Title:
Sound-deadening wall and material
United States Patent 2160729


Abstract:
This invention relates to an improved sounddeadening wall for buildings and a novel material therefor, and has particularly to do with the provision of such a wall to be employed in lieu of the usual and well known plaster walls comrmonly employed in building construction. The invention also...



Inventors:
Graham, James E.
Lines, Edwin M.
Application Number:
US8979036A
Publication Date:
05/30/1939
Filing Date:
07/09/1936
Assignee:
BIRD & SON
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
52/144, 52/390, 156/71, 181/294, 428/317.1
International Classes:
E04B1/82; E04B1/84
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Description:

This invention relates to an improved sounddeadening wall for buildings and a novel material therefor, and has particularly to do with the provision of such a wall to be employed in lieu of the usual and well known plaster walls comrmonly employed in building construction. The invention also has considerable utility in that it provides a wall which may be used immediately, and one with improved heat insulating characteristics. A most important characteristic of the wall of this invention lies in the improved ability of the wall to absorb sound waves and the improvement in this respect is believed to be due to the flexible, though apparently rigid, multi-layer j1 material which, though unitary with respect to application to the wall, includes separate adherent layers of material of wholly different characteristics, plus a surface or exposed light-colored film or layer adherent thereto.

g0 Prior to this invention, it has been suggested that a sound-deadening wall might include porous material in layer form, for example, cloth or felt, and such material, after being attached to a plaster or other equivalent permanent wall back2I ing, was then treated when in place to provide an ornamental surface. Such suggestions, however, have not been adopted generally and practically to any appreciable extent and, moreover, involve hand labor and expense and considerable time after being attached before the wall can be provided with an acceptable light-colored surface as is required for home construction. The present invention, however, provides a complete and substantially finished wall and one which advan3S tageously may be used at once with or without additional treatment, and at the same time provides the all important sound-deadening characteristics .to which the invention is particularly directed.

In the accompanying drawings which form part of this specification: Fig. 1 is a front elevation, with parts broken away, illustrating our invention; Fig. 2 is a vertical transverse section of the wall 46 of this invention; and Fig. 3 is a perspective view illustrating the novel sound-deadening material and the manufacture thereof.

Referring to the drawings in which like numerals represent like parts, the usual permanent outside wall of a building is generally indicated at 2 and, as here shown, includes studding 4, sheathing 6, heat-insulating paper 7, and shingles or the like 8 on the outside of said insulating paper or the like.

To the inside of such permanent wall 2, there is attached by nails 9 or other suitable fastening to the studding 4, or equivalent structure, a wall board backing 10 and adhesively secured thereto by an adhesive layer of cement 12, sodium silicate for example, is a unitary multi-layer, flexible sound-deading material, generally designated at 14. Said unitary multi-layer material 14 comprises an open porous layer of rag and paper (water-laid) felt 16 having corrugations 17, as hereinafter more fully described, to which felt .16 is adhesively attached, by means of a layer of flexible and preferably water-proof cement 18, a water-proof layer of felt 20. Preferably the water-proof layer 20 is saturated with asphalt which saturant itself or asphalt additionally applied flexibly and adhesively attaches said waterproof layer 20 to the open or porous layer 16, though rubber or other flexible cements will adequately serve. The water-proof layer 20 carries upon its outside surface a light-colored flexible and ornamental pigmented layer or layers 22 which are adhesively held to the layer 20 by reason of the binder or binders in said layer 22. In practice and preferably said ornamental layer 22 is made up of two layers applied to and made a part of the unitary multi-layer material at the time of manufacture thereof and prior to the combining and adhesive attachment together of the layers 16 and 20 by the flexible cement 18. It has been found in practice that the waterproof layer 20, even when previously waterproofed by being saturated with asphalt in an amount equal to or greater than its own weight, may be provided with a light-colored or even 85 white pigmented surface by coating the asphalt saturated layer with a water-emulsifled linseed oil paint, and hence in the absence of any thinner which would have a solvent action on the underlying asphalt or like black hydro-carbonaceous materia lwhich solvent thinner, as in an ordinary oil paint, would cause a staining of the pigmented surface by reason of its solvent action on said asphalt or the like. Moreover, such layer is found in practice to be sufficiently tough and flexible as to permit a reasonable amount of bending of the unitary multi-layer material so that it may be bent around corners as small as a radius of say %" for the outside corners where the paint layer is in tension and a radius of %", or even smaller, for inside corners where the paint layer is in compression. If desired, however, to obtain an even better and smoother finish, an additional and flexible coat of oil paint including a hydro-carbon solvent is preferably applied to the coat of water2 2,160, emulsified paint just mentioned and it has been found that the coat of water-emulsified paint, when dried, effectively provides a barrier layer .between the solvent of such after-applied paint 6 and the preferred asphaltic saturant of the layer 20. If desired, the layer 22 may be so pigmented, applied, or indented as to provide the appearance of a rough plastered or stippled or textured surface. In order to provide sufficient flexibility for 10 the relatively thick unitary multi-layer sounddeadening material so that it may be rolled and unrolled without substantial fracture or cracking of the material when so rolled and unrolled and during the application thereof to the wall board 15 backing, it is highly desirable and in most cases necessary that the said layer 16 be corrugated or indented by a series of parallel lines and/or continuous or discontinuous indentations 1 , the lines of such corrugations or the like being at right 20 angles to the length of the material and parallel to the axis of the roll. In the preferred product in which each layer has a minimum thickness of at least .020" and is preferably .026" to .040" the corrugations or indentations may suitably be in 25 parallel lines approximately 1/4" or thereabouts apart. Such a layer further tends to better bridge any small irregularities in the wall board backing, and such dry felt material though possessing little inherent strength is sufficiently stiffened 36 and held in place by the asphalt saturated layer 20 of relatively high tensile strength and stiffness.

