Title:
High altitude aviation mask
United States Patent 2348108


Abstract:
My invention relates to high altitude aviation masks and has for its object to provide a mask for use in high altitude aviation in conjunction with oxygen supply mechanism of the demand type which shall so protect the exhaling valve mechanism that freezing thereof or restriction of any of the...



Inventors:
Bulbulian, Arthur H.
Application Number:
US41186941A
Publication Date:
05/02/1944
Filing Date:
09/22/1941
Assignee:
Bulbulian, Arthur H.
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
128/207.12
International Classes:
A62B18/02
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Description:

My invention relates to high altitude aviation masks and has for its object to provide a mask for use in high altitude aviation in conjunction with oxygen supply mechanism of the demand type which shall so protect the exhaling valve mechanism that freezing thereof or restriction of any of the air passageways or openings will be certainly and effectively at all times prevented.

In a mask structure such as I have here shown there is a marginal contour arrangement adapted to engage the face of a wearer on each side and under the chin so as to provide a breathing chamber which is completely sealed from outside air.

Oxygen and atmospheric air is supplied to this breathing chamber from any suitable type of apparatus, but, as contemplated to be used with my mask, from what is known as the demand type of oxygen control mechanism such as is shown and described in co-pending application of Jay A. Heidbrink No. 387,936. With such apparatus a difficulty is encountered in providing air passages for gases of exhalation, which, while being sufficiently free and open to prevent undue effort in breathing, and which will close upon inhalation, yet which will be so protected that freezing, either to render the valve inoperative or to close or restrict breathing passages, will be prevented.

It is a principal object of my invention, therefore, to provide a mask adapted for use with the demand type oxygen control apparatus which will contain within the mask body an exhaling valve adapted to close upon inhalation, in combination with exhaling and inhaling passages which are effectively protected against any exposure to outside freezing atmosphere that might cause such freezing and restriction.

It is a further object of my invention to provide an opening from the breathing chamber toward the bottom thereof which is adapted to connect directly with the demand type control oxygen delivering apparatus and to provide exhaling valve mechanism above the inhalation opening with large air passageways leading therefrom outwardly and downwardly to open to atmosphere freely through large downwardly turned openings as the mask is worn.

It is a further object of my invention to insulate these exhaling passageways from outside atmosphere by forming double walls thereto held spaced apart so as to provide an insulating dead air space between said walls.

It is a further object of my invention to provide a chamber into which the exhaling valve opens and from which the outlets for exhalation go to atmosphere, which chamber shall surround the walls of the inlet passageway for a considerable distance. The chamber will be kept warm from exhalation gases and will exchange heat with the gases of inhalation whereby said gases, normally quite cold, will be primarily warmed and aid in the comfort and satisfaction in breathing of the wearer.

The full objects and advantages of my invention will appear in connection with the detailed description thereof which will now be given in the following specification, and the features of novelty by which the aforesaid advantageous results remedying the difficulties outlined are achieved are particularly pointed out in the claims.

In the drawings illustrating my invention in one of its forms: Fig. 1 is a front perspective view showing the mask in position on the face of a wearer. Fig. 2 is a sectional plan view taken through the exhaling passages to show how they extend about the walls of the inhaling passageway.

Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken on line 3-3 of Pig. 5.

Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken on line --4 of Fig. 3.

Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on line 5-5 of Figs. 1 and 3.

Fig. 6 is an inside plai view of the mask structure with some parts broken away and in section.

Fig. 7 is a similar view of the outer mask body which is adapted to be removed from the inner mask body with some parts broken away and in section.

Fig. 8 is a partial view of the intermediate mask body piece with parts broken away and in section.

Fig. 9 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view taken through the center of the mask structure showing the formation of a mouth microphone chamber.

As illustrated, there is a main outside mask body member 10, an inside mask body member II and an intermediate insulation member 12.

The internal body member has the marginal portions adapted to engage the face of the wearer and when worn provides a sealed breathing chamber 13.

The outer body member 10 overlies in its entirety the inner body member II and is shaped and formed to provide an exhalation outlet chamber 14. The intermediate body member 12 is positioned within the outer member 10 about 85 the chamber 14 to provide dead air space insulation between the outer wall of outer body member 10 and the exhalation chamber 14.

