This invention relates to road building apparatus, and particularly to a new, novel and useful type of apparatus for the making of roads according to the method disclosed and claimed in either Patent No. 2,012,566, issued to my father, Henry A. Ingalls, August 27, 1935, for Road construction, or the method disclosed in an application of the said Henry A. Ingalls, filed July 25, 1934, Serial No. 736,965.
In each of the above named methods, structural liquids, such as oil and water, are injected into the soil at a depth to enable it to ascend into upper and such other parts of the soil to thus provide a product in which a very minimum amount of structural liquid can be used to procduce a product of great strength and durability.
The translation of the lighter structural liquids, he says, is due to one or probably a number of different factors, such as 1. Forced translation or distribution of the lighter liquids by imposing a suitable pressure in a downward direction upon the mass of soil under treatment whereby said lighter structural liquids are virtually floated to desired positions 5 in the mass; 2. The natural tendency of these lighter liquids to.gradually find suitable positions in 'the mass by reason of capillary attraction and/or adhesion and other natural forces.
Structural liquids referred to herein shall be taken to mean water and/or road oil or any combination of these liquids or emulsions thereof or combinations of any other liquids :capable of being used in road construction.
3 An object of my invention is to provide a machine for practicing the method aforementioned in a single operation.
A further object is to provide a machine which will insure retention of the original contour lines 4 of the top surface of the road.
A still further object is to provide an exceedingly compact machine adapted to be pulled by any suitable well known form of power unit, such as a tractor.
Another object is to provide a machine having a running gear the form of which will enable the machine to turn in short working spaces.
Another object is to provide a machine having a running gear in which the tread surface of a novel arrangement of supporting wheels will effectively sustain the load of the machine and enable the machine to be quickly transported with a minimum of road resistance and friction and, therefore, with a minimum of power.
M Another.object is to provide a machine in which certain at least of the supporting wheels of the running gear will co-act with a leveling or smoothing roll to insure uniform smoothing and satisfactory leveling of the top surface of the road. Another object is to provide a machine having means to positively insure burial of rocks and other hard objectionable objects beneath the top surface of the soil under treatment and thereby permit the top surface to be smooth finished. Another object is to provide a machine having means for selectively distributing ballast along the superstructure of the machine so that the machine will be nicely balanced and the soil penetration inplements maintained in operative relationship to the soil.
Another object is to [provide a machine whereby certain operations can be conducted in such sequence that when the machine shall have moved away from an immediately preceding worked section of the soil, said section will have been fully prepared and will be ready to have imposed thereon normal traffic.
Another object of the invention is to provide a machine in which practically all of the working A or soil penetrating implements are mounted upon a frame which is adjustable vertically relative to a draft frame, whereby said implements can be made to penetrate the soil to any.depth within a maximum range provided for. *0 Another object of the invention is the provision of a machine employing a main wheeled frame and a vertically adjustable implement carrying frame, each of said frames having its own draft connection, the two said connectiuns serving to insure an even line of pull upon .said frames, the connection for the vertically adjustable frame being disposed and constructed to enable the steering wheels of the main frame to be operatively steered during transportation of th machine when the implement carrying frame is in :a raised position of adjustment.
Another object of the invention is the use of a machine including an implement carrying '4 frame by means of which operations in the following sequence can be conducted: 1. An operation which consists of distributing water upon the top surface of the soil to soften the soil and render it readily susceptible to the action of others of the implements employed; 2. An operation consisting in supplying the soil with water and/or oil or other structural liquids while imposing weight upon the soil penetrating and liquid injecting implements to there- M by maintain said implements in operative working positions; 3. An operation which includes planing the top surface of the soil as a final operation, except in cases where it may be desired to further treat the top surface.
A still further object of the invention resides in the provision of a machine whereby controlled portions of structural liquids can be distributed to the soil over a predetermined lateral area of the soil.
A still further object of the invention resides in the provision of a machine in which practically all essential adjustments of the implements can be controlled from the operator's platform at the rear of the machine.
I wish to make it clear that wherever mention is made herein of the use of oil and water or water and any other road building liquid or liquids this shall mean use separately of these various liquids; use thereof as an emulsion; or use thereof in any combination desired.