The aggregate thickness of the finished product including the light-colored layer or layers 22 is of the order of .070" to .075" which gives adequate 35 thickness and characteristics for the sound-deadening as heretofore described, as well as sufficient stiffness and body to provide a durable and attractive wall having the novel and useful characteristics as herein described.

40 The sound absorption capacity of a wall made in accordance with this invention as above described, is found to be much greater than that of an ordinary plaster wall made up of lime or gypsum' plaster including scratch, brown and 4U finished coats on wood-lath. The figures of actual tests made of such sound absorption coefficients are as follows: Sound cycles ----- 128 256 512 1024 2048 Our structure----- .070 .160 .210 .380 .330 Ordinary gypsum plaster---------- .020 .022 .032 .039 .039 Ordinary lime plaster----------.024 .027 .030 .037 .019 65 In addition to such striking sound absorption characteristics, the wall, in practice, is found to have very good heat insulating characteristics.

Moreover, it forms a ready and practical substitute for plaster construction at a substantial sav0O ing in the cost of lath, plaster, labor and necessary drying time, before wooden interior trim may be installed. Besides, the wall is permanent without any likelihood of cracking or other failure due to excessive swelling and shrinking such as inevitably result from the application of wet plaster, and does not shatter due to vibration and shock as does an ordinary plaster wall.

Having described our invention, what we wish to claim and secure by Letters Patent is: 1. In association with a building wall construction which includes a permanent wall portion and a layer of wall board affixed to said permanent wall portion and providing a continuous wall board backing, an adherent flexible I5 multi-layer unit adhesively secured to said wall board backing, said unit comprising a series of layers, including a porous open water-laid felt layer adjacent said backing', a water-proof saturated felt layer permanently united to said felt layer, said water-proof saturated layer having permanently united thereto upon the exposed surface thereof a relatively light-colored pigmented surface coating.

2. In association with a building wall construction which includes a permanent wall portion 'and a layer of wall board affixed to said permanent wall portion and providing a continuous wall board backing, an adherent flexible multilayer unit adhesively secured to said wall board backing, said unit comprising a series of layers including a vertically corrugated porous, open felted layer adjacent said backing, a water-proof saturated layer permanently united to said felt. layer, said water-proof saturated felt layer having permanently united thereto upon the exposed surface thereof a relatively light-colored pigmented flexible surface coating.