Considering first the outer body member 10 this embodies, Fig. 3, a main portion 15 bulged outwardly from the position of the face when the mask is worn and having portions 16 and 17, Fig. 6, laterally extended and uniting with a lower portion 18 adapted to underlie the chin and an upper portion 19 for receiving the nose of the wearer. The marginal portions of the inner part I 10 include a flat bearing piece which extends continuously about the parts of the mask body 16, 17, 18 and 19 at 20, 21, 22 and 23. This marginal portion is provided with a feather-edged inwardly extended flap 24 which, as shown in 1 Figs. 3, 5 and 6, extends entirely about the marginal bearing pieces 20, 21, 22 and 23.

The inner body member II is provided with an extension 26 formed integral with it which provides a chamber 27 communicating through 2 an opening. 28, Figs. 3 and 5 with the interior of breathing chamber 13. The extension 26 is carried downwardly into an outwardly and downwardly extending tube 29 which opens at 30 into a tube 31', Fig. 1, which is adapted to 2 connect with the demand-type-controlled oxygen delivering apparatus (not shown). The interior of breathing chamber 13 is further provided with pockets 31 and 32, as indicated in Fig. 5, which are formed by bulging outwardly 3 parts of the mask body as indicated best at 33 and 34 of Fig. 5. There is further an annular bead 36 which extends along the outside of the inner body portion, as clearly indicated in Fig.

5. 3 This arrangement is such that when the mask is assembled with the outer body portion 10 upon it a dead air chamber 38, Fig. 5, will be provided between the mask bodies to aid in insulating the breathing chamber 13 from outside atmdsphere. 4( The inner body portion of the mask is further provided, as 'indicated at 39 with a round opening in which is positioned an exhaling, valve member 40. This valve is shown with a flap valve piece 41, but it will be obvious that any 4; form of check valve may be used which will permit exhalation gases to go to chamber 14 and will prevent return of gas or air from said chamber to breathing chamber 13 whenever inhalation takes place and the pressure falls within chamber 13.

The outer mask body 10, as shown in Fig. 1, comprises a main body portion 42 which overlies the body portion of the inner mask body II throughout and provides the insulating dead air space 38. This outer body portion is provided with an extension 43 terminating in two downwardly turned tubes 44 and 45 which are open at their ends as indicated at 46 and 47, Figs. 6 and 7. This extension 43, as clearly indicated in Figs. 3 and 4, goes considerably beyond the extension 26 of the inner mask body and above the opening 39 therefrom and exhaling valve 40 to form the enclosing chamber 14 heretofore referred to. It will be noted from Fig. 2 that 05 chamber 14 extends into the outlets 46 and 47 formed by tubular extensions 44 and 45 of outward extension 43 of the outer mask body. Said outward extension 43 is formed with a series of ribs 48 running lengthwise along its inside, as indicated clearly in Fig. 4.

Inside of mask extension 43 and forming the outer wall of chamber 14 is an intermediate mask piece 12 which, as shown in Fig. 2 is provided with tubular extensions 49 and 50 and which engages the ribs 48 throughout and holds the parts 43 and 12 spaced to provide a dead air space BI, Figs. 2 and 3, or in effect dead air space channels 52, Figs. 3 and 4. As best shown in Figs. 8 and 6 9, the intermediate mask body 12 is formed with a feather-edged annular extension 53 which comes between the inner and outer mask bodes 10 and II around all parts of the chamber 14 to points 55 and 56 at the beginning of tubular exIl tensions 44 and 45, where the tubular extensions 49 and 50 enter the extensions 44 and 45, as clearly shown at 57 and 58 of Fig. 2.

As shown in Fig. 9 a microphone casing or turret 60 may be provided directly opposite the opening 28 through the wall 15 of the inner mask body. In this form the parts 12 and 43 will simply be carried over the top of the microphone body as shown and a special holding device 61 will be applied thereto, all as shown in 0 Fig. 9. This will house a voice microphone of a well-known type positioned substantially in front of the wearer's mouth and opposite or nearly opposite the opening 28 into inhaling chamber 27. Otherwise the microphone may be 5 the throat form of microphone which will not be associated with the mask itself.

The advantages of my invention will appear from the foregoing description. The double wall of the whole mask body in and of itself will 0 provide a considerable measure of protection against cold entering the breathing chamber.

