facepiece must accommodate, nor do they stretch readily to accommodate the varian'e in size of face, and the wearing of this type of protective device has been uncomfortable and indohvenient to the wearer.

The term "facepiece" in the descriptioh of the'invention and claims includes a ciomplete'niask as well as a protective device covering merely6 the nose and mOuth or mouth alone. ',' It is an object of this invention 6o provide an improvement in a faceplece of formable aiid prdtective material to render the facepiece adjustable in fitting the wearer, which may be inicdriorated in the material of the facepiece to give free yieldability ofthe body of materiil to imorvements of the mouth while maintaining an adequate protective seal, and which is simple aiid inexpensive in construction arid readily indcoporated iii the general types of designs of facepiece noi in use: It is a further object of this invention to provide an improved universal facepiece which covers the nose and mouth and extends uider the 6hinF and comprises a formed yieldable lip to seal the body to the face of the wearer anid a foriabie means in the nose portion that fits, the hose portion to the face and in cooperation with the sealing lip provides an effective and practiEal seal' about this portion of the face.

It is a further object of this invention to provide an improved facepiece which iS adaptable¶ by means of an :inwardly extendiinglip to fit the wearer by forming a fluid tight seal to tohe face, which contains in combiriatiori with the lip: a formable nose portion that allows sufficient difference in size to fit and seal the faceplece about the nose and which also includes a yieldable portion incorporated in What can be heavy material of the body and is effective in providing a univ.rsally fitting facepiece and operative to yield freely to movements of the mouth without producing discomfort and interference with the seal of the miaterial to the face of the wearer.

Further objects of this invention will become apparent'from a description of embodiments of my invention which illustrate .the principle involved.

In the drawings: Fig. 1 is a front, elevational view of a comnmercial type of facepiece incorporating my invention; ig. 2 is a side view of the embodiment with a portion of the facepiece material being taken away to illustrate the impi0ovemeht; Figs. 3 and 4 are a rear, and top elevational view, respectively, of the embodiment; Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken along the line i5 5-5 of Fig. 2;: Figs. 6 and 7 are a front and side elevationai view, respectively, of a commercial type df gas mask incorporating my inventiio; Fig. '8 is a fiagmentary sectional view taken along the line :-8 of Fig. 6 and ilustrating the yieldabile elements formed in the material of the mask; -Fig. 9 is a frOnt elevational view of a similar mask as illustrated in i~. 60 and illiistrates a adaptation of my invention to a mask so as to give implroved and closer fit of the eyepieces to the wearer; Fig. 10 is a sidei elvationha view i therof; Fig. 11 is a fragfientary sectional view taken along the liine fl-11 bf Fig. 9: and' Fig. 12 is a' fragmiientary view of the type of facepiece illustrated in Figs. 1 to 5, inclusive, and includes anf absorbent pad mounted to ahd inside of thb acepiece.

The type of facepiece illustrated irinthie'embodiment' illustrated' in Figs. 1 to 5, iniclusive, is the type whichi is uisedgen@rally in supplyifig oxygei'n to the wearer in atmosplieres where inrisufficient oxygen is present for respiration as at high altitudes. This type of facpiece iricludea a body I made of some formableý material such "as rubber and for pirposes of cotiplete protection must be maade of sfiicieit thickness .t6 prevent penetration of any contaminated atmosphere or to protect a supply of oxygenr in' defcient 'tmospheres. In this type of facepiece, which excludes eyepieces, the body I iis made to provide a covering for the nose and mouth in order to close off and seal the respiratory organs from the atmosphere and thuiS requires that all air breathed be that supplied through ai inlet opening 2 fdrmed in the front pOrtiont of the body. The niaterial of the body is usually extended to formain inlet condectiori 3 definitg thie inlet opening. Tie 5s cofihection 3 is adapted to be fatsteied to' con, duit connected to a source of respirable air. The body portion of the facepiece is sufficiently concave in order to accommodate the nose and to extend sufficiently under the chin to provide an effective seal of the body with the face about this portion. In an ordinary type facepiece the seal is effected by means of engagement of the face with the material: of the body. In the facepiece illustrated, exhalation valves 4 are positioned on each side of the inlet opening for the purpose of -)l completeness and are used to discharge exhaled air from the facepiece in some types of apparatus.

