Automatic composing typewriter
United States Patent 2375135

My invention relates to apparatus used to compose and to prove successive single lines of type characters, in its preferred form the invention being adapted to justified types of various widths. The apparatus of the present invention has for its purpose to provide proofs upon suitable material...

Reynolds, Byron E.
Application Number:
Publication Date:
Filing Date:
Reynolds, Byron E.
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
101/93.37, 199/51
International Classes:
B41J3/00; B41J19/64
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My invention relates to apparatus used to compose and to prove successive single lines of type characters, in its preferred form the invention being adapted to justified types of various widths.

The apparatus of the present invention has for its purpose to provide proofs upon suitable material of single lines of justified printing types successively. My primary aim has been to provide a machine for rapidly and economically transferring directly or by offset inked impressions of successive single lines of types to paper for reproduction purposes and transferring by offset inked impressions of lines of types to lithographic plates. Generally, I wish to include any and all purposes in which types are temporarily assembled in line to produce characters upon any material whatever.

The secondary purpose of the machine is to provide a method of photo-composition by use of the above methods with contrasting colored letters replacing the printing types and a suitable camera replacing the proving apparatus.

Thus, the primary object of the present invention is to provide apparatus for composing and proving successive single lines of type characters of various fixed widths.

Another object is to provide an apparatus for composing and proving successive single lines of justified types of various widths in which the justifying of the lines is determined in advance of the composing of the lines.

Another object is to provide an apparatus for composing and proving single lines of justified types in which th'e justifying of the lines is inherent in the composing of the lines.

A further object is to provide an apparatus for composing and proving single lines of justified types in which each line is composed as a unit, in contrast to being composed a character at a time.

Another object is to provide apparatus for simultaneously collecting and moving composite type and space bars to form a justified single line of type characters through the control of a preformed control element.

Other objects and advantages of the present invention residing in the combination, arrangement and construction of the parts of the apparatus will be more fully understood from a consideration of the following detailed description and annexed claims.

In the drawings, Fig. 1 is an elevational view of a portion of the controltape, Fig. 2 is a view similar to Fig. 1 of the control tape with specific spacing perforations indicated, Fig. 3 is a side elevational view of the mechanism for moving the control tape to the composing machine, Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic lay-out of a selector mechanism for the type bars of the composing machine, Fig: 5 is a fragmentary side elevational view of a selector and drive mechanism for the type bars, Fig. 6 is a cross-sectional view taken on line VI-VI of Fig. 5, of the selector elements for the type bars, Fig. 7 is a view similar to Fig. 6 taken on line VII-VII of Fig. 5, Fig. 8 is a plan view of a group of the type bars, showing their operating linkage, Fig' 9 is an enlarged view of the type bars, shown'in Fig. 8, Fig. 10 is a fragmentary elevational view of the inner end of one of the type bars, Fig. 11 is a fragmentary plan view showing the type bars shifted to compose a line, Fig. 12 is a cross-sectional view taken on line XII-XII of Fig. 11, Fig. 13 is a vertical cross-sectional view taken on line XIII-XIII of Fig. 11, showing the type bar clamping mechanism, Figs. 14 and 15 are fragmentary side elevational views partly shown in broken section of the composing and proving units, Fig. 16 is a perspective view of the composing and proving units, Fig. 17 is a diagrammatic representation of the principal operating structure of the composing Sand proving units, Fig. 18 is a modified form of the invention showing arrangement for offset proving, and Fig. 19 is a modified form of the invention showing an adaptation for photocomposition, Fig. 20 is a projection of the modified form showing arrangement for offset proving of Fig. 18.

The mechanism for preparing the copy may take any suitable form which will permit the copy to be used for the simultaneous reproduction of all characters and spaces in any given line and preferably so arranged as to allot the spaces for justifying the line. The function of this mechanism is to fabricate the control copy, which in the illustrated form appears as a series of typewritten lines and adjacent to each character or space thereof appears a suitable symbol for the subsequent control of the composite type and space bars of the composing mechanism. Adjacent to each line of copy, there appear symboTs representing various control functions desired in the integrated whole of the following groups, such as the end-of-line symbol 69 of Fig. 1, repeat-line symbol, and delete symbol.