Another object of the invention resides in an exceedingly novel form of running gear in which the rear wheels thereof are formed to provide road smoothing and pressing surfaces in coaction with a trailing roll of suitable form to impose weight upon the soil throughout the transverse area of the part or section being completed.
Another object is to provide a running gear in which the rear wheels are characterized as aforementioned and are otherwise formed to enable said smoothing and pressing surfaces to be elevated above the ground wheh the machine is not in use and is being transported.
Another object of the invention is to provide a machine in which an implement carrying frame is provided with shoes adapted to occupy positions laterally of the area of the soil being treated and disposed to enable operations of the machine to be observed by the operator at the rear platform.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will unfold themselves as the description and drawings are better understood, in which drawings Figure 1 is a top plan view of the machine; Figure 2 is a view in side elevation thereof; Figure 3 is a section taken on line 3-3 of Figure 2; Figure 4 is a view of a portion of the front axle of the main frame showing the manner in which the draft cable is centered and confined in a relatively fixed position at the bearing element for the pivot stem of the front axle; Figure 5 is a vertical section taken on the line 5-5 of Figure 2 and looking in the direction of the arrows; Figure 6 is a vertical section of the swiveled liquid outlet of one of the tanks employed; Figure 7 is a horizontal sectional view taken substantially on the line 7-7 of Figure 2; Figure 8 is a view on a somewhat enlarged scale of the parts shown in Figure 7; Figure 9 is a vertical section through the screw supports for the adjusting means of the implement carrying means; Figure 10 is a view in section, with parts in full lines, of a sleeve valve for controlling the feeding of liquid to the elements from which the liquid is to be conducted to the soil; Figure 11 is a detail view in vertical section through one of the angle bars of the implement carrying frame taken on line 11-11 of Figure 7; Figure 12 is a view in top plan similar to the form of the invention shown in Figure 1, and illustrating certain modifications; Figure 13 is a view in side elevation of a portion of the machine shown in Figure 12; Figure 14 is a transverse sectional view of one of the agitating and depositing elements shown in Figure 12.
In carrying the invention into practice, and with particular reference to the form shown in Figures 1 to 11, inclusive, use is made of a main frame 20 consisting of longitudinal channel bars 21, the forward ends of which are relatively converging and terminate at 22 along a line which is central of the frame. At the rear ends, said frame bars are extended laterally to provide portions 23, terminating in short rearward extensions 24, the said portions 23 and 24 of said frame bars serving as a support for an operator's platform 25. It is from this platform that practically all adjustments of the implement carrying frame can be made in a manner to be described presently.
At the rear of said main frame 21 are supporting wheels 26 each provided with an inner wheel proper 27 which may be faced at its periphery with a pneumatic tire or the like, and at the outside of said wheel proper is an annular band or roller section 28. the external diameter of which is less than the external diameter of the tire of the wheel proper, the purpose therefor to be explained as the description progresses.
At the front of the main frame 21 is a hollow bearing post 29 through which the vertical post 30 of the steering axle 31 extends. The axle 31 is provided with supporting wheels 32 preferably equipped with pneumatic or other suitable tires 33.
Overlying the main frame 21 is a somewhat smaller or shorter frame 34, the same being 4o spaced apart from the underlying frame 21 by suitable truss members 35. The forward ends of the respective side bars of the frame 34 are connected with the upper end of the hollow member 29 in which the vertical post of the axle can turn @4 as aforementioned. Mounted upon the frame 34 are liquid holding tanks 36 and 37, one of which may contain oil and the other water or, if desired, one or even both thereof may contain an emulsion of these liquids. It will be noted that ' these tanks are mounted between blocks 38 on the side bars of the frame 34, said blocks being equipped with angle straps 39 (Fig. 5), having short flanges 40 in which adjustment retaining bolts 41 are mounted and adated to be brought ý5 into clamping relation to adjacent surfaces of the frame bar of which said blocks are a part.
