Title:
Apparatus for making dental records
United States Patent 2185508


Abstract:
This invention relates to an apparatus for making dental records. The principal object is to provide an apparatus for recording by several views in a single scale the essential characteristic features of the lower half of a human face Sand dentitia thereof for use in making dental repairs or...



Inventors:
Kunze, Albert J.
Application Number:
US19372738A
Publication Date:
01/02/1940
Filing Date:
03/03/1938
Assignee:
Kunze, Albert J.
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
355/40, 396/315, 396/335
International Classes:
A61B6/14
View Patent Images:



Description:

This invention relates to an apparatus for making dental records. The principal object is to provide an apparatus for recording by several views in a single scale the essential characteristic features of the lower half of a human face Sand dentitia thereof for use in making dental repairs or restorations.

Another object is to provide a camera apparatus, which is especially adapted for making photographic records of profile, front and angular viwes of a person's face or teeth, all In the same scale.

Other objects include the provision of a simple means for identifying the subject at the time of making the photographic record, and in a manner that will avoid improper use of the record as by confusion of the front and reverse sides of a film in reading or printing it.

A further specific object is to provide a simple device by which templates may be derived for use in making or checking dental repair appliances subsequent to the occurrence of material alteration of the dentitia of a patient.

Other objects will become apparent from the following discussion and detailed description of the apparatus. The essential characteristics of the apparatus are summarized in the claims.

The dental records above mentioned are principally to assist in the making of -whole or partial dental restorations or dentures, with the view to following more closely the dentitia provided by nature. In other w rds, the pictures proposed to be taken are to serve as a scientific record of the condition and characteristics of the face and teeth before extractions are made or repairs to the teeth are effected, so that if at any later time, one or any number of the teeth are lost or become worn or injured, a satisfactory restoring appliance, both from esthetic and functional viewpoints, can be made. The invention is designed largely to eliminate guess-work in the matter of making dental repairs and restorations; having in mind that usually the technical work such as the building of dentures, plates, braces, etc., is done in a laboratory by persons who do not have an opportunity to observe the patient at any time.

It is contemplated that four views shall be taken of the patient before any extractions or repairs are made, and that these pictures be made on the same piece of material such as a plate or film, to avoid mistakes in identification.

With such pictures, the dentist can more properly instruct the laboratory technician and the 5 latter is enabled to proceed in such fashion tha the features of the patient will not be appreciably altered in wearing the appliance made, and, so that the appliance can be worn with ease and will function properly. This avoids teeth being set by the dental laboratory technician in a stereotyped manner. In other words, with such records before him, the technician will readily observe variations from more or less standard patterns and be guided by the photographs to the end that individual treatment will be given each individual case. Moreover, a great deal of both the patient's and dentist's time can be saved in final fittings.

In addition to assisting dentists and laboratory men in following more closely the provisions of nature in the mater of dentitia, the records can be used to indicate response of oral tissues to medical or surgical treatment over a period of time; to record the movement of teeth, i. e. migration, and changes in supporting structures in orthodontic cases, and for identification of individuals. On the latter point, identification by means of teeth and lower facial structure is very likely to be accurate because nature does not produce any two sets of teeth exactly alike. Referring briefly to the drawings, Fg. 1 is a perspective view showing one form of the apparatus by which the present method can be carried out; Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sectional view thereof, taken substantially along the line 2-2 on Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a face view of a print showing a series of pictures taken on the same film or plate, by means of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 4 is a perspective view showing another form of apparatus for carrying out the method, and Fg. 5 is a detail sectional view thereof as indicated by the line 5-5 on Fig. 4.

Referring further to the drawings, Fig. 1 shows a camera apparatus in the form of a light-proof rectangular box, having generally closed front, rear and connecting walls. The lens equipment is supported on a front wall I, and any suitable plate or film support may be provided near the rear wall of the camera,--for instance, the usual slide 2. The interior of the box is divided longitudinally into four substantially equal parts by a four-way cross-partition structure 3. Thus, a film or plate 5 in the slide 2 faces four different light-proof enclosures, and, in the case of using an eight by ten inch film, the dividers and side walls of the camera arrange for the exposure of four separate "frames" or rectangular film portions each approximately four by five inches.

The front wall I of the camera box is prot, vided with four equally spaced openings 7, and 65 these are arranged respectively to register wit] a lens and shutter device 8, carried for example on a circular plate 9 in four differently turne( positions of the plate. By turning the plate 1 one space at a time, one can expose the fotu portions of film, each exclusively of the othen as will readily be apparent.

