Title:
Blowout preventer
United States Patent 2193110


Abstract:
This invention relates to a blowout preventer. The apparatus herein described discloses certain improvements over, and additions to, that type of construction shown in our co-pending application filed June 4, 1935, under Serial No. 24,838 for Combination tubing head and blowout preventer,...



Inventors:
Penick, Kirby T.
Penick, Arthur J.
Application Number:
US3960735A
Publication Date:
03/12/1940
Filing Date:
09/07/1935
Assignee:
Penick, Kirby T.
Penick, Arthur J.
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
251/14, 251/266, 251/274
International Classes:
E21B33/06
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Description:

This invention relates to a blowout preventer.

The apparatus herein described discloses certain improvements over, and additions to, that type of construction shown in our co-pending application filed June 4, 1935, under Serial No. 24,838 for Combination tubing head and blowout preventer, now Patent 2,154,408.

An object of the invention is to provide a ram type blowout preventer having oppositely dis0 posed rams, of novel formation, and shaped to surround an inner pipe, and of such formation as to form a positive seal to prevent the escape of fluid under pressure between an outer well casing and the inner pipe within said casing.

S Another object of the invention is-to provide, in a blowout preventer, a novel type of ram.

The invention also comprehends a novel combination of head adapted to be secured upon a well casing with a pressure head therein shaped 0 to surround the inner pipe and to permit the passage of the inner pipe and the couplings thereof, therethrough, with a ram type blowout preventer arranged to be actuated into active position to closely surround the inner pipe and into 5 inactive position to clear the inner pipe and its couplings to permit the movement of the inner pipe through the preventer without interference.

With the above and other objects in view, the invention has particular relation to certain novel 0 features of construction, operation, and arrangement of parts, an example of which is given in this specification and illustrated-in the accompanying drawings, wherein: Fig. 1 shows a side view of the complete ap5 paratus, shown partly in section, showing the rams in active position.

Fig. 2 shows a transverse sectional view taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.

PFg. 3 shows a fragmentary, vertical sectional 0 view taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4 shows a side view, partly in section, showing the rams in inactive position, and also showing the slip bowl and inner pipe packing removed.

5 Fig. 5 shows a side view, partly in section, of a modified form of the apparatus wherein pressure fluid may be used to actuate the rams.

Pig. 6 shows a cross-sectional view thereof, taken on the line 6-6 of Fig. 5, and Fig. 7 shows D a vertical sectional view of another modification.

Referring now more particularly to the drawings wherein like numerals of reference designate similar parts in each of the figures, the numeral I designates a well casing to the upper i end of which a casing head 2 is connected. The casing head has the upper and lower outwardly extended flanges 3, 4, which are mounted in spaced relation by the annular surrounding wall 5 which is formed integrally with and depends from the flange 4. A fluid-tight seal is formed between wall 5 and lower flange 4 by means of the annular gasket 6. The upper and lower flanges are maintained in assembled relation by means of the bolts 7.

Slidably mounted between the upper and lower flanges 3, 4, are the oppositely arranged rams 8. The rams are semi-circular in contour and their inner sides are shaped to closely surround the inner pipe 9. Their meeting ends are formed with transverse ribs, as 10, which intermesh when 1~ the rams are in active position to surround the inner pipe 9. These rams are preferably formed of yieldable material such as rubber which is moulded about arcuate skeletons, or cages I which are preferably formed of nmetal or similar rigid material. In the forms shown in Figs. 1 to 4 inclusive, these cages have the outwardly extended, internally threaded sleeves 12 which are arranged to work in oppositely disposed outwardly extended housings 13, 13, which are preferably formed integrally with the wall 5. The outer ends of these housings 13 have the flanges 14 thereon bolted to which are the stuffing boxes S5 of conventional construction. The rams may be actuated by means of the shafts 16, 16, which work through the stuffing boxes 15, and have a swiveling connection with the housings 13, and whose inner ends are threaded into the sleeves 12. When the shafts 16 are actuated in one direction, they will move the rams 8 into active 85 posititon so as to closely surround the inner pipe, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, and when said shafts are turned in the other direction, they will actuate the rams into inactive position, or outer position, as, shown in Fig. 4. These rams fit closely between the upper and lower flanges 3 and 4 of the casing head so as to form fluid-tight joints therewith, and the cages 11 extend from flange to flange as illustrated so as to reenforce the rams throughout their vertical thickness. The underside of each ram has an arcuate groove or channel 17 therearound forming an arcuate lip I8, and when the rams are in closed, or in active position about the inner pipe, the pressure of the well fluid beneath causes the lips 18 to closely grip said pipe and form a fluid-tight joint with the pipe.