In view of this construction, it follows that either one or both of said tanks can be adjusted longitudinally so that the weight of the tank and its B contents can be employed as a shiftable ballast, thus contributing weight to the smoothing roller of the machine sufficient to impose intended pressure upon the soil.
Located beneath the main frame 21 and dis- 6 posed toward the front end of said frame is an implement carrying frame 42. This frame is substantially of a V-form and includes side members each consisting of parallel channel bars 43, 43, which are suitably spaced apart from each other and connected together by transverse straps 44. The side members thus formed are connected to provide a rigid structure by transverse bars 44a, 45 and 46. Mounted on the implement carrying frame and disposed in longitudinal alinement with each other are universal joints 47, each including an element 49 having a vertical cylindrical stem 50 adapted to move vertically in guides 51 mounted upon the frame 21. The. upper ends of the stems 50 are provided with worm screw portions ,52 which are received in worm gear nuts. 53. swiveled at 54 at the upper ends of the guides 5 . The said worm gear nuts are in constant mesh with worm screws 10l 55 at the forward ends of respective rods 56 journaled for rotation in the rear truss member 35 in front of the operator's platform 25 and are provided with manually actuable wheels 57 for transferring motion to the gears 55 and, in turn, to the worm gear nuts 53 and thereby impart vertical movement to the stems 50. It is in this manner that the implement carrying frame can be adjusted vertically to any desired position within the range provided for. It may 20%. be incidentally mentioned at this point that when the implement carrying frame is fully adjusted In an upward direction the implements of the frame will entirely clear the surface of the roadway.
The aforementioned bars 45 and 46 constitute 25:.: parts of the implement carrying frame and are extended laterally beyond the respective sides of the machine as shown in Figure 1, and same are connected by suitable bars 58. Suspended from the bars 58 by adjusting screws 59 are longi30W tudinal runners 60, the screws serving to permit these runners to be adjusted vertically relative to the implement carrying frame. These screws also function to determine the extent of downward movement of the implement carrying frame 3to thereby limit the extent of penetration of the liquid distributing elements . Mounted in brackets 61 at the extreme ends of the runners 60 are wheels 52, provided upon their peripheral faces with rubber tires, the same adapted to; roll upon the surface of the soil. In order to accelerate movement of the feed screws 50, there is disposed between the frame 21 and the implement carrying frame a suitable retractile spring 63, the same serving to effect an upward lift of the implement carrying frame when the screws are turned to effect upward adjustment of said frame.
In front of the implement carrying frame are rearwardly diverging disk gangs 64, 64, and same are mounted at 65 for vertical adjustment in order that the depth of penetration of the disks can be regulated. Any suitable well-known adjusting means can be provided for this purpose.
The disks of each of the gangs are each set'at an angle to cut a furrow in the soil and to throw 5, the soil inwardly. In other words, the forms of these disks are such that soil cut by one thereof will be thrown into the furrow cut by the next adjacent disk. We can assume that the tank 37 contains water and that by means of a flexible 0i:.hose 66 leading from the tank water in controlled amounts can be conducted through pipe 67 to manifolds 68 for discharge in back of the disks from short distributing pipes 69. To allow for vertical adjustment of the disk gangs 6u the manifolds 68 are connected together by a fitting 70 having a control valve 71, and from said fitting there is extended a length of flexible tubing 72 which is removably connected by a coupling 73 to the valved branch 74 of pipe 67. 70,. Instead of connecting the manifolds with the tank 31, the hose 72 may be uncoupled from the branch pipe 74 and connected with- a wheeled supply tank which may be coupled to the machine so as to follow behind same. Water conducted 7i, to, the disks.may be applied to. the crust of the soil to assist in softening same, as a preliminary step, or before the implement carrying frame is lowered for effective penetration of its implements into the soil, hence the provision of means 65 aforestated which enables the disk gangs to be adjusted independently of the implement carrying frame. It is to be understood, however, that said disk gangs are also intended to coact with other implements and their association relative thereto will be explained hereinafter. Liquid distributing pipes or manifolds 75 are secured to the side members of the implement carrying frame 42 beneath the straps 44 and same are in communication with each other at their front ends through a fitting 76 to, which a hose section 77 is connected, the same coupled to a, pipe 78, a small portion of which is shown in Figure 2. This pipe, in turn, leads to the liquid supply tank 36 through a flexible hose 79.
