Title:
Boat, seaplane, and the like
United States Patent 2367323


Abstract:
My invention relates to new and useful improvements in boats and more particularly to a boat that is capable of extremely high speed and especially adapted for racing. Still another object of the invention is to provide a boat which may be made in a much larger size than a racing boat and...



Inventors:
Apel, Arno A.
Application Number:
US49486343A
Publication Date:
01/16/1945
Filing Date:
07/15/1943
Assignee:
Apel, Arno A.
Primary Class:
International Classes:
B63B1/20
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Description:

My invention relates to new and useful improvements in boats and more particularly to a boat that is capable of extremely high speed and especially adapted for racing.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a boat which may be made in a much larger size than a racing boat and which may be used as a flying boat and/or glider. In both instances whether the hull is used as a small racing craft or made in larger sizes and adapted for. a flying boat hull or glider, the principles involved are identical.

Another of the objects of the invention is to provide an especially designed hull so that the bottom offers relatively small resistance, and the efficiency and speed of the hull will be comparatively high as compared with the ordinary displacement boat, hydroairplane or glider.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a hull of the type commonly used in seaplanes or flying-boats and gliders, and has -for another object, enabling of the craft to rise quickly from the water with a maximum load.

Still another object of the invention is to produce a hull that is similar in its broadest aspects to the hull shown in the patent granted to Adolph E. Apel and the present applicant, Arno A. Apel #2,126,304 of August 9, 1938.

In the patent just above mentioned, however, stabilizers are positioned at the bow of the boat and extend about amidships.

I have found that it sometimes happens in racing a boat of this construction that if it is side-swiped by a competitor's boat or is intentionally or unintentionally fouled or fouls a buoy, there is a great possibility of one of the stabilizers being damaged or even torn from the hull as it protrudes beyond the normal sides of the boat at the bow.

Another object of the invention, therefore, is to build a speed-boat-hull wherein these so-called stabilizers rather than extending beyond the normal sides of the boat are to be built directly under so that all the advantages of the former construction will be retained with the added advantage that in case the boat is sideswiped or fouled, the likelihood of damage to these stabilizers or runners is greatly reduced.

Also in the patent heretofore mentioned, the stabilizers terminate about amidships of the boat while in the present construction the stabilizers or runners extend substantially throughout the length of the boat terminating just ahead of the stern so that the three-points of support with all its advantages is retained, with a further ady.antage that there is less possibility of air escaping from beneath the bottom of the boat before it has reached the stern, Still another object of the invention is to provide a boat which when running at high speed either in the form of a racing boat or a hydroairplane hull or glider will be supported along the stabilizers or runners and on the stern thus taking advantage of air-lift to greatly reduce the skn-iriction along the length of the hull-bottom.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a hull with runners or stabilizers formed directly beneath the hull rather than on the sides Sthereof and torm a resltant tunnel or trough bottom which may be of the inverted V-type or slightly concave, the bottom of the hull flattening from a point behind the bow to a perfectly fiat stern, the runners or stabilizers also decreasing 0 in depth from a point behind the bow to the stern.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a hull having a concave bottom trough or tunnel or an inverted V-bottom trough or tunnel depending generally uppn the type of the boat.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a hull utilizing the three-points of support and having the outer chines extending from the bow to below the keel line to thus entrap as much 0air as possible at the bow to force the same between the runners or stabilizers to thus provide air-lift beneath the .ull.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a boat wherein if desired the stabilizers or runners may entirely encircle the bow rather than starting at a point just behind the forward end of the bow.

With these and .other objects in view, the invention consists in certain new and novel arrangements and-combination of parts, as will be hereinafter more fully xplained and pointed out in the claims.

Referring now to the drawings showing a preferred embodiment and two slight modifications, Fig. 1 is a diagramnmatic side elevation of my improved boat; Fig. 2is a bottom planview thereof; Fig. 2a is a view taken from the bow; Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic sectional view taken on line 3-3 on Fig. 1; Fig. 4 is a,diagrammatic sectional view taken on line 4--4 .of Fig. 1; Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic sectional view taken 65 on line. 5-5 opf ig. 1; Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic sectional view taken on line 6-6 of Fig. 1; Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic sectional view taken on line 7-7 of Fig. 1; Fig. 8 is a-diagrammatic sectional view taken on line 8-8 of Fig. 1; Fig. 9 is a sectional view showing a slightly modified form of bottom wherein the trough or channel is slightly concave rather than of an inverted V-shape; Fig. 10 is a bottom plan view of the hull showing a slight modification wherein the runners or stabilizers encircle the bow; and Fig. 11 is a view taken from the bow of Fig. 10.