It is intended that copyreading and proofreading be done in this copy form and all correction lines inserted in the control tracks where desired.

The symbols suggested are the well known perforation type of kind, similar to that now used by the trade. The symbols, however, may be other than of perforations, such as a control line to be read by an electric eye or an embossed line of raised symbols. The perforations may be converted into electrical impulses by any desired method; such as compressed air or partial vacuum; feelers to pick out the pattern, similar to the one used for the teletypesetter, being suggested. It is further anticipated that the control copy may be prepared by remote control through a sending station and a perforation station.

Type bar selection mechanism The tape 26 is a complete control record for composing single lines of justified types of various fixed widths after it has passed the Wordspace perforator. It may be stored for future use or the tape 26 may directly pass to the composing mechanism.

For- its component parts, the composing mechanism comprises feed rollers 274 and 276 of Fig. 3 which may be intermittently driven by any suitable mechanism of well known construction for drawing the tape 26 with a measured step-by-step movement with reference to guide perforations 6f through the composing mechanism. The illustrated structure for operating the feed rollers 274 and 276 comprises supporting arms 277'and 217' pivoted on the shafts 281 and 283, A spring 285 holds the arm 277 against the stop 287 while the spring 298 holds the rollers 274 and27'6 in driving relation with the tape 26. Fixed to the roller 274 is a V-pulley 291 over which runs a V-belt driven by the pulley 293 on the continuously driven shaft 283. A solenoid 295 controls the feeding, operation of the rollers 274 and 276. As shown in Fig. 4, the tape 26 is drawn step by step through an elongated slot 278 in the feeler guide block 280 which carries a vertical row of feelers 282 for each character and word-space of the composed line.

Each time the tape 26 is advanced a length of a. line of recorded characters and spaces; the feelers 282 are withdrawn and held out of operation through the bodily movement of the feeler carrier 284-to the dotted line position by suitable mechanism including solenoid 458. When the carrier 284 is advanced to the position shown in Fig. 4; certain of the feelers 282 will pass through perforations in the tape 26 to engage the electrical contactors 288 insulated in the block 280, In-this manner the circuits 288-are selectively closed to energize the solenoids 290 to rock the bell cranks 292 axially shifting the permutation bars 294.

As more clearly shown in Fig. 5, the permutation bars 294 have notches 296 along their lower edges. A group of seven permutation bars 294 in the illustrated embodiment in Pigs. 14 and 15 is provided for the selective positioning of each type bar. The bars 294 are relatively thin and juxtapositioned as shown in Figs. 6 and 7. Depending upon the perforations of the tape 26, the selective shifting, of the bars 294 will result in a single transverse alignment of a notch 296 in each of the seven bars 294. This provides a single master notch into which the stop pin 297 carried upon the type bar positioning slide 300 will be projected by the spring 302 to locate the position of the type bar 304 connected to the link 300 through the hinge link 306 (see Fig. 8). This hinge link is so constructed as to permit slight longitudinal movement of bars 304 without strain on pin 297 during alignment. Such longitudinal movement may be provided by dividing lost motion between the members 300 and 306. One simple arrangement is to employ an enlarged hole in the member 306 in which the pin 305 is received. In Fig. 6 the bars 294 are shown in section at a non-selected point while in Fig. 7, the section is taken at the, selected point showing the notches 296 all aligned. In Fig. 5 the supporting frame 308, in which the bars 294 are supported and guided by the transverse rods 310 and 312, is shown elevated'by the cams 314 on cross shafts 1315 to enable the stop pin 297 to be cleared from the selected'master notch of the group of bars 294 at the time the link 300 is to be moved to its outer position against the stop 316.

The mechanism for shifting the type bars 304 back and forth as illustrated comprising a pair of soft rubber rolls 318 and 320 in driving contact with each other. Spaced main drive rollers 322 through contact with the roller 320 drives the same counterclockwise as viewed in Figs. 5 and 14, while the roller 320'in turn drives the roller 318 clockwise. The rollers 318 and 320 are supported in a cradle 324 pivoted on the axle 326 of the roller 322. Solenoids 328" and 330 function to rock the cradle 324 to selectively bring the rollers 318 and 32'0 into shifting, engagement with the upper surface of the positioning slide 306' of the type bar 304.

