Title:
Glider
United States Patent 2181326
Abstract:
This invention relates to improvements in gliders and particularly to that type of gliders adapted for spectacular purposes. The primary object of this invention is to provide a glider which may be worn by a person in addition to the parachutes usually carried upon the seat or front of a person....


Inventors:
Griffin, Alvin G.
Application Number:
US20589738A
Publication Date:
11/28/1939
Filing Date:
05/04/1938
Assignee:
Griffin, Alvin G.
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
244/138R
International Classes:
B64C33/02
View Patent Images:
Description:

This invention relates to improvements in gliders and particularly to that type of gliders adapted for spectacular purposes.

The primary object of this invention is to provide a glider which may be worn by a person in addition to the parachutes usually carried upon the seat or front of a person.

Another object of this invention is to provide a glider with wings which are detachably mounted and adapted to be dropped while gliding or descending.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a glider with wings, each of which carries a folded flare-chute which automatically opens up after the wing has been dropped.

A further object of the invention is to provide a glider which may be worn by a person and which is normally folded against the body when not in use.

A still further object of this invention is to provide a glider with hand operated controllers adapted to steer and guide the glider while gliding or descending.

Another object of the invention is to steer and guide a glider by means of rudders and ailerons which may be readily manipulated by the operator.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide the legs of the garment worn by the operator with a webbing between the legs which may be opened or joined by means of a lacing commonly known as "zipper".

Still another object of the invention is to provide stabilizers operated by the knees of the user.

Other objects of the invention are to provide a glider of the type set forth which is simple in its construction and arrangement, safe, strong, durable and efficient in its use.

To the accomplishment of these and such other objects as may hereinafter appear the invention consists of the novel construction, combination and arrangement of parts herein specificially described and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein is shown an embodiment of the invention.

In the drawings forming a portion of this specification and wherein like numerals of reference designate corresponding parts throughout the several views: Figure 1 is a general view showing a person equipped with a glider in accordance with this invention, with outspread wings.

Figure 2 is a fragmentary top view of the device.

Figure 3 is an enlarged fragmentary detail view showing one of the cone connections by means of which a wing may be disconnected from the harness.

Figure 4 shows an enlarged detail view of one of the spring-tensioned hinge connections for the wing-opening lever.

Figure 5 illustrates the hinge connection at the rear of the harness.

Figure 6 is a front view of the device, showing the wings in a collapsed or folded condition.

Figure 7 shows the method of detachably attaching the wings to the harness.

Figure 8 is an end view of Figure 7 showing the slide-plate details by means of which a wing is held in position, or by means of which a wing may be disconnected.

Figure 9 is a sectional view along line 9-9 in Figure 8, the slide-plate cover being shown in dot and dash lines. Figure 10 is a sectional view along lines 10-10 in Figure 8.

Figure 11 is a perspective view of the slideplate as used in this invention.

Figure 12 shows a fragmentary detail view of the attaching end of a wing, including the slotted cones by means of which the wing is detachably conected to the harness.

Figure 13 is a perspective view of the strut support details the struts being broken away. Figure 14 shows one of the wings attached to an opened descending flare-chute, the dot and dash lines indicate the flare-chute when in folded position.

It is a well known fact, corroborated by statistics, that wing-type gliders attached to a person have up to the present time not been successfully used for the reason that the wings become often tangled up with the main parachute generally carried and used in conjunction with gliders of that type.

It is therefore the aim of this invention to fully overcome this disadvantage by providing a glider in which the wings may be disconnected by the operator from the harness and dropped. The glider comprises a harness 20, preferably made of light weight material. This harness consists of two identical halves 21 and 22, lined with soft sponge rubber 23 or other similar material.

These halves are hingedly joined at the back by means of hinges 24.

As shown in Figures 1, 2 and 3 the said harness 20 conforms to the shape of the body of the wearer and the front is laced together by strong raw-hide laces 25, as shown. To prevent shifting of the harness 20 on the body of the wearer t shoulder straps 26 are provided. e The wings 27 are releasably attached to the c sides of the harness in a manner which will be described later. Each of said wings comprises a strut-support 28 (Figure 13) which consists i of a rounded upright bar 29 which has integral and horizontally disposed extensions 30, 31, 32 and 33 of circular cross-section. These extensions diminish gradually in length in such a manner that the longest extension 33 is on the top and the shortest extension 30 on the bottom.