Referring now more specifically to the several views and for the moment to Fig. 1, there is diagrammatically shown my new and improved boat, seaplane or glider wherein C represents the keel line which drops slightly throughout its length and terminates at about the point C' beneath the stern. There may also be seen the approximate water line WL and it will be understood that this is the approximate water line when the hull is at rest. Of course, when the craft is running on the water, the water line will be lower.

Still referring to Fig. 1, there may be seen the outer chine line A which starts from approximately the point A' and curves slightly downwardly to about the point A2 where it may extend horizontally for a short distance such as between the points X and Y, and then gradually rises throughout its length to its rear point opposite C' at the stern. This is of material advantage when the hull is to be used as a seaplane or glider as it is upon these horizontal surfaces that the hull will be supported just prior to the taking off.

There also may be seen in Fig. 2, the inner chine line B which also runs from the point A' in the bow, and this likewise extends slightly downwardly and is co-extensive with the outer chine line C' under the stern, so that the outer and inner chines as well as the keel may all terminate at about the same distance from the stern.

By constructing the bottom in this way there are formed the two oppositely located stabilizers or runners R and R1 (Fig. 2) which extend substantially throughout the length of the boat, that is from a point just behind the bow to a distance slightly remote from the stern S as at 7-7 (Fig. 1), so that when the boat is travelling at high speed it will be substantially supported throughout its length on these two parallel runners and the bottom at stern S, the air being entrapped and held under the hull, separating the hull from the surface of the water substantially throughout the length of the same.

These two runners form a resultant channel, trough or tunnel T in the hull and by forming the bow of the boat with the start of the keel line at a distance above the surface of the water, the air directly in front of the bow will be forced into this channel or tunnel and will provide a substantial air-lift to the hull to thus reduce skin-friction.

Another function, of course, of the runners is to greatly minimize the wetted surface of the hull further reducing the skin-friction and facilitating the take-off of this hull as used in aircraft.

It will be understood that the depth of the runners or stabilizers gradually decreases from the bow to a point slightly ahead of the stern as may be visualized from the sectional view 4, 5, 6 and 7; the greatest depth being at about the point A2 as heretofore mentioned.

These runners are substantially rectangular and have substantially horizontal bottom surfaces as may be seen from the several views, and the outer respective sides of the runners coincide with or merge with the outer respective sides of the hull.

The width of each runner may be varied slightly from that shown in the several views and likewise the depth of these runners may be changed slightly from that shown without changing from the principles involved.

It also may be here mentioned that the runners form an integral part of the bottom of the hull or they might be added to the hull in some instances, it depending upon the type of boat or hydroairplane. It will also be noticed that the bow of the boat is relatively blunt while the sides of the boat extend slightly towards each other decreasing the beam toward the stern. Likewise, the runners R and R1 decrease or narrow in width or cross-section as they approach the stern. It will also be remembered that these runners decrease in depth from the bow towards the stern S or to a point slightly forward of the stern as heretofore mentioned.

Referring now for the moment to the resultant trough or channel T extending from the inner adjacent sides of the runners up to the keel line it will be seen that the channel T is substantially of inverted V-section, the bottom surfaces G indining upwardly from the upper-inner edge of the runners B1 to the keel line C. However, as may be seen by the various sectional views, this channel gradually flattens out from about opposite the section lines 4-4 (Fig. 1) to the point C1 at the stern S where the bottom of the hull is flat.

This flattening of the channel follows the construction shown in the Apel patent heretofore mentioned, that is to wit: #2,126,304 except in that instance the keel terminated nearer amidships than in the present construction.

Also in the previous Apel Patent #1,042,636 of October 29, 1912, the bottom of the hull is flattened at the stern. In both of these aforemen5 tioned Apel patents, the bows, however, differ from the present construction in that they were of a V-type whereas the present construction is a bow of the inverted V-type.