As more clearly shown in Fig. 9, the type bars 304 are tapered from one end to the other with adjacent bars tapered in opposite directions and move in from opposite sides to compose the line of type characters. This arrangement results in characters of-every other type bar 304-being. re00 versed with respect to the intermediate bar 304 so that the characters will all face the same direction. The taper of the bar 304 is to make possible the assigning- of such narrow characters as i, 1, ;, to the narrow end and wider characters e5 such as W,.M, to the wider end as shown in accompanying Table I. The spaces 332 are provided at spaced points along each type bar 304.

Because of the taper of the type bar 304, the width of each word spacer 332 along the bar may progressively vary from one end of the bar to the other. In practice a variation of .018" in width between adjacent word spaces - is practical and maybe considered as presenting a "unit" of spacing, With this arrangement the narrowest space located most adjacent the narrow end of the type bar will constitute a standard space. The type bars 304 illustrated carry ninety characters including upper and lower cases, figures, points, spaces and special characters.

Table I Below are characters which appear on the composite type bar with their position numbers, widths in inches, and perforation patterns.

Position number-character Width in Perforainches tions 0-space -------------------...--..... . 0514 No pattern 1-space-----------------.......-------------- .053 a 2-apostrophe..----..- ------ -- .054% b 3--quote ---------.-...- ......-- .- .... .055% ab 4-i -------------------... ---------------- 056 e 5-letter 1------------------------------ .058 ac 6-period ------------------------------- 059 be 7-comma .........---------------------------......... 06 abc 8---colon.--.--- - ---------....- ... . 061% d 9-semicolon ---.....--....-....-.....-...- .063 ad 10-hyphen -------.----- ----.. ..-.-.-. . 064Y bd 11-hyphen -. -------------------.. . 65 abd 12-hyphen ----------------------------........ 066 cd 13--- - ---- ------.. ------------- .068 acd 14-j---- -------..-.-. ....--- .. .069 bed 15-space---- . ------..... --....- .070% abed 16-(------------------------- --------- 71% e 17-) -...--..-.....-... - --- .073 ae 18-t -------- - - 0740 be 20-r-- -........--- - - - ----.. . 076 % ce 21-1----- --. --...--..---- --------- .078 ace 22-c . ------- ------....... . .079 bee 23-s--------------------------------- .080% abce 24-s-....--.- --------- ---------.-- . .081% de 25-e..-----------------...-----...------------ .083 ade 26-1 -------------- -- .0844 bde 1 bdec 27-2 ----------. ------------------------ 08 abde 28-3---------------------------------- 086 cde 29-4 -..sc-------------.----------------- .088 acde 30-space -------- - ------------- 089 bcde 31-5---. ....... .........----------------. 090 abode 32-6------------ ------------------- .091% f 33-7h --.. ------....-- ...-..--- .....-...... .093 af 34-8 -------.--.----.------.----- . 094½ bf 35-9 ----- ...---- --- .095 abf 36---0-----------..-------------.-------- - cf 37-leader--------------------------------- .098 acf 38-- ..----------- ........--------- - .0994% be 39-zf--- --------..---------------- .100 abcf 40-$-- ---.. .--_-....---......_...... .101% df 41-a ---.. .-----.....-... -- ---... .103 adf 42-J------------------------------------- .1044 bdf 43-------------------- --.--- .1051 abdf 44-p----.----------------------------- 106 cdf 45-space ------...........--------- .108 acdf 46---------------------------............................... .109 bcdf 47-v-----------------.------- .----- 110 abcdf 48-y-----------------.----------.. .111% ef 49---. --------------------------------... .113 aef 50-d---- ---.----------- . 114% bef 51-n ---..------------. .........._ .. 1151 abef 52-k.--------- .----------------- .1416% cef 53-h -.------------------------------ .118 acef 54-u- --...-------- . ----- .11944 beef 55-S --pa-.....-.-. -------------- . 120/ abcef 56- -------------------------------- .121% def 57-x --------------------------------. . 123 adef 58-8---- ------------ .124% bdef 59 ---- --------- ------------------ 125 abdef 60--space ------------------ --------- 126% def 61- -----------..---------------------... .. .128 acdef 62-P.--.--..--------------------------.. .1294 bcdef 63--- ------------------------------ .1301/ abcdef 64-f-- -----------------.- .131% g 65--F........... -----...- ...- -....--- ..._ .133 ag 67-B ----------------------------- --.135 abg 8 ---....------------------------------- 136 eg 70-0--.a------------------------------. .139½ beg 71-R----.............- .................. .140% abeg 72-Q ------------------------------------- *.141 dg 73- A. -- --.-... ........ ..... .... ....... . .143 adg 74---- -------------..... .144% bdg 75-space- --------.-.- ............_ .1451% abdg 76- -------------- .148 acdg 77- --------------------- ---------------- .148 acdg 78--& -.-..... ..............-------------- .149% bcdg 79--w *.......... .1501/2 abcdg 80-K- --...--- ............ ...... .151% eg 81- . -------------------- .153 aeg 82- --- ------------- .154% beg 83--------------- 155 abeg 84-X ---------....... ..--.----. -.......- .156% ceg 85---m ------- ------------------ .158 aeeg 86-~--------------------------------- .1594 bceg" 87-W --------------------------- .160% abceg 88-Z -.................. ..------ --- ........ .361% deg 89---- -------------- .163 adeg 90-space.. --__--------------------- .164% bdeg Additional perforation patterns which can be used for control purposes correspond to the following position numbers: 91, abdeg; 92, adeg; 93, acdeg; 94, bcdeg; 95, abcdeg.