A suitable mounting for the lens-supportinE plate 9, as shown in ig. 2, may comprise a cen. tral hollow post 10, having a portion II whict extends through the wall I, in order that it ma3 be secured in fixed position, as by a nut 12 inside the box. The post has an enlargement o0 flange 13 adjacent and abutting the plate 9, and 16 the latter is flanged inwardly toward the wall I as at 14 adjacent an outer flange of a disc 15, secured to said wall, principally to obstruct outside light. The plate 9 can be turned by hand on the post 10 to the various positions necessary to register the lens and shutter with the openings 7 in the front wall. The disc 15 has of course four apertures aligning with respective openings 7.

The post 10, in addition to serving as a support for the rotatable disc 9, also carries, centrally of it a source of illumination for the subject. This, as shown, comprises an incandescent lamp 15, seated in a suitable socket formation of the post 10, and provided with a combined guard and reflector 16, preventing light from the bulb from shining directly into the lens, and which serves to illuminate the subject in any of the positions of such subject to be later referred to. Current may be supplied to the lamp through the hollow interior of the post 10, as by a cord IT, passing through a suitable grommet 18 in the bottom of the box and another grommet 19 in a conical shell 20, surrounding the nut 12.

In order definitely to locate the lens with respect to the openings 7, a flange 22 may be associated with the lens and shutter assembly, which flange has a notch 23 adapted to be engaged by spring detents 24, appropriately located adjacent each.of the openings 7, for engagement with the notch.

46 The means for locating the subject and identifying his or her photograph in the case of using a four-position camera, such as shown in Fg. 1, are preferably arranged as follows: Extending forwardly from the front wall I of the camera are a plurality of relatively stiff bars, five of such bars being shown, which are interconnected at their outer ends by subject-locating members, principally in the nature of frames for the face of the subject. As illustrated at the upper part of ig. 2, 56 the bars 25 may be secured to the wall I, as by shoulders 27 on the bars abutting the outer face of the wall, shank portion 27' extending through the wall, and nuts 26 on the shank portions.

The subject-locating means on the outer ends of the bars 25 preferably includes vertical members 28 and horizontal members 29, which connect the ends of various ones of the bars together, and Preferably lie in a common plane, which is normal to the axis of the camera lens. The bars 25 may, of course, be additionally interconnected intermediately of-the members 28 and 29, and the front wall of the camera, by cross bracing arranged in any desired manner.

When the subject is located opposite one of the positions of the lens (position of subject indicated in part by broken line A) a profile picture is taken and the subject-positioning means for such picture includes a projection 30 extending from one of the vertical members 28 in the common plane of the members 28 and 29. The subject Is placed 1 with the lower portion of the face substantially within the frame area A and with the median Splane of the face lying substantially in the plane i of the members 28 and 29. The subject's nose is r brought into contact with.the free end of the proSjection 30, and the result of exposing the film through the lens is a picture, a print of which is Srepresented in the area A' in ig. 3; This will be later referred to more in detail.

L Additional pictures, indicated on the print 5a, S(Fg. 3) at B', C' and D' are taken with the subject positioned by the rectangular frame effects formed by the members 28 and 29 at B, C and D, respectively (Fig. 1) as will herein be more fully described. In one of the subject-positions, preferably that which is directly below position A, there is a detachable card 31 which may carry (facing the camera, hence not shown in Fig. 1) the name of the subject, the name of the dentist in charge of '0 his or her work, and the date of taking the record.

The photographic record of such card is shown at 31' on the print, ig. 3. The mounting for the card 31 may comprise channel-shaped sheetmetal members 32 adapted slidably to receive the vertical edges of the card, and fastened to the framework in any suitable way.

In order to expose the various areas of the film or plate, the subject stands with his or her face adjacent one of the frames B, C or D, or may stand with the tip of the nose resting against the forward side of the projection 30 (position A); presenting the profile (right side) to the lens. In the latter event, the picture to be exposed will be substantially that shown on the area A', ig. 3. 3e In each position the lower face portion of the subject will be substantially the same distance from the lens and directly in front of it. Preferably, this distance is substantially twice the focal length of the lens, and the film is positioned the same distance behind the lens. When different 40 subjects place their faces against the bars which make up the locating frames B, C and D, the faces of such different subjects will naturally project different distances into each frame. However, the actual pictures taken will be full size and the picture A' will serve as a reference chart to correct any slight discrepancies of the other pictures in the matter of scale. The dentist or technician can use the pictures for reference, substantially as well as he could the patient insofar as external g0 appearances of the dentitia and facial characteristics are concerned.