The upper outer margin of each ram 8 is formed with an outwardly curved arcuate lip IS as shown in Figs. 1 and 4. As more accurately 5s shown in Figs. 2 and 3, there are the oppositely disposed filler blocks 20, 20, which are bolted in place by the bolts 21. The outer sides of these blocks are arcuate to conform to the contour of * and to fit against the inner side of the wall 5. The facing sides of these blocks are parallel and form, in effect, tracks along which the rams 8 move. At their upper inside margins 22, they are outwardly curved to conform to the shape of the outwardly curved lips 19 which fit closely thereagainst. The inner side of the wall 5, between the said filler blocks at its juncture with the upper flange 3 is arcuately grooved as at 23, to receive the lips 19 when the rams are moved into their outer, or inactive positions. Accordingly, when the rams 8 are moved inwardly to their active positions, their inner sides will closely fit about the inner pipe 9; should any fluid under pressure escape past between the rams and lower 0 flange 4 while the rams are in active position, and into the space between said rams and the surrounding wall 5, the pressure of the fluid in said space about the rams will operate to force the arcuate' lip 19 up against and into sealing contact with the lower face of the upper flange 3 so as to form a very effective seal to prevent the escape of the fluid from the well.

Beneath the rams 8 the casing head is proSvided with suitable valve controlled outflow lines, Sas 24.

In the forms shown in Figs. 5 and 6, means are shown through which the rams 8' may be moved to active position by the application of 86 fluid, under pressure, thereto, or may be moved to active or inactive position manually with means for securing the rams in either active or inactive positions. In this form each cage II has the outwardly extended sleeve 12', preferably formed 0 integrally therewith and threaded into the outer end of each sleeve 12' there is a gland 25 and an actuating rod 26 works through each gland 25 and the inner end of each actuating rod has the head 27 thereon to prevent the detachment of the Srod from said sleeve.

Secured to the outer end of each housing 13 there is an internally threaded housing 28 threaded into which there is a tubular shaft 29.

The outer end of the actuating rod 26 has a s0 swiveling connecting with the inner end of the shaft 29. There is an actuating rod 30 which works axially through each housing 28, as well as through the corresponding shaft 29 and has a splined connection with the latter. The outer 65 end of the shaft 30 works through a stuffing box 31 in the outer end of the housing 28 and has a handwheel 32 fixed thereon.

There is a valve-controlled fluid pressure line 33 leading from a suitable source of pressure, and entering the casing head 2 outside of each ram 8' and the valve-controlled relief line 34 leads out from said space to relieve the pressure fluid.

With the operating mechanism set or adjusted, as shown in the drawings, steam or other pressure fluid may be admitted through the lines 33 and with the relief lines 34 closed, the pressure will actuate the rams 8' into active position so as to closely surround the inner pipe 9, as shown in Fig. 5. With the rams moved into active position, the rod 30 may be turned by means of the handwheel 32 to screw the shaft 29 inwardly and the actuating rod 26 will be forced inwardly until its inner end seats against the inner end of the 76 sleeve 12' and the corresponding ram will thus be maintained in closed position and pressure fluid may then be relieved.

When it is desired to move the rams to inactive position, the pressure lines 33 should be closed and the relief lines 34 open and the actuating 6 shaft 30 may be rotated to move the shaft 29 outwardly in an obvious manner and the rams may thus be moved to and locked in inactive position. Upon rotation of the shaft 30 in the opposite direction, the shaft 29, the actuating rod 26, and the corresponding ram may be moved inwinwardly into active position about the inner pipe 9 and secured in this last-mentioned position.

It is to be noted that in the form shown in Figs. 5 and 6 the outer ends of the rams 8' have the outwardly turned lips 35, as more accurately shown in Fig. 6, to more effectively retain the pressure fluid when such fluid is employed to actuate the rams.

In each of the forms the casing head 2 is provided with the upwardly flared seat 36 located above the rams and provided to receive the pressure head 37 which is shaped to fit therein and which is formed to closely surround the inner pipe 9 and which is fully described in the copending application referred to.

On the pressure head 37 is the retainer ring 38 having an inside downwardly converging seat 39 and the external annular flange 40. Clamp bolts 41 are threaded through the flange 40 and extend above and beneath said flange. The under face of the flange 40 has an annular groove 42 to receive the seal ring 43. The lower ends of the bolts 41 extend through smooth bores in the flange 44 at the upper end of the casing head and are threaded to receive the retaining nuts 45 which are screwed thereon. The lower face of the retainer ring 38 may thus be clamped securely against the upper end of the pressure head 37 so as to maintain the pressure head in place while lowering or elevating the tubing 9.