In the illustrated form of the invention the characters of the type bars 304, generally designated in the drawings by reference character 336, are on the lower edge of the type bar 304 (see Fig. 10) with supporting pads 338 being provided at opposite ends of each type bar to slightly support the characters above the table 304 upon which the type bar slides back and forth. Along the upper edge of each type bar 304 are aligning V-shaped grooves 342 with which an aligning bar 344 coacts 15. having a corresponding V-shaped lower edge 346.

As best shown in Fig. 11, a fixed side bar 348 is provided along the left side of the table 340 with the vertical side 350 corresponding to the left edge of the printed column. This vertical side functions as one side of a vise in which the selected type bars 304 are clamped by the clamp member 352 at the time the proof of the justified line is taken. When in a withdrawn position, with the slide 300 against the stop 316, the inner ends 354 of the type bar 304 have tongue portions 356 which overlap. This arrangement enables the upper and lower fork arms 358 and 360 of the clamp 352 to pass above and below the tongues 356 of the inactive type bars 304, to clamp the active bars 304. As shown in Fig. 20, the arm 358 is provided with a V-shaped groove 362 so as to give clearance to the aligning bar 344. A strong spring 364 acting upon the pivoted arm 368 connected at 3a to the clamp 352 urges the latter to the left. An adjustable stop 312 limits the movement of the clamp 352 toward the guide 348.

It is notable that successive lines may be selected, justified, aligned, planed, locked and proved in whole or in part by manual operation of portions of the assemblies herein described.

Such manual operations are considered novel and useful as applications of the method and combinations of processes described. A cam 374 on the drive shaft 376 functions to retract the clamp 352 while the type bars 304 are being shifted.

The mechanism for actuating the aligning bar 344 of Pigs. 12, 13, and 15 in timed relation with the clamp 352 comprises a bar 380 guided for 0 horizontal movement only and having an elongated slot 382 at one end in which a pin 384 operates, carried by an extension 386 of the arm 368. With the clamp 352 withdrawn by the cam 374, the pin 384 has engaged the r;ght end of the slot 382 as viewed in Fig. 13, moving the bar 380 to the right from the position shown to permit the spring 388 to raise the bar 344 to clear the notches 342 in the type bars 304. When the arm 368 starts its counterclockwise movement to move the clamp 352 against the type bars 304, the bar 380 is urged to the left in advance of the clamping action of the spring 390 with the inclined surfaces 392 sliding over complementary surfaces 394 on the aligning bars 344, 05 lowering the bar 344 into the notches 342 to align and plane the type bars 304 prior to locking. With the type bars 304 aligned, planed and locked horizontally and vertically, a proof of a fully justified line is taken upon the tape 396 brought into engagement with the face of the characters 336 by the platen 398 of Figs. 13 and 15 carried upon the rocker arm 400, operating off the cam 374.