The hose 86 or the hose 79, depending upon which of the tanks 36 or 37 is being used, is coupled at O8 with a compressor 81, whereby forced delivery of the liquid can be effected. The compressor is mounted upon the platform 25 and may be driven by a suitable motor 82, also mounted on said platform.
The manifolds 75 are provided with sliding sleeve valves 83, ported at 84 for controlled registration with delivery pipes 85, the same leading into the manifolds. These delivery pipes run to respective vertically adjustable harrow teeth 86 and plows 87. The lower ends of the pipes 85 are disposed directly above substantially horizontal flanges 87a of combined shields and baffle members 88 secured to the respective harrow teeth and plows 87, whereby to effect a lateral spreading of the liquid and prevent clogging of the pipes. The sleeve valves 83 are operatively connected by control rods 89 with operating levers 90 of the conventional quadrants 9 a herein illustrated. It is in this manner that the valves can be manually adjusted to regulate the discharge of the liquid from said manifolds.
In back of the implement carrying frame 42 and hung from the main frame 20 is a road scraper 91, the same having an intermediate straight section 92 extending parallel to the axis of the rear wheels 26 and forwardly diverging end wings 93.
In back of the rear wheels 26 is a transverse roller 94 journaled to turn freely in bearing boxes 94a which are slidable vertically in guide brackets 95 which depend from the sides of said main frame 20. Said boxes may be moved vertically by adjusting screws 95a as shown in Figure 3, 55. said screws having bevel gears 98 which mesh with driving gears 97 on a counter shaft 98.
One of the screws is extended to a desired elevation above the platform 25 and is provided with a crank handle 99 adapted to be manually 60' operated so that adjusting motion can be transferred to the boxes 94a to raise and lower said roller 94.
Each of the tanks 36 or 37 is provided with a swiveled outlet pipe 100 having a vertical liquid intake leg 10Oa disposed in the tank and provided at its lower end with a weight 10 1 by means of which the lower end of said intake leg 100a will be constantly held in a vertical position.
The pipe 100 includes a short horizontal section 70., 102 mounted to turn in a suitable stuffing box 103 in the adjacent end wall of the tank.
At the front of the main frame 20 is a clevis 104 adapted to be attached to the draft bar 105 of a tractor. .At the front end-of the implement.,1T, carrying frame 42 is a draft connection 106 adapted also to be attached to the tractor. Said connection 106 is disposed in line with the longitudinal center of the frame 42, and same is threaded through the eye 107 of the front axle 31.
In practice, the machine is used as follows: The surface of the soil, depending upon the condition thereof, is first sprayed with water in sufficient quantity to soften the top crust. The water may be applied by an ordinary sprinkling machine, but in some instances it is preferable that it be accomplished by the spray pipes 69 behind the disks 64. Assuming that it is done in this way, the implement carrying frame 42 is raised to 156 entirely clear the teeth 86 and the shares !07a of the plows 87 from the ground. The disks 64 are then sufficiently lowered to enable same to penetrate the ground to an intended depth, at which time the machine can be propelled over the 20' ground to harrow same and incorporate in the soil the desired amount of water for softening purposes of the soil.
After the top soil is moistened, as aforesaid, and the moisture has set for a sufficient period of time, the implement carrying frame may be lowered to effect penetration of the harrow teeth 86 and said shares 107a to the intended depth in the soil. The disk 64 can be lowered to penetrate the ground to a predetermined depth above the depth of penetration by the teeth 88 and said shares 107a. Any desired form of road building liquid, such as water and/or oil or the like, can now be fed behind said teeth and said shares, and also behind the disks 84 for saturating the soil to such extent as may be necessary in view of its nature, texture and general character. If but one of the tanks 36 or 37 is used, the hose leading therefrom may be connected with the compressor for forced delivery of the liquid to the manifolds 75 and 68. Should it not be desired to convey liquid behind the disks 64, the hose 72 may be disconnected from the pipe 74 and the branch 74a of the T-connection 74b of the pipe stopped in any suitable manner, such as by plug46 ging same, thus compelling the liquid to pass only to the manifolds 75. Substantially a like operation can be performed should it be desired to prevent passage of liquid to the manifolds 15 and direct same only to the manifolds 68 of said disk gangs.