Each outward end of said extensions is provided with a slot 34 adapted to hingedly attach a tubular spar 35 thereto.

The leading edge 38 of said wings 27 is usually provided with a false camber 37 reinforced by struts 38. These spars 35 and struts 38 are built up for proper airfoil lift so that they will assume 2the shape of a wing as now commonly used for aeroplanes (not shown). Of course, the present invention is not concerned with the particular well known construction and design of wings with the exception of the vital parts thereof and 2shown in the drawings.

The said wings 27 are adapted to be folded downwardly and against the body of the user in a position as shown in Figure 6 of the drawings by means of a jack-knife connection 39 shown in Figures 1 and 2, and the same comprises a bifurcated lever 40, the lower end of which being provided with a hub 41 having an aperture 42 to freely receive a pivot-pin 43 which is securely held at both ends in ears 44 preferably made integral with said strut-support 28, or otherwise.

Between the upper end of said bifurcated lever 40 is hingedly secured a lever 45 by means of a pin-connection 46, and in addition to the latter Slever 45 is also hinged at the extreme upper portion by a pin-connection 47. The lower portion of said lever 45, which reaches between the bifurcated lever opening 48, is provided with a hooked end 49 which is adapted to embrace the rod 50. This rod 50 is secured in the arms of the bifurcated lever 0G in any suitable manner.

As shown in Figures 2 and 4, the bifurcated lever 40 of said jack-knife connection 39 is spring tensioned by means of a strong spring 51 which is adapted to assist to spread the wings 27 to a position as shown in Figure 1. In folded position, these wings 27 are held together with a piece of cord (see Figure 6), the ends of which being tied together in bow-fashion to facilitate easy opening by the operator.

Each wing 27 is provided with an aileron 52 and a rudder 53, both of which may be controlled by one of the operator's hands.

The aforesaid aileron 52 is hingedly secured to the bottom spar 54 by means of suitable hinges 55 and is manipulated by rocking a handle 58 which is pivoted at 57 in brackets 58 which is secured to the leading edge 36 of said wings 27. The aileron 52 is connected to handle 56 by a piece of wire or rod 59.

The rudder 53 is rockably attached between one of the spars 35 and one of the struts 38 and may be rocked by the operator by means of a bellcrank lever 60, one leg of which serving as a handle 61 and the other leg 62 serving as a connecting member to which one end 63 of a wire or rod 6A is attached, while the other end of said wire or rod 64 is secured to a bracket 65 fastened to said rudder 53 in a manner as, for instance, shown in Figures. 1 and 2.

Referring again to Figure 1 of the drawings, he numeral 66 indicates a pair of stabilizers, ach of which being pivotally secured by means )f a pivot-bolt 67 to the lower part of the end)late 68 of said wing 27 which faces the body of ;he operator. Of course, one of said stabilizers s made right-handed and one is made leftlanded and each of said stabilizers comprises an elongated bar 69 which terminates at its lowernost end into an outwardly arched knee-support ?0. A spring 71 is provided to tension the stabilizer 6B rearwardly and against the knee of the onerator.

As previously stated, both wings 27 are detachably connected to the harness 20 in such a manner that the same can be readily disconnected therefrom at the will of the operator. This is especially desirable should he encounter distress in the air while performing which would make it necessary to use the seat-pack parachute (not shown) and in order to avoid entanglement with the latter the operator disconnects the wings from the harness 20 by means of a simple releasing mechanism, which by the way, is one of the paramount improvements herewith disclosed.

The heretofore described strut-supports 28 are securely mounted on a rectangular frame 72, of strong but light weight material, in prepared parallel grooves 73, each of the latter being adapted to partly receive the upright portion 29 of said support 28. Clasmpns .p securely hold said sup-. port on said frame 72 by means of bolts, or otherwise (Figure 13).

The side T, of said frame 72 which faces the body of the user is provided with parallelly aligned cone-shaped buttons 77 secured to the frame 72 in a manner, as, for instance, shown in Figures 3, 7 and 12. Each of these cone-shaped buttons 77 fit into correspondingly cone-shaped cavities 78 of the bosses 79 of the harness 20. Each of said bosses 79 extend outwardly from the sides of said harness 28 and is suitably machined to slidably receive a key-plate 80.