Added to that are the dead air spaces 3d which further insulate the breathing chamber from outside cold. Of utmost importance, however, 5 is the arrangement of exhaling valve openings into an exhalation chamber and downwardlyleading passageways, the exhaling valve being above the inlet passageways so that the gases of exhalation surround for a major part of its 0 extent the walls of the inlet passageway, thus at the same time maintaining with the warm gases of exhalation sufficient heat certainly to prevent possibility of freezing of the exhaling valve but also transferring this heat to the inlet Spassageway so that the oxygen rebreathed gases and any added air will be preliminarily warmed in some degree and not be carried to the lungs of the wearer at too low a temperature for comfort and satisfactory inhalation. A further advantage is that this exhalation chamber by the use of the intermediate casing is very effectively insulated by reason of the fact that a continuous dead air space is provided between the intermediate and outer casings for this purpose.

It is a further advantage that the exhaling passages from and about the exhaling valves and to discharge to atmosphere are relatively large, insuring free and easy breathing; that also all passages and walls trend downwardly so that any condensation which may take place in these passages and on these walls is normally moved to discharge through and out of downwardly turned air passages, and that these air passages cannot be plugged or injuriously restricted by formation of ice no matter what the severity of cold may be in which the mask is used.

A further great advantage of my mask is the comfort with which it may be worn in conjunction with the helmet and goggles of the aviator giving very complete protection to the face of the wearer as well as exceptionally favorable breathing conditions.

I claim: 1. A high altitude aviation mask comprising a mask body formed to cover the cheeks, nose and chin of the wearer and having inner marginal surfaces for contacting said portions of the face and under the chin to seal against it and form a breathing chamber enclosing nose and mouth, said mask body formed with two centrally alined openings one above the other, a passageway leading to the lower opening for conveying inhalation gases into the breathing chamber, an exhaling valve located in and across the upper opening, and means forming an exhaling chamber over said exhaling valve and an independent passage leading therefrom, said chamber separated from the inhaling passageway by a wall thereof.

2. A high altitude aviation mask comprising a mask body formed to cover the cheeks, nose and chin of the wearer and having inner marginal surfaces for contacting said portions of the face to seal against it and form a breathing chamber enclosing nose and mouth, said mask body formed with centrally alined openings one above the other, a passageway leading to the lower opening for conveying inhalation gases into the breathing chamber, an exhaling valve located in the upper opening, and an outer mask body corresponding in size and shape with the first named mask body and held upon it provided with an extension forming an exhaling chamber over the exhaling valve, and a passage leading from the chamber separated from and independent of the inhaling passageway.

3. A high altitude aviation mask comprising a mask body formed to cover the cheeks, nose and chin of the wearer and having inner marginal surfaces for contacting said portions of the face to seal against it and form a breathing chamber enclosing nose and mouth, said mask body formed with centrally alined openings one above the other, a passageway leading to the lower opening for conveying inhalation gases into the breathing chamber, an exhaling valve located in the upper opening, and means forming an exhaling chamber over said exhaling valve and forming a pair of diverging passages leading therefrom to the lower part of said mask, said chamber and passages surrounding said inhaling passageway.

4. A high altitude aviation mask comprising a mask body formed to cover the cheeks, nose and chin of the wearer and having inner marginal surfaces for contacting said portions of the face to seal against it and form a breathing chamber enclosing nose and mouth, said mask body formed with openings one above the other, a passageway leading to the lower opening for conveying inhalation gases into the breathing chamber, an exhaling valve located in the upper opening, and an outer mask body corresponding in size and shape with the first named mask body and held upon it provided with an extension forming an erhaling chamber over the exhaling valve, a passage leading from the chamber separated from and independent of the inhaling passageway, and a liner member on the inside of the exhaling chamber held spaced from its inner walls for insulating the exhaling chamber from outside atmosphere. 5. A high altitude aviation mask comprising a mask body formed to cover the cheeks, nose and chin of the wearer and having inner marginal surfaces for contacting said portions of the face to seal against it and form a breathing chamber enclosing nose and mouth, said mask body formed with openings one above the other, a passageway leading to the lower opening for conveying inhalation gases into the breathing chamber, an exhaling valve located in the upper opening, a second member forming an exhaling chamber over said exhaling valve and forming a passage leading therefrom, and a lining member adjacent and held spaced from the inside wall of said exhaling chamber.

ARTHUR H. BULBULIAN.