In others, such as the self-contained type of apparatus, these exhalation valves are not used since the exhaled air is discharged into the inlet open- 1] ing and is then passed through purifying material and returned through the same opening for rebreathing.

An inturned and flexible and slightly forwardly shaped lip 5, as illustrated, is made integral- 0 with the inner portion of the facepiece and of substantial width with the' inner periphery 5a slightly smaller in size than the'size at the :point of engagement or juncture with the facepiece body. This lip forms a fluid tight seal with'the 2 face when the facepiece is placed c in protective position and isi made of sufficiently thin material to yield readily to pressure exerted by the face. and has adequate resilience to maintain the seal whe, formed. This. lip extends .completely about the inner peripheral portion of the facepiece as illustrated in Fig. 3 and: the width of the lip canbe :ade sufficiently large so that the pressr e f the air. within the facepiece, exerts a pressure against the facepiece and aug- 3 ments the seal produced by, the resilience of the material, and -consequent pressure against, the face. An absorbent, pad 30 may&be plaed, as illustrated in Fig.i 12, 'betwen the lip and opening 2 to absorb saliva and prevent its flow down 4C the inlet connection. - This may be anchored, to the body by means of a fastener which is, anchored to the material of the body. As an,-example, an, insert 31 fitted in the inlet connection 3 carries a fastener. 32 which acts, as a hold- 4. down for an absorbent pad 30. between the,inlet opening and the lip 5. For some purpqses, it may. be advisable to extend-the lower portion of the lip to form: a chin-rest that will come up onto the chin. Such an -arrangement, insures a spac- 5( ing of the mouth from-the front of.the facepiece and provides a- breathing chamber. to- give better respiratory conditions. The, lateral or cheek portions 6 of the facepiece extend-over the lower portion of the cheek and - terminate below -the 5. eyes to provide unobstructed vision. These,-flaplike portions g-ive-a-more comfortable fit-to the face by distributing-the pressure-exerted by head straps -, 'attached to each .of these -portions for holding the facepiece in protective position. For C( some purposes, as for cold weather used it is desirable to line the face engaging surface of the body to- the inner edge 5a of the lip 5 with a'lining of chamois isuede or other, suitable leather, lining. WooL and:cotton canr be used. : -' .- 6~ It ;is arn important feature of: this invention and one -which can be :applied-to all types of facepieces! to provide :some form of freely or readily extensible means- incorporated in the material ofi the body of the facepiece and posi- 7 tioned to give an adjustable'- and improved fit of the facepiece to. the wearer.n 'Such a facepiece alsoi yields to movement, of the chin or mouth such as is -made-,in -ordinary speed without discomfort.. It has -been found that by incorporat-, 7 ing yieldable portions in the material of the body by providing an overlap or preferably corrugations 10 formed in the material and disposed in certain parts of the facepiece that the additional yieldability and potential enlargement in size can be incorporated in the facepiece body.

This, when properly localized, is sufficient to give adjustment in fitting adequate to cover the range of variations occurring in face size which do not .disturb the seal formed by the lip.

Another feature of this invention which is limited to the general type of facepiece illustrated in Figs. 1 to 5, inclusive, is that the nose portion of the facepiece is made large enough to accommodate all sizes of face and to fit the individual face. A layer, of formable reinforcing material 8 is embedded in the rubber material of the nose portion and for ordinary purposes a layer of screen material is satifactory provided it can be readily set and is not too heavy. This reinforcing material preferably is a layer of wire or screen material embedded in the material of the body and rigid enough to retain the composite material in a position fitted to the face. The inward lip provides some variance in accommodation, but it has been found that the formable means, in the nose increases the range fittable and also insures a sealing engagement with the face about the nose. An advantage of the facepiece of this invention is that a single size of construction is substantially universally adaptable and provides in combination with the lip an effective seal with the face of a wearer. The layer of screen material should extend downwardly to cover the nose adequately about the bridge or upper section and directly below for a short distance in order to position the affected portion of the lip 5 and bring it up against the face to seal, this being a matter which can be Sbe readily -determined :by those familiar with facepiece manufacture.. In order to hold the facepiece in sealed engagement with the nose and adjacent face portions,- although not indispensable, a strap 17 is Sattached by stitching or, a suitable adhesive to the upper part of the nose-, of the. facepiece to insure in combination, with the lip and formable nature of, the nose portion a positive sealing engagement. In applying ,the facepiece to the Swearer, the nose portion isset or fitted against the nose sufficiently so that the lip portion 5 extending about this part of the facepiece is placed and retained in contact with the face.