3. In association with a building wall construction which includes a permanent wall portion and a layer of wall board affixed to said permanent wall portion and providing a continuous wall board backing, an adherent flexible layer of porous water-laid felt adhesively secured to said wall board backing, a layer of flexible water-proof adhesive on the opposite surface of said felt, a water-proof saturated layer of felt permanently united to said felt layer, said water-proof saturated layer having permanently united thereto upon the exposed surface thereof a relatively light-colored pigmented flexible surface coating. 4. In association with a building wall construction which includes a permanent wall portion and a layer of wall board affixed to said permanent wall portion and providing a continuous wall board backing, an adherent flexible layer of porous water-laid felt adhesively secured to said wall board backing, a layer of flexible waterproof adhesive on the opposite surface of said felt, a water-proof asphalt saturated layer of felt permanently united to said felt layer, said as- 40 phalt saturated layer having permanently united thereto upon the exposed surface thereof a relatively light-colored pigmented flexible surface coating.

5. In association with a building wall construc- B50 tion. which includes a permanent' wall portion and a layer of wall board affixed to said permanent wall portion and providing a continuous wall board backing, a flexible layer of water-laid felt adhesively secured by a water-soluble cement 65 to said wall board backing, a layer of water-proof flexible cement on the opposite side of said felt, a water-proof saturated layer of felt permanently united by said cement to said felt layer, said water-proof saturated layer of felt having permanently united thereto upon the exposed surface thereof a relatively light-colored pigmented water-proof flexible surface coating.

6. In association with a building wall construction which includes a permanent wall portion 065 and a layer of wall board affixed to said permanent wall portion and providing a continuous wall board backing, a flexible layer of water-laid felt adhesively secured by a water-soluble cement to said wall board backing, a layer of water-proof flexible cement on the opposite side of said felt, a water-proof asphalt saturated layer. of felt permanently united by said cement to said felt layer, said asphalt saturated layer of felt having permanently united thereto upon the exposed T5 surface thereof a relatively light-colored pigmented water-proof flexible surface coating.

7. In association with a building wall construction which includes a permanent wall portion and a layer of wall board affixed to said permanent wall portion and providing a continuous wall board backing, an adherent flexible multilayer unit adhesively secured to said wall board backing, said unit comprising a series of layers, o1 including a porous, open felted layer adjacent said backing, a water-proof saturated felt layer permanently and adhesively united by a waterproof flexible cement to said felt layer, said water-proof saturated felt layer having permanently united thereto upon the exposed surface thereof a relatively light-colored pigmented flexible surface coating.

8. A building wall sound-deadening material comprising a flexible multi-layer unit made up :o of a series of layers including a porous open, water-laid felt layer, a flexible water-proof cement on one side thereof, a water-proof saturated felt layer permanently united by said cement to said felt layer, and permanently united to said water-proof saturated layer upon the exposed surface thereof a relatively light-colored pigmented flexible surface coating.

9. A building wall sound-deadening material comprising a flexible multi-layer unit made up of a series of layers including a porous open, water-laid felt layer, a flexible water-proof cement on one side thereof, a water-proof asphalt saturated felt layer permanently united by said cement to said felt layer, and permanently united to said asphalt saturated layer upon the exposed surface thereof a relatively light-colored pigmented flexible surface coating.

10. A building wall sound-deadening material comprising a flexible multi-layer unit made up of a series of layers including a porous open, water-laid felt layer transversely indented, a flexible water-proof cement on one side thereof, a water-proof saturated felt layer permanently united by said cement to said felt layer, and permanently united to said water-proof saturated layer upon the exposed surface thereof a relatively light-colored pigmented flexible surface l1 coating.

11. A building wall sound-deadening material comprising a flexible multi-layer unit in transportable roll form, said unit being made up of a series of layers including a porous open waterlaid felt layer transversely indented, a flexible water-proof cement on one side thereof, a waterproofed felt layer permanently united by said cement to said first mentioned felt layer, and having permanently united to said water-proofed layer upon the exposed surface thereof a relatively light-colored pigmented flexible surface coating.

12. A building wall sound-deadening material comprising a flexible multi-layer unit in trans- o. portable roll form, said unit being made up of a series of layers including a porous open waterlaid felt layer, a flexible water-proof cement on one side thereof, a water-proofed felt layer permanently united by said cement to said first mentioned felt layer, and having permanently united to said water-proofed layer upon the exposed surface thereof a relatively light-colored pigmented flexible surface coating.

JAMES E. GRAHAM.

EDWIN M. LINES.