While using the apparatus as a blowout preventer. only to prevent the escape of pressure from the 'well while the tubing is being lowered, the parts hereinabove described, and as illustrated in Fig. 4, may be used with the rams 8 or 8' as the case may be, retracted. In lowering the tubing, the pressure head will closely surround and grip the tubing, and if gas pressure is pres, ent 'in the well the pressure head will ordinarily 80 be sufficient to prevent its escape. However, the rams 8, 8' are in readiness for instant use in case of excessive pressure necessitating the use of them. It is to be understood that the outlet pipes 24 leading from the casing head will be g5 equipped with the usual control valves whereby the outflow of fluid under pressure from the well may be controlled, or prevented. There is a slip ring 46 composed of arcuate sections shaped to be fitted around the tubing and- whose outer go sides taper downwardly and conform to the shape of and are adapted to fit on the seat 39 with their lower ends extended to fit within the pressure head, as shown in Figs. 1 and 5. When the tubing is lowered to the-desired location, the slip Gg ring 46 may be inserted into place and the annular packing rings 47 fitted between the retainer ring 38 and the tubing and supported on the slip ring 46. These packing rings 47 are preferably formed of arcuate sections, or may be split on TO one side, and are arranged so that the joints will be broken. The slip ring 46 forms a firm reenforcement for the inner lip of the pressure head 37 in the presence of strong pressure.

There is a slip bowl 48 whose lower end has the annular flange 49 through which the upper ends of the bolts 41 pass and the slip bowl is retained in assembled position by the nuts 50 which is screwed onto the upper ends of said bolts.

The clamp ring 38 has an upstanding annular flange 51 which surrounds the packing 47 and fits up within the slip bowl. The slip bowl is seated on a metal ring 52 which, in turn, is supported on the packing 47, and said packing may be compressed from time to time by tightening up on the nuts 50. The slip bowl has ar inside, downwardly converging seat 53 to receive the conventional wedge-shaped slips 54 for supporting the tubing 9 at the desired location.

The upper side of the flange 40 has an annular groove 55 therearound. When the apparatus is being used as a blowout preventer only, and is assembled as shown in Fig. 4, in case the pressure in the well is unusually strong and there is danger of a blowout, an additional blowout preventer of the general type such as is shown in our copending application No. 716,344, filed on March 19, 1934, may be mounted on the clamp ring 38 and a seal ring mounted in the groove 55 to form a tight seal therewith and the said additional blowout preventer may be bolted down by means of the bolts 41 and the nuts 50, and thus additional protection against the threatened blowout may be provided; or that type of blowout preventer illustrated in Fig. 7 and disclosed in our 80 Patent No. 1,997,152 issued on the 9th day of April, 1935, may be used as additional protection against a threatened blowout.

The drawings and description are illustrative, merely disclosing what is now considered to be 5 preferred forms of the invention, but not intending to restrict the invention to the exact mechanical construction shown except as defined by the appended claims.

What we claim is: 1. A blowout preventer comprising a tubular head adapted to be connected to the upper end of a pipe in a well bore and having a vertical passageway and guides extending outwardly from said passageway and whose outer ends are closed. rams in said guides formed of yieldable material and whose facing sides are shaped to fit closely about the inner pipe and to close said passageway when the rams are in inner or active position, the outer side of each ram at its upper margin 60 being formed into an outwardly tapering lip which terminates flush with the top of the ram and which fits closely against the adjacent outer end wall and top of the corresponding guide and each ram having outwardly and inwardly di15 rected lips which fit closely against the bottom of the corresponding guide when the ram is in either position which are effective to prevent escape of fluid under pressure from the guides behind said rams into the passageway above.

2. A blowout preventer comprising a tubular head adapted to be connected to the upper end of a pipe in a well and having a vertical passageway and guides extending outwardly from said passageway and whose outer ends are closed, rams in said guides formed of yieldable material and whose facing sides are shaped to fit closely about an inner pipe in the passageway and to close said passageway when the rams are in their inner or active position, an inwardly directed lip at the lower inner margin of each ram to grip said pipe when the rams are in their inner position, the outer side of each ram at its upper margin being formed into outwardly tapering lips, the guides being internally contoured to receive said outer lips snugly, an outer lip at the lower end of each ram which has a fiat, lower end face and outwardly and inwardly directed lips in contact with the bottom of the corresponding guideway.

3. A blowout preventer comprising a casing head adapted to be connected to a well casing and having radial guideways, rams fitted in said guideways, whose sides are shaped to surround an inner pipe, each ram comprising a rigid skeleton and a resilient body surrounding the skeleton, means for actuating each ram into active position in contact with the inner pipe and into -in- 80 active position spaced from the inner pipe, each ram having a lower end groove forming inner and outer inwardly directed lips, each outer lip thereafter having a flat face terminating in outwardly and inwardly directed lips contacting with the bottoms of the guideways when the rams are in either position and the inner lips contacting with the bottoms of the guideways when the rams are in inactive position and surrounding and in contact with the inner pipe when the rams are 4_ in active position.

4. In a blowout preventer a ram formed substantially of resilient material and having a skeleton therein, the inner side of said ram being shaped to conform to the shape of a round object, the upper end of the ram presenting a substantially plane surface and having an out-. wardly directed marginal lip at the outer side of said upper end, the lower end of the ram having an inside, inwardly directed, marginal lip ig adapted to fit closely about said round object and having an outer lip portion whose lower end presents a substantially plane flat face which terminates in outwardly and inwardly directed, tapering, marginal lips. 65 K. T. PENICK.

ARTHUR. J. PENICK.