The aforementioned key-plate 80 comprises an elongated rectangular frame member 81, the interior of which being removed or open as at 82. At one end of said key-plate is an outwardly extending lug 83 in which is rigidly secured a pin 84. A pair of centrally aligned lugs 85 and 86, preferably integral with said key-plate 80 are provided in which lug 85 extends outwardly 60 of said key-plate 80 and lug 86 extends within the opening 82. These lugs 85 and 8G are, when assembled, adapted to engage the slots 87 of said cone-shaped buttons 77.

In Figures 8, 9 and 10 there is shown the aforesaid key-plate 80 assembled upon said boss 79 of harness 20 and over the raised square portion S8 which is slotted out as at 89 to accommodate said lug 8S. The opposite end of said boss 79 is also provided with a raised square portion 90, and a slot 9S is provided to slidingly accommodate the lug 85 of said key-plate 88. These raised square portions 88 and 90 are of a height corresponding approximately to the thickness of said key-plate 80 so that, when the U-shaped cover 91a is placed over the assembled key-plate and rigidly held in position by screws S2 which engage the tapped holes 3s of raised square portions 88 and 90, the key-plate will have enough clearance to be readily moved, when so desired, but at the same time the cover Ia must retain the key-plate in place.

A V-shaped coil spring 94 is held at its apex 95 to the recessed portion 96 of said boss 79 by means of a screw 97 and the free ends of said spring 94 are secured to the inner walls 98 c said key-plate 80, as shown in Figures 8, 9, an 11.

At the front of said harness 20, and preferabl formed integral therewith are ears 99 and 10 which have aligned apertures 101 and 102 re spectively, to rockably receive an elongated ro 103. Securely pinned between said ears 99 oi said rod 103 is a bell-crank lever 104, one am of which is adapted to engage the pin 84 (Figur 7) of key-plate 80 and the other arm terminate into a handle 105 by means of which the oper ator may move said key-plate outwardly. Thi lowermost end of said rod 103 carries rigidly short lever 106 which serves for the same pur pose as the arm of said bell-crank 180 and engages the pin of a second key-plate (not shown) which is a duplicate of the one shown in Figure 8 It is to be observed, that each wing structure is positively attached to the harness 20 by inserting the four cone-shaped buttons 77, (Figures 7 and 13) mounted upon the frame 72, into the cone-shaped cavities 78 of the bosses 79 of harness 20.

This is accomplished, by first moving the handle 105 to a position as best shown in dot and dash lines in Figure 7. By doing this, the lugs 85 and 86 of key-plates 80 have been retarded out of the cone-shaped cavities 78, thereby permitting the buttons 77 to be inserted therein. By again releasing the handle 105, which by the way is spring tensioned, it automatically returns to the full line position (Figure 7) and the lugs 85 and 86 engage the slots 87 of said coneshaped buttons 77 and the wing structure is now securely attached to the harness 20.

The operator may disconnect both wing structures at the same. time from the harness 20 by taking hold of both handles 105 and urging the same towards each other thereby withdrawing the lugs 85 and 86 of key-plate 80 out of engagement of slots 87 of buttons 77.

The wings may be readily disconnected from the harness 20 regardless of the position of the glider in the air, due to the so-called cone-connections by means of which the wing structure is attached to the harness.

The numeral 108 indicates a padding (Figure 6) which surrounds the support 28 at the joint of the spars to prevent air from entering through the opening.

The herewith described glider may be used to descend from a great height as from an aeroplane and to glide and control the direction of travel. Of course, it is obvious that this glider is intended to be used in conjunction with parachutes, especially for the final portion of the descent or performance.

As best shown in Figure 14, each wing structure is equipped with a standard Navy flare chute 109 which is suitably attached to the frame 72, folded and pocketed within the opening 110 (Figure 13) and held there by springs (not shown) usually furnished with that type of chute.

Whenever the wings have been disconnected from the harness they will rapidly drop through space until the flare chute will be expanded by the currents of the air against the underface thereof caused by the rapidity of the drop and, of course, the weight of the wings. In that manner the wings will contact the ground without damage to property or the wings and the latter may again be attached to the harness for further use.

ýf Naturally, it is obvious to mention that the d wing structure is covered with suitable and slightly doped fabric which must not be too stiff and y have a certain amount of elasticity, so that the 0 wings may be readily folded, when not in use, . - against the body of the user (Figure 6). d From the foregoing description it will be noted n that the improved glider is not only adapted for a acrobatic performances but it may also be used e for military purposes while in high altitude and s the outstanding feature of dropping the wings - when in distress provides considerable protection to the user by clearing the wings before using a one of the main parachutes thereby preventing entanglement with the same; of course, should the wings be in normal position during a descent it will not be required to drop the wings and a main parachute may be used in conjunction with the wings.