The large surface area and flexibility of the lip 5 Insures when subjected to the force of the reinforcing layer complete engagement of the face about this portion. It is preferred that the upper extent of the facepiece about this section be shaped to provide an out-turned margin 9 Sextending beyond- the lip which, if extended a small amount, can be used as, a support for the bridge of goggles or spectacles, which aids in holding the facepiece in position. .

It is recognized that an inwardly :directed lip i has been used heretofore, but not having the characteristics as defined above. It is further recognized that a, formable strip has been used about the nose, but the layer of material in combination with the type of lip used provides a 0 distinct improvement in this type of :facepiece.

As a further means' of adjustment and consequent comfortable feel, the corrugations are operative when properly, positioned to render more adjustment and in combination with the other features 5 provide a desirable facepiece of this type.

In this embodiment, a series of laterally extending corrugations 10 are formed in the material of the body and between the nose and chin portion of the facepiece to obtain less restrained and more free movement between the nose and chin portions of the body. It is apparent that a sufficient number of these corrugations should be provided to give the yield desired and for good results the corrugations themselves may be about ''% in size at their base. Since the movement of the chin is greatest at its outer extremity, it is desirable that. the greatest yield be provided between the nose and outer extent of the chin.

Ordinarily, these movements create: a stress in the material, and by placing these yieldable means or corrugations across the line of stress, the actual stress formed is materially lessened and substantially free and unrestrained movement results, By placing the corrugations as illustrated in the drawings, the greatest amount of free yield is obtained at the location to give comfort or yield to movements of the mouth and without disturbing the seal of the body to the face. In the event the facepiece in its normal state fits too snugly to the face, the extension of the yielding means provides an enlargement in size to fit the wearer.

As another application of this feature of the invention, it is advantageous to place corrugations II in each cheek portion of a gas mask 12 illustrated in Figs. 6, 7 and 8. In this type of facepiece, the inlet opening 13 is positioned about the nose and is of considerable size which makes it, difficult to form yielding portions in this section. Consequently, for this type of facepiece it is necessary that the corrugations be positioned on each side of the inlet and below the eye pieces 14. Also, in this type of protective device, it may be advisable to use a larger size of corrugation and reduce the nimber because of the limited availability of material in this part of the device; A greater size of corrugation gives increased yieldability and thus allows freer movement of the chin. The seal with the face is made by actual engagement of the material of the body with the face. Head straps 15 hold the facepiece in position and are drawn tightly enough to properly position the facepiece on to the wearer and to bring the material into sealing engagement with the face.

Another application of my invention is to incorporate yieldable sections as illustrated in Figs, 9, 10 and 11 in a facepiece which includes eyepieces and is similar to the type of protective device illustrated in Figs. 6, 7 and 8. In this type of device, it is difficult to provide one that can be made to fit the variations in size of face and also to dispose the eyepieces in close proximity to the eyes in order to increase the range of vision.

To incorporate a yieldable element into the facepiece material will permit elongation in directions suffigient to accommodate the variations in size to provide a universally fitting facepiece and one which is such a construction that the eyepieces can be spaced properly and disposed in close proximity to the eyes of the wearer. In this embodiment, corrugation 21, which as illustrated includes a single element but which may be So constructed as to include any number desired within the limits of space provided is placed about each eyepiece 14. In order to obtain some yield in the lower section of the facepiece, the corrugation extends down towards the chin. In order to draw the eyepieces close to the face, a supplemental band or strap 20 is placed on each side of the facepiece and attached in such a manner that stress can be applied laterally and draw the eyepieces away from each other to provide the abnormal spacing of the eyes of the wearer. The effect of this is somewhat the same as obtained in the application of a goggle to a protective position Sincehthese: bands can; be drawn if desired and can be moved to properly position: the eyepieces to give the maximum vision. Extending the corrugation upwardly about the nose as illustrated in the inner portion. 21 a and in conjunction with the supplemental straps, the eyepieces are normally separated for the normal and can be moved to: a greater span for those requiring such a spacing. The extent of adjustment possible since the ffect of this expansible element is to provide an adjustment in size of the facepiece depends upon the size, of corrugation employed or the number :so employed. For most purposes and to reduce the expense as much as possible, a single corrugation of about ¾"' in size at its base will give a range of adjustment sufficient to accommodate the range of size needed for this type of device.