A suitable inked ribbon 402 is traversed across the line of type in any well known manner. The 78 tape 396 may be moved with a step by step movement through the mechanism by 'any. one of.several well known devices and brackets not shown, each cycle of operation; In Fig. 17 is a diagrammatic lay' out' of the principal operating parts: of the composing: and proving apparatus-in which conductors: 404' and 406 provide:a; source oft electrical power' to which the main motor. 408 is.connected through a manually thrown switch 410. Through: suitable reduction gearing 412, the motor:408.drives the .cam shaft. 414 carrying.cams4.16; 418, 420, 422; 4241and 426 of the proper contour:for operating in:timed relation the electrical switches 428,: 430, 432,.4341 436 and.438. The switchesA428 and.430'are located in the circuits.440 and 442 including the solenoids 328 and 330 which function.to control, the. direction of. rotation of the rollers 318' and 320, driven by the main drive, rollers. 322 upon the shafts 326. The.shafts 326yare driven in opposite directions.by the shaft 444,through beveled.gears 446; the. shaft 444 being drivený by the. motor, 408 through suitable:gearing.448.

The switch 432. controls the motor. 448 in the circuit 450, driving the cross-shafts:315; carrying the cams 3,14,, which, control the up and down movement of the frame 308; shown inFiig..5. The motor 449 has a built-in brake of well known construction so. as to limit, the over: run toa. minimum when the motor circuit is closed, and then opened, thus controlling the position of the. projection 45.1 of the cams 314.

Switch 436 controls the motor 452 which is also equipped with a built-in brake to control the cycle of operation of the. shaft 376' through reduction gearing 453. A series of-control.cams 374 35, upon the shaft 316 operate the- construction shown in Fig. 13 in timed relation.

The tape 26 is shown.being fed from: a roll 454, through suitable, tension rollers 455; hence into the slot 278, defined in the fixedly supported guide slot 280. Obviously the tape 28 may be fed. directly from the typewriter, and perforating mechanism into the composing, and.proof mechanism with the elimination of.any delay. The feed rollers 274 and 276 act to.feed the:tape 286through the block 280, as heretofore described. Feeler carriers 284 are shown guided. in ways 456 for movement relative to the block 280: to clear the feelers 282 from the perforations in the tape 268 Springs 457 urge the carrier 284 towardthe.block 280 and the feelers 282 into the slot 278, while, a solenoid 458 in circuit 460 with the switch 434 functions to withdraw the feeler carrier 284 when the tape 26 is being moved. A normally opened. switch 462 in the circuit 484 bridges the switch 434.to withdraw the carrier 284 at the.time a'new tape 26 is manually fed into the machine.

The solenoid 295 which controls-the:tape'draw-ing relation of the rollers 274 and 276 is located, in a circuit 466.in which a normally open solenoid operated switch 468, is located.. This switch is only closed when a current flows in the circuit 466 energizing the solenoid 458 to withdraw thefeeler carrier 284. Also, in the circuit 466 is a hormally closed switch4-70 under the control of. 65, the photo-electric cell unit 4172 which is in:turn controlled by the light beam of the projector 4.74, all of; known construction. A pivoted shutter 476: is normally held out of the path of the light beam of the projector 474 by a spring 488; A solenoid 70' 490 in the circuit 496 and under the control of the switch 438 actediupon by the cam 425 functions to momentarily interrupt: the light. beam of the projector 474 by swinging the" shutter 476. counterclockwise to initiate, the: cycle: of opera- 715 tion. It is to: be understood' that the tape 28 passes:between the projector 474,and the cell 472 to normally interrupt the light beam; Under such conditions, the:switch 470 is.closed and:the tape 26 will be advanced by the rollers 274 and 276. When the tape'26has been sufficiently advanced to bring the start of line perforation 173 into: the path of the light beam of the:projector 474, the circuit 466: is closed: by the switch 471 and the solenoid 295 is energized to act upon the roller 274 to interrupt the feeding of the tape 26.