S In actual practice, the operation of the glider is as follows: Assuming that the user wears the harness and the wings are folded or collapsed against the body and he carries a seat-pack and a back-pack parachute of any standard make. When making a descent, the operator leaks clear of an aeroplane, he then opens the bow III of a string 112 (Figure 6) which holds the wings together while in folded position. The wings will then automatically and partly open up assisted by the spring 51 (Figure 4). The user then takes hold of the two handles 56 and lifts the wings into final position (Figure 1) thereby locking the jack-knife connection 39 by means of the hook 49 which embraces the rod 50 (Figure 2). The operator now, assisted by the ailerons 52 and the rudders 53 glides and descends with his head foremost and his body in an approximately horizontal plane.

In the event that the operator loses control of the glider, or should the wings of the glider come in a position where the parachute might get tangled up with the wings, the user, in that case drops the wings in a manner as heretofore described. Since each wing is provided with an individual flare-chute which automatically opens up shortly after dropping, they will glide to the ground undamaged.

From the foregoing description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, the advantages of the construction and the method of operation will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art to which the invention appertains, and while describing the principle of operation of the invention together with the device which is now considered to be the best embodiment thereof it is to be understood that the device shown is merely illustrative and that various changes in the form, proportion and the minor details of construction may be resorted to without departing from the principle or sacrificing any of the advantages of the invention as defined in the appended claims.

I claim: 1. In a glider of the class described including a metallic harness to be worn by a person, a pair of wings attached to said harness and adapted to be folded against the body of the wearer, means to spread said wings and retain same in spreaded position, each of said wings provided with an aileron and a rudder, means to operate both by one of the hands of the user, and means to disconnect said wings from said harness when they are in folded or spreaded position. 7, 2. In a glider of the class described, a metallic harness adapted to be worn by a person and provided with a boss arranged one on each side of the wearer having a plurality of cone-shaped cavities, a wing mounted on each boss, said wings provided with a plurality of cone-shaped buttons adapted to be inserted in said cone-shaped cavities, means for locking said buttons in said cavities and means for releasing said buttons from said cavities.

3. In a glider, a metallic harness adapted to be worn by a person and provided with a boss arranged one on each side of the wearer, said boss having a pair of aligned, cone-shaped cavities, a wing structure mounted on each boss and provided with a frame having secured thereon a pair of aligned cone-shaped buttons adapted to be inserted in said cone-shaped cavities and unitary means for locking said buttons in said cavities or releasing said buttons from said cavities.

4. In a glider of the class described, a metallic harness adapted to be worn by a person and provided with a boss arranged one on each side of the wearer, a wing structure detachably mounted on each boss comprising a frame having securely mounted thereon a strut support and a spar support, said strut support adapted to hingedly attach thereto a plurality of struts, said spar support adapted to hingedly attach thereto a plurality of spars; means for locking said wing structure in spreaded position; a flexible covering for said wing structure; an aileron and a rudder attached to each of said wing :35 structures and hand operated means attached to the leading edge of each wing structure to manipulate said ailerons and rudders.

5. In a glider, a metallic harness adapted to be worn by a person and provided with bosses arranged in pairs on each side of the wearer, a wing structure provided with a frame detachably secured to said bosses, means for disconnecting said wing structures from said harness and a flare-chute attached to and packed within said frame in a manner to automatically open up after the wing structure is disconnected from the harness substantially as described and set forth. 6. In a glider of the class described, a harness adapted to be worn by a person, a pair of wings for said glider, each of said wings detachably secured to said harness and means to disconnect individually each wing from said harness during a descent.

7. In a glider of the class described, a metallic harness adapted to be worn by a person, a pair of wings for said glider, each of said wings detachably secured to said harness and adapted to be folded against the body of the wearer, hand operated means to spread said wings and mechanical means to retain said wings in spreaded position and means to disconnect individually each wing from said harness during a descent.

8. In a glider of the class described, a metallic harness adapted to be worn by a person, a pair of wings for said glider, each of said wings detachably secured to said harness and adapted to be folded against the body of the wearer, hand operated means to spread said wings and mechanical means to retain said wings in spreaded position and means to disconnect individually each wing from said harness in folded or spreaded position during a descent.

ALVIN G. GRIFFIN.