It is understood, of course, that the effective extent of penetration of the teeth 86 and the shares of plows 87 will be determined by a predetermined adjustment of the runners or shoes 60 relative to the frame 42. When the machine is set to operate as last stated, the shoes 60 will travel squarely upon the surface of the soil laterally of the area being actually worked. The disks 64 will harrow the soil and throw same inwardly, Swith the result, incident to the angles at which the gangs are set, that the soil loosened by one disk of the gang of which it is a part will be thrown into the furrow formed by the next ad5 jacent disk of the same gang. This action of the disk gangs is followed by the plows 87 and harrow teeth 86, the plows being so set relative to each other and being of a form that will completely rip the soil for the intended depth and thoroughly saturate same with liquid. With the soil prepared and saturated as aforestated, same will next be leveled and prepared for the pressing thereof by the roller 94 and the co-acting roller sections 28 of the rear wheels of the maSchine and same will be sufficiently condensed as to render the road thus formed in a single operation fit for immediate use.
The form of my invention shown in Figures 12 to 14, inclusive, is substantially the same as the form first described. As to the parts that are the same structurally and functionally the same reference characters will be used to designate same. In this form, and in lieu of the plows 87, I employ plows 200 arranged in pairs, and provided with shares 201 for turning the soil in the direction of the center line of travel of the machine. The plows of the respective pairs employed are disposed at graduated distances apart, so that the greatest distance between any two oppositely disposed plows is at the rear and in front of a substantially V-shaped scraper 201a.
Each of these plows is provided with a rearwardly disposed rake 202 and as shown, the rakes of each pair of said plows are disposed in V-formation. The inner ends of the rakes of the front pair of plows are closely related to each other, whereas the inner ends of the rearmost pairs are spaced apart from each other. The rakes are of corresponding lengths, and because of the manner in which they are mounted, it follows that at each side of the longitudinal center of the machine there will be provided a diagonal row of rakes, the rakes of each said row being staggered or stepped with respect to each other and disposed with respect to the shares of the plows 200 to cause stones or clods and heavy objects to be raked into the furrows formed by said shares, and to be well sprayed with the liquid preparatory to being covered beneath the top soil. Dirt passing through the teeth of the rakes will thus be prepared throughout the transverse area of the soil being treated, whereby the top surface of the soil will be cleared of objectionable objects for final surfacing thereof. In back of the scraper 201a is a mechanism 203 for converting the top soil into a substantially mobile or fully workable structural mix in which substantially all particles of soil will be thoroughly impregnated with structural liquid preparatory to imposing the loads of the roller 94 and surfaces 28 thereon. This mechanism consists of a hollow fixed shaft 204 supported in brackets'205. in a frame 206, the latter formed for vertical adjustment and hung from the main frame 21, one end of which has a liquid feed pipe 206a, valved at 207 and tapped into the 60 liquid supply pipe of the tank 36 or 37, as shown at 208. Mounted to revolve on the shaft 204 is a sleeve 209, the same provided with mixing and liquid distributing members, each provided with an annular series of teeth 210. The teeth are 55' slightly curved in a longitudinal direction and the nose ends 211 thereof are sharp pointed and case hardened for effective penetration of the soil.
The lower portion of the shaft 204 is provided with ports 2 3 which successively register with ports 212 in the teeth 2 10 during rotation of the sleeve 209. Said ports 212 open at their outer ends onto spreaders or baffle elements 213a at the convex faces of said teeth. A motor 214 is em-,5 ployed for turning the sleeve 209 in a clockwise direction, a power transmitting means, such as the chain drive 215 being employed for conveying power to the sleeve from said motor. The feed pipe 206a at one end of shaft 204 may consist of a suitable length of flexible hose 206a, as herein illustrated. This is necessary in order that the shaft 204 may be raised and lowered as desired. Therefore, the frame structure 200 which supports said shaft is likewise of an extensible construction, as shown, and is hung from the main frame 20.