In Fig. 9, there is shown a slight modification of the tunnel construction in that rather than the bottom surface W extending towards the keel in angular relation or substantially of an inverted Vcross-section, it will be understood that this bottom wall might be slightly concave and the art of the tunnel gradually decreases until it eventually flattens out at the stern.

If the construction is to be used for a speed boat the upper surface W of the channel may be made of plyboard and easily curved to the desired arc while on the other hand, if the boat is to be used for a seaplane or glider it may be more simple to have the inverted V rather than a slightly concave construction.

Referring now to the slight modification and to Figs. 10 and 11, there is shown the hull having the stabilizers or runners R-5 and R--6 which are identical with the runners shown in the former construction with the exception that in this instance the runners are continued at their forward ends and meet at the forward end of the bow as at R-7 to thus encircle the bow.

The width of the runners where they meet may be greater or less than that illustrated in Figs. 10 and 11; otherwise, it will be understood that the bottom of the hull is the same. The runners and keel and channel all terminate at the same distance ahead of the stern as illustrated in the preferred form, and the channel construction and other features follow out the teachings of the preferred form.

It will also be understood that rather than having the channel of an inverted V-type it might also be slightly arcuate as illustrated in Fig. 9.

A hull constructed as shown in the preferred and modified forms has many advantages over other previous forms of construction. As heretofore mentioned, the skin friction is reduced to a minimum and the hull when running at a high rate of speed is being supported substantially at three points. The air-lift is a great advantage and may result in supporting a greater phrt of the weight of the hull. This is of material advantage when the hull is to be used as a seaplane or glider taking far less power to attain get-away speed and to rise from the surface of the water when the necessary speed is reached.

Likewise when used as a racing hull, it takes less power to propel the boat in the water because the drag or skin friction is greatly reduced.

The boat when starting has a tendency to slightly rise at the bow and as high speed is attained the boat levels out on practically an even keel thus utilizing the advantage of the air as it passes through the channel below the hull while the boat is substantially supported on its runners and stern.

In the drawings I have illustrated the stern as being relatively blunt but it will, of course, be understood that the stern might extend to a point or be rounded off, regardless of whether it is to be used as a hydroairplane, glider or speed boat hull.

Finally by shaping the hull as illustrated, that is with a rather blunt bow and then slightly decreasing the beam of the boat, the runners or stabilizers are formed integral with and below the hull and, therefore, not as likely to be fouled in operation of the craft.

Many slight changes might be made without departing from the scope of the invention.

Having thus described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: 1. A hull of the planing type having a relatively blunt bow and a tapering after body, the keel line being above the surface of the water at the bow and extending downwardly and terminating at a point ahead of the stern, parallel horizontally disposed stabilizers or runners and having flat horizontally disposed planing surfaces extending throughout the greater length of the hull and positioned on the bottom of the hull, said runners forming a resultant channel, the keel line being the median line of the channel and lying in a plane above the side walls of the channel, the said channel flattening out from the bow to a point in advance of the stem, and the hull being supported on these horizontally disposed stabilizers or runners and the stern when the hull is travelling at a relatively high speed.

2. A hull of the planing type having a bow 'and the sides of the hull tapering inwardly, from the bow to the stern, the keel line being above the surface of the water at the bow and extending slightly downwardly and terminating at a point slightly ahead of the stern, horizontally disposed stabilizers or runners and having flat horizontally disposed planing surfaces extending from the bow also to a point slightly ahead of the stern and positioned on the bottom of the hull, T- a channel between the runners, the keel line being the median line of the channel and lying. in a plane above the side walls of the channel, the said channel flattening out from the bow to a plane surface also situated slightly ahead of the stern and the hull being supported on the horizontally disposed stabilizers or runners and the stern when the hull is travelling at a relatively high speed.

3. A speed boat or hydroairplane hull having a bow, the sides of the hull tapering inwardly from the point of maximum beam to the stern, the keel line being above the surface of the water at the bow and extending slightly downwardly and terminating at a point slightly ahead of the stern, substantially parallel horizontally disposed runners and having flat horizontally disposed planing surfaces also extending from the bow to a point slightly ahead of the stern, positioned on the bottom of the hull and decreasing in depth from a maximum at a point slightly to the rear of the bow to a point slightly in advance of the stern, a channel of substantial depth near the bow and extending between the parallel runners, the said channel diminishing in depth from a point aft of the bow, and disappearing in a plane surface situated, slightly ahead of the stern, and the hull being supported on the runners and stern when the hull is travelling at a relatively high speed.