It is realized that the attachment of the supplemental band 20 to the facepiece proper can be made in several ways.: The manner illustrated in the drawing is to actually mold the buckle carrying portion directly when forming a facepiece. By attachingthe strap close to the eyepieces, it then overlaps the outer eyepiece portion 2lc and pressure applied causes the corrugation at this section to collapse and along with the yield of.the inner portion 21a causes the eyepieces to be drawn inwardly towards the face, this being due to the inward direction of the force applied 'by the drawing of the strap. It is believed apparent that by attaching the outermost end of the strap to the, peripheral portion of the mask the force is directed in an inward direction generally and thus causing the eyepieces to be disposed towards that direction which places them closer to theeyes and increases the field of vision. 'The extending downward, portions 2 b provide some adjustment in the lower portion of the mask and are under the influence of the lower strap of. the head harness.

With thi ,arrangement, the lower chin portiot,i f, the mask is permitted to yield somewhat ±feadilyto the movements of the mouth and this s miade piossible by the laterally extending portioii 2 4 and the portions 21e under the eyepi:ees to give yield in a longitudinal direction.

This resembles somewhat the same action that is accomplished in the embodiment illustrated i i P'ig. 6 'while the upper-lateral portion 2 1d in Combination. with the lower portions 21 e give some adjustability in positioning the eyepieces in this direction. The upper portion also per00 mits some adjustment about the forehead other than effecting a change in position of the eyepieces...

:For sonie purposes it is advisable to form a yieldable section such as a corrugation about the inlet ,opening 2. This corrugation 22 is formed in a similar manner and is effective in relieving any strains that may be caused in wearing the device. In some cases, the mask is connected to a stationary container supplying oxygen to the mask and certain movements of the face when so connected cause the mask to be moved out of a comfortable fitting position. In this connectioi, the facepiece is generally attached to the oxygen supply by means of an ordinary-tube and in orderto provide safetyis,made sufficiently heavy and thus gives little yield to any ordinary stresses that would be applied in movement of the head. With this arrangement, it has been found that sufficient yield is incorporated to accommodate the ordinary movements of the wearer. ' This embodiment illustrates a construction of facepiece which it has been found provides a substantial range of adjustment in all directions and does not affect the seal that is produced in the marginal flat portion of facepiece material when the body is applied to the face and by means of head harness is brought into a protective position. The advantages of providing better sight and giving a more comfortable fit and allowing for ordinary wearing movements makes the construction one that renders the wearing of such a protective device more comfortable and insures the maintenance of the seal between the facepiece material and the wearer. It is realized that variations can be made in the incorporation of such a yieldable element in the material of the body and that other types of yieldable elements may be substituted although the type of yieldable element 21 illustrated sectionally in fig. 11 is preferred.

In the embodiments, the yieldable means is represented by corrugations which are formed in the material, but it is possible to use a form lof pleat or fold which gives surplus material operative to yield to the small pressure exerted in the ordinary movement of the chin and responsive to the slight force created in normal and comfortable movement, but it has been found that corrugations provide the most effective and suitable yielding means without interfering with the. seal of the facepiece to the wearer.

While other modifications can be made of the invention as described in the embodiments illustrated, the embodiments describe the' priiiciple of my iiventioni aid it is intended to be understood that other embodiments can be made and modifications thereof and my inveiition is to be, restricted only by the scope of the appended claims.