Because of the particular lens and negative relatiorlship described above the images on the negative are inverted. However, the four different fields of exposures on the negative are not inverted. For viewing or printing, the negative is simply inverted in its own plane, bringing the figures right-side-up. Thus, the profile view A' in the print, Fig. 3, is at the lower right, instead of at the upper left as would have been the case had all the different pictures been taken at once through a single lens.

Referring further to the profile view (AW, Pig. 00 3), this is taken with the teeth together in centric occlusion. The picture records the distance between the jaws in function, and is invaluable when all the teeth have been lost or where the teeth have been worn, so that it is necessary to open the bite. Whenever either of these conditions occurs, the face of the profile view of a contact print from the film may be carefully cut off, as with scissors, and what is left, i. e. the paper beyond the actual picture of the subject, may be Is used as a template to ascertain the proper dis- 4 tance between the jaws by fitting the edge of the s template into contact with the face at the median t line thereof, and having the patient adjust the s lower jaw to the template. a The picture B' is a front view of the lower half i of the face, with the lips slightly separated. This is extremely valuable when all the teeth have been i lost, and has two principal functions. It showshow the lips stretch themselves over the teeth and t jaws. Especially important is the recording of the prominence and general contour. The lips, being slightly separated, show the amount of tooth structure exposed in relaxed position of the mouth and lips. This facilitates placing the occlusal plane in the proper position, thus offering to the dentist or technician a better opportunity to secure proper fittings, without having the patient available, and with greater speed. The picture C' is a front view, taken with the aid of lip retractors, and with the teeth in end-toend occlusion. This is primarily for esthetics.

It shows the size, shape or mold and position of all the teeth that show in the extreme lip movement. It records stains and fractures in the enamel, fillings, mechanical and developmental defects. If all that appears in the picture is duplicated in the bridge work or platework, the bridge or plate is almost certain to satisfy the 80 patient from an esthetic viewpoint.

The picture D' is a front view, using lip retractors, and made with the head thrown well back, so that the incisal edges of the teeth are toward the camera. Aside from its esthetic w value, the view aids in showing the position of the upper teeth relative to each other and to the lower teeth and especially shows the amount of over-jet or over-bite of the upper teeth. As previously noted, the identification card is photographed as part of the picture D'.

Referring now to Fig. 4, this shows a box camera 40, having a single lens 41, and a film support at the back of it at 42 adapted to carry a roll of film preferably having sufficient length to expose four full-sized pictures. For instance, the individual "frames" can be 31/4 inches by 51/2 inches, which is a standard size at the present time. As in the previous arrangement, the distance from the lens to the film is twice the focal length of the lens, and the positioning framework for the face of the subject is an equal distance forwardly from the lens.

As shown in Fig. 4, two relatively stiff bars 44 are carried on the camera box in a manner already described. At the outer ends, the bars 44 have bosses 45 in which a generally rectangular frame 46 is pivoted. The frame 46 may comprise a horizontal bar 47, parallel vertical members 48 and lower aligned but disconnected members 49. The upper horizontal bar 47 has its ends extended as at 50 for engagement with bearing openings in the enlargements 45. In Fig. 5, an extension 50 of the frame 46 is shown with an abutment device 51, adapted to be turned in a circumferential enlargement 52 exactly 180 degrees, the projection 51 serving as a limit stop against opposite end wall surfaces 53 of the enlargement 52.

For holding the frame 46 in the two turned positions enabled by the stops 51, one of the enlargements 45 may carry a thumb screw 56 adapted to engage the adjacent extension 50 of the frame.

At one end of the frame 46 there is mounted an identification card 56, as on slide memhbers 57, TS or simply slots in the respective members 47 and 9, as desired; and this identifies each of the ections of film on the roll which are exposed hrough the frame 46, so that in the. event such ections are later taken apart for development ind printing, all the pictures will carry the same dentification.

The manner in which the face of the subject s located by the lower portion of the frame 46 will be apparent, in view of the previous descripion. In taking the picture corresponding to the view D' of Fig. 3, the subject has adequate chin clearance by reason of the separated ends 49.

When the frame 46 is inverted into the broken line position shown, this brings a projection 60, corresponding in function to the projection 30 of the previously described arrangement into the field of the camera; the remaining parts of the frame being moved out of the field. The camera may be turned on its side-that is, turned 2 ninety degrees counter-clockwise from the position shown in Fig. 4,-for taking the profile; and the subject holds his or her nose against the free end of the projection 60 presenting the right side of the face to the camera. The profile view can also be identified by using a card 62 in a supporting slideway 63, or the card 56 can be transferred from the slideway 57 into the slide 63, as desired.