It follows, from what has been stated, that after liquid has been introduced into the soil at the predetermined depth or depths by the implements of the frame 42, the top soil will finally be converted into a road mix by reason of the rotary liquid distributing and soil stirring and agitating elements 210 immediately preparatory to imposing the weight of the roller 94 and surfaces 28 thereon. When the roller 94 and said surfaces 28 contact the top soil pre-treated as just mentioned, said top soil will be in a freshly wetted or saturated condition whereby it will be freely susceptible to the action of these pressure surfaces and effectively condensed thereby and the top soil well sealed off and made moisture repellant.
In order to preserve the intended or desired contour of the road, the machine may be provided with any suitable form of grader blade supplemental to the blade 91, and same can be disposed at any suitable location upon the machine or, if desired, it may form a separate implement to be controlled by the machine or to follow same.
While I have shown a machine adapted to be drawn by a separate trailing vehicle, it is to be understood that the machine may be equipped with its own power plant in order that it may be self-propelled.
A feature of the invention which I desire to particularly emphasize is the manner in which the liquid can be discharged beneath the surface of the soil by means of the harrow teeth 86 and their co-acting liquid discharge pipes, and the means consisting of the plows 87 and their associated liquid discharge pipes, whereby liquid can be discharged into the furrows cut by the shares of these plows. A further feature which I wish to particularly stress is the manner in which the liquid delivered to each one of the soil penetrating implements will be spread over a very large lateral area. In this connection, it will be noted that the specific spacing of the plows as shown in Figure 7 and the harrow teeth 86 will provide for an effective lateral distribution of the liquid substantially throughout the transverse area being treated.
What is claimed is: 1. A road building machine including a portable draft frame, a pair of frame bars spaced vertically therefrom, a plurality of pairs of spaced blocks mounted on and movable longitudinally of said frame bars, clamping means on said blocks and operatively related to said bars for securing the blocks in various positions of adjustment with respect to the bars, a liquid tank of substantial size mounted on said frame bars between the respective pairs of said blocks and readily movable therewith to provide a ballast for insuring stability of the machine when operating.
2. In a road building machine and in combination, a portable draft frame, a pair of frame bars spaced vertically therefrom, a plurality of pairs of spaced blocks mounted on and movable longitudinally with respect to said frame bars, clamping means on said blocks and operatively related to said bars for securing the blocks in various positions of adjustment longitudinally of the bars, a liquid tank of substantial size mounted on said frame bars between the respective pairs of said blocks and readily movable therewith to provide a ballast for insuring stability of the machine when operating, an implement carrying frame suspended from said draft frame, and liquid distributing means having operative connection with said liquid tank for delivering liquid therefrom to the soil beneath the surface thereof and adjacent the implements on said carrying frame.
3. A road building machine including a portable draft frame having a liquid tank mounted to be readily shifted fore and aft of the frame and being of a substantial size to thus provide a ballast to insure stability of the machine when operating; an implement carrying frame having a plurality of implements mounted, thereon in substantially V-shaped formation suspended from the portable draft frame and including means having operative connection with the liquid tank for delivering liquid to the soil beneath the surface thereof adjacent said implements; and a compressor for imposing a positive pressure upon the liquid to force discharge thereof from said liquid delivering means.
4. A road building machine including a portable frame; a vertically adjustable implement carrying frame suspended from the portable frame; and means mounted on and movable relatively with respect to said carrying frame for gauging the position of the implement carrying frame relative to the ground surface, said means including a ground engaging member adapted to travel over the ground surface when the implement frame is in a position of predetermined adjustment.
5. A road building machine including a portable frame having an operator's platform, a vertically adjustable implement carrying frame suspended from the portable frame, means for adjusting the implement carrying frame from the operator's platform; and means engageable with the ground mounted on said carrying frame and relatively movable with respect thereto for predetermining the extent of downward adjustment of the implement carrying frame.
HELEN INGALLS CROWDER. 60