' I claim: 1. A facepiece comprising a body of protective material 'shaped to generally conform to the facial contour of the wearer, an inlet connection, means to seal the body to the wearer, means attached to the material to retain the facepiece in a protective position and exert pressure thereon and accomplish a sealed fit to the face, and at:least one corrugation formed integrally in the body transversely thereof to yieldably relieve uncomfortable stresses exerted by mounting and by movements of the mouth during wearing of the facepiece without interfering with the seal of the body to the wearer.

2. A facepiece comprising a body of protective material shaped to generally conform to the face of the wearer, an inlet opening in the material, means to seal the body to the wearer, means attached to the material and arranged to maintain the facepiece in a protective position in relation to the face of the wearer and a plurality of corrugations formed in the body transversely thereof and yieldable to stresses produced in the material in assembling the body of material to the face of the wearer and during use.

3. A facepiece comprising a body of protective material formed to resemble the general contour of the face, an inlet opening in the material, a head strap attached to the material for maintaining the facepiece in protective position relative to the face, shaped corrugations integrally formed inrthe body and disposed across the direction of stress to respond to the stress exerted in applying the facepiece to the wearer to yield Sthereto and accomplish a range of adjustment inimounting and fitting the facepiece to the face and responsive in yielding to movements of the face while in a protective position.

4. A facepiece including a body of protective id material formed to enclose the face of the wearer and provided with an inlet opening, eyepieces disposed in the material in spaced relation, a head harness connectable to: the facepiece body arranged to place and maintain the facepiece in proper protective position, and corrugations integrally formed in the body and having a portion that extends :about each of the eyepieces and extends upwardly between them, and a downwardly extending portion on each side that ex0j tends generally transversely into the lower section of the facepiece whereby assembly of the facepiece-to the wearer provides an adequately yieldable medium in the body material to conform the material to the face of the wearer and permit limited 'movements of the face without impairing the sealed fit formed by mounting of the facepiece to the wearer and to improve the comfort in the wearing of thefacepiece.

5. A facepiece comprising a concave shaped S) body of protective material to enclose the mouth and nose of a wearer and having'an inlet opening, an inwardly directed flexible lip integral with the material and arranged to engage the face and seal the material to the face, the nose por85 tion of the material including a formable layer in front of the attachment of the lip at this location and extending downwardly sufficiently to operate as a fitting means of the material and lip about the nose of the wearer, means attached to the body of the material for applying the facepiece to the head of a wearer,'and the body being provided with at least one integrally formed transverse corrugation to make the material responsive to movements of the mouth without interfering with'the sealing engagement of the lip with the face.

6. A facepiece comprising a concave shaped body of protective material to enclose the mouth and nose of a wearer and having an inlet opening, a flexible and resilient lip inwardly and slightly forwardly directed in the facepiece and of an inner periphery less than the periphery of the juncture of the lip to the material, the nose portion of the material including a formable layer 55in front of the attachment of the lip at this location and extending downwardly sufficiently to operate as a fitting means of the material and lip about the nose of the' wearer, means attached to the body for holding the facepiece in protective o position, and at least one transverse corrugation formed in the body to make the material responsive to movements of the mnouth without interferiing with the body of the, lip with the face, and a moisture absorbent pad anchored to the protective material between the lip and inlet opening.

7. A facepiece including a body of protective material formed to enclose the face of the wearer, eyepieces disposed in the. material in spaced relation, a head harness connected to the facepiece material and arranged to place and maintain the material in proper protective position, an inlet opening, and. comprising a corrugation integrally molded into the body to extend about each of the eyepieces and having upper and lower laterally extending portions connected beyond the eyepieces at the temporal sides by vertically extending portions, and a supplemental strap on each side of the facepiece arranged to overlie a vertical portion of the corrugation to apply lateral pressure to the material and effect collapse of the underlying portion of the corrugation to accomplish a yield of the material in a lateral direction.

8. A respirator mark comprising a layer of resilient material shaped to snugly fit the face of the wearer around the nose, cheeks and chin, and protruding outwardly from the mouth and nostrils where said layer is formed with horizontal corrugations for the purpose of permitting the free and unrestricted use of the mouth and chin of the wearer in talking without destroying the fit of the mask.

WILLIAM P. YANT.