It will be seen that with the four pictures to work from, standards of accuracy, esthetics and function in the making of partial and full restorations of all kinds can be greatly raised. The operation can be performed without having to call in the patient as often as now necessary. It should be borne in mind that nature has selected 85 teeth and their positions for each individual with great care, so that the greatest amount of harmony is naturally present. The best the dentist can do is to reproduce what nature originally gave the patient. The records herein described greatly assist the dentist in reproducing and repairing 4 natural dentitia with accuracy and speed and practically guarantees the patient a bridge or denture which will closely approximate his or her own natural teeth. Moreover, different portions of the photographs can be used, as mentioned above, as templates in checking the work against natural facial and dental characteristics when these are no longer available for observation, as explained above.

I claim: 1. An apparatus for making dental records, comprising a camera, a holder for a negative positioned twice the focal length of the camera lens from such lens and an open frame carried by the camera, adapted to position the lower portion of the face of a subject an equivalentdistance from the camera lens so that photographs taken of the subject will be full size, whereby such photographs can be utilized as patterns in making accurately restorative whole or partial dentures and dental repairs.

2. An apparatus for -making dental records, comprising a camera and an open frame of rods carried by the camera and projecting a predetermined distance from the camera lens, forwardly thereof, and having positioning means adapted to contact with the face of a patient to hold the lower part of the face in registration with the camera lens, whereby a plurality of photographs of the patient's mouth region can be taken in the same scale.

3. An apparatus for making dental records, comprising a camera and frame therefor, said camera having a lens that is adjustable into a plurality of different positions on the frame, and a rigid open frame projecting a predetermined distance from the camera lens forwardly thereof and having locating members for the face of the patient all substantially in a common plane which extends transversely of the lens axis and disposed opposite respective positions of the lens, whereby different photographs of the face can be taken in the same scale on a single plate or film. 4. An apparatus for making dental records, comprising a camera and frame therefor, said camera having a lens that is adjustable about a fixed center into a plurality of different positions on the frame, a rigid open framework projecting a predetermined distance from the camera lens forwardly thereof and having locating members for the face of the patient opposite each position of the lens, and a source of illumination for the subject located on said center whereby the subject can be illuminated in each position and a series of photographs thereof made on a single plate or film.

5. An apparatus for making dental records, comprising a camera having a lens which is adjustable into a plurality of positions, a framework extending from the camera outwardly beyond the lens and including outer frame members providing lateral and vertical locating means for the face of the subject adapted to align the subject with the lens in respective positions of it and present the subject in front view, said outer frame members including a projection extending from one of said members and adapted to engage a side portion of said face in a manner to position the profile plane of the subject in substantially the same plane as the said locating means positions the face for taking front views.

6. An apparatus for making dental records, comprising a camera and a frame therefor, said camera having a lens, a support for the lens which is adjustable into a plurality of different positions on, the frame, dividing means for the camera registering with said different positions, whereby a negative in the camera is divided into a number of frames corresponding to the number of positions of the lens, an open framework extending forwardly from the camera and comprising a plurality of bars including cross-pieces which form frames to locate the lower portion of O0 the face of the subject In. different positions relative to the camera lens, and a nose rest projecting from one of said bars to enable taking a profile photograph in one position of the lens and at a fixed distance therefrom.

7. An apparatus for making dental records, comprising a camera, a lens and a positioning frame for the subject comprising longitudinal rods carried by the camera on its forward side and transverse bars carried by the longitudinal bars at the same focal distance from the lens as is the 'sensitized plate. , 8. An apparatus for making dental records, comprising a camera and subject-locating means projecting such distance from the camera lens and so related to a negative in the camera that photographs taken of the subject when substantially adjacent said means will be full size, said means comprising rods carried by the camera and projecting forwardly from the front face thereof, and a reversible frame which is pivotally mounted on said rods at a fixed distance from the camera lens, and means to hold the frame in two positions.

9. An apparatus for making dental records, comprising a camera divided into compartments, a lens, a. rotatable carrier therefor adapted to position the lens in registration with the different compartments successively, a positioning frame for the subject comprising longitudinal bars leading from the camera, and upright and transverse cross-bars carried by the longitudinal bars at their forward ends and providing subject-engaging portions arranged in compartments corresponding in position with those of the camera.

10. An apparatus for making dental records, s3 comprising a camera divided into compartments, a lens, a rotatable carrier therefor adapted to position the lens in registration with the different compartments successively, a light and reflector carrier by the camera adjacent the center of the rotatable carrier, a positioning frame for the subject comprising longitudinal bars leading from the camera, and upright and transverse cross-bars carried by the longitudinal bars at the same focal distance from the lens as is the sensi- 4, tized plate, said cross bars providing a plurality of subject-engaging portions corresponding in position with the compartments of the camera.

ALBERT J. KUNZE. 0