A motor 4941 through suitable drive mechanism continuously rotates the shaft 283 to rotate the feed roller 274.

In the above apparatus the type bars 304 are tapered on both sides, but they can alternatively be tapered on either side, or slightly curved on either or both sides. Characters 336 may be constructed to furnish proofs reading left to right or vice versa. It may readily be observed that the apparatus illustrates a method applicable in many ways, and that changes in elevation, or construction in arcs instead of planes for the slides 300, links 306, and bars 304 may be effected.

In a modified form shown in Fig. 19 the above: method and machine lend themselves to photocomposition. Enameled characters 415 replace relief type faces 336 on the composite type bars 304, and a camera 417 with a ratcheting film replaces the proving press. In use a roll of film is produced having characters in negative or positive form and reading either way desired. Referring to Fig. 19 the apparatus for preparing lines is identical to that shown in Fig. 13 for letterpress: proving. In place of a platen press the camera and light source 15 coact to prove by photography. In the drawing, light is reflected: by the white images- 415 within limits of dotted lines 25;through a shutter 21 and lens 23 to act upon a light-sensitive film 27. The light source 15 has contacts 17 and 19 forming parts of a continuous circuit. The shutter 21 is actuated by a lever 31 acted upon by a cam 33 on shaft 35 suitably geared to shaft 376. The cam 33 also moves progressively the film 27 upon ratcheting spools 29.

An alternative method of proving is to offset ink fi'om composed line of type bars 304 after inking by a suitable method. The impressions are picked'up by transfer rollers 421 such as that shown in Figs. 18 and 20, having suitable surface 423, and applied to suitable materials, such as to paper or plate or both, with the rollers catapulted across the type at rather high velocity. Register is maintained by gears 425 acting in corresponding gearing 427 on a tract 429 to provide vertical alignment of the ends of successive lines as proved and a step-by-step feeding mechanism not shown functions to progressively move the material receiving impressions. In a preferred form ink:is distributed to type characters 336 :by rollers identical to above described rollers 421 and also: catapulted across the imposed characters. This adapts my method to production of lithographic plates by use of a process resembling hand transfer. Use of this modification of the above apparatus is facilitated by inversion of type bars 304'and the central part of the related mechanism above described.

Having thus described my invention, what I desire to secure by Letters Patent and claim:is: 1. A machine for composing justified lines, adapted to be controlled by a record having distinctive designations for characters and for spaces of various widths predetermined to produce justified lines, comprising record sensing means and type members selectively positioned. under control thereof, said type members being tapered and provided with characters distributed according to their widths and with spaces distributed to provide a range of sizes to produce said justified lines.

2. Apparatus for composing single consecutive lines of justified characters of various widths comprising a plurality of tapered character bars, selectively settable means, a stop with a connection to said bars for coaction with said settable means to determine the selective setting of the bars, said connection being so constructed as to permit slight longitudinal movement of the bars, and means located adjacent the impression lines for accurately aligning the selected characters.

3. An apparatus for composing single consecutive lines of justified characters of various widths, comprising a set of composite character and space bars of elongated tapered construction, characters and justifying word spaces of varying widths spaced along said bars from one end to the other, said justifying word spaces being of different sizes and located at spaced points along each bar segregating groups of word characters, means for selectively moving said bars, means for supporting said bars for movement to dispose the selected characters and spaces in the plane of the composition line, lost motion means interposed between said bars and said bar moving means to permit slight longitudinal movement of said bars, and means located adjacent the impression line for accurately aligning the selected characters.

4. An apparatus for composing single consecutive lines of justified characters of various widths, a set of tapered type bars provided with characters distributed according to their width and the spaces distributed to provide a range of sizes to produce justified lines, drive means for said type bars including a cradle member; drive rolls supported in said cradle member and driven in opposite directions, and means for selectively rocking said cradle member to bring either of said rolls into driving engagement with said type bars in one direction or another.