4. A hull of the planing type having a relatively blunt bow and a tapering after body, the keel line being above the surface of the water at the bow and extending downwardly and terminating at a point slightly ahead of the stern, the bottom of the hull provided with a channel, the keel line being the median line of the channel and lying in a plane above the side walls of the channel, said channel also flattening out from the bow to a point slightly ahead of the stern, planing means in the form of horizontally disposed runners and having flat horizontally disposed planing surfaces adjacent the lower edges of the channel and positioned on the bottom of the hull and confined between the sides of the hull and extending to a point slightly ahead of the stern to provide planing surfaces together with the stern when the hull is travelling at a relatively high speed.

5. A hull of the planing type having a relatively blunt bow and tapering after body, the keel line being above the surface of the water at the bow and extending downwardly and terminating at a point slightly ahead of the stern, the bottom of the hull provided with a substantially inverted V-shaped channel, said channel also flattening out from the bow to a point slightly ahead of the stern, means in the form of horizontally disposed runners and having flat horizontally disposed planing surfaces adjacent the lower edges of the channel and positioned on the bottom of the hull confined between the sides and extending to a point slightly ahead of the stern to provide together with the stern, substantially three surfaces on which the hull will be supported when travelling at a relatively high speed.

6. A hull of the planing type having a relatively blunt bow and'tapering after body, the bottom of the hull provided with a substantially arcuate channel, the said channel flattening out to a planing surface beneath the stern, horizontally disposed planing means having flat horizontally disposed planing surfaces positioned on the bottom of the hull and substantially co-extensive in length with the said channel, which planing means have their maximum depth with respect to the top of the channel at a point just behind the bow and gradually decrease in depth to a point where they merge with the planing surface beneath the stern of the hull, and said planing means and said stern substantially supporting the hull on three surfaces when the hull is travelling at a relatively high rate of speed.

7. A hull of the planing type having a bow and a tapering after body together with a keel line the forward end of which is located above the surface of the water, a substantially inverted V-shaped channel extending from the bow substantially to the stern, horizontally disposed flat planing means located on the opposite sides of said channel and extending substantially below the lower edges of said channel, the inner-adjacent sides of the planing means extending substantially parallel throughout their length and the outer respective sides of the planing means being co-extensive throughout their length with their sides of said hull.

8. In a hull of the planing type two oppositely located runners on the bottom of the hull, the lower surfaces of the runners lying in a horizontal plane, their inner adjacent sides being substantially parallel with each other and their outer respective sides being relatively blunt at their noses, and then tapering from their point of' greatest width inwardly throughout their length to meet their inner respective sides.

9. In a hull of the planing type two oppositely located runners on the bottom of the hull, the lower surfaces of the runners lying in a horizontal plane, their inner-adjacent sides being substantially parallel with each other and their outer-respective sides being relatively blunt at the nose and tapering inwardly from the point of their greatest width to meet their inner-respective sides and the runners decreasing in depth from a point just behind their primal ends to their distal ends.

10. A hull of the planing type having a relatively blunt bow and a tapering after-body, the 5; keel line being above the surface of the water at the bow and extending downwardly and terminating at a point ahead of the stern, horizontally disposed flat surfaced planing means extending from the bow towards the stern and disposed on the bottom of the hull and opposite each other, the said horizontally disposed flat surfaced planing means tapering and decreasing in width and depth to their points of termination ahead of the stern, the bottom of the hull provided with a substantially arcuate central channel and said planing means disposed along the opposite sides of said channel, the said channel flattening out from the bow to a point in advance of the stern and the weight of the hull being supported on these horizontally disposed flat surfaced planing means and the stern when the hull is travelling at a high rate of speed.

11. In a seaplane hull a substantially inverted V-shaped bottom, additional means in the form of runners located at the opposite sides of the inverted V-shaped bottom, said runners having flat horizontally disposed planing surfaces, and the said runners extending downwardly from the bow, and then in a horizontal direction lengthwise of the hull about amidships and then angularly inclined upwardly to merge with the under surface of the stern, and the said horizontal surfaces of the runners where they extend in a horizontal direction lengthwise of the boat, adapted to assist in the support of the hull just before the hull rises from the water.

ARNO A. APEL.