The present invention relates to a ventilator.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a new and improved ventilator which: combines extreme efficiency in handling a relatively , large quantity of air free from dust, moisture and other impurities, with a form and dimensions adaptable particularly to modern stream-line requirements.
Another object of this invention is the provision of an improved ventilator of highly simplified construction which will effectually prevent ingress or passage to the space being ventilated of cinders, dust particles, moisture, snow or light rays.
Yet another object of this invention is to provide a ventilator particularly adaptable for use in connection with. a vehicle and which projects only a short distance upon the exterior of the vehicle and is so formed as to divert the air flow, due to the motion of the vehicle, thereabout and prevent in great measure the direct impingement of sand, dirt, snow, rain, etc., thus greatly'eliminating the normal susceptibility of such devices to surface wear.
2 Numerous other objects and advantages will more fully appear during the course and progress of the following specification.
Referring to the drawings: Fig. 1 is an elevational view of a ventilator constructed in accordance with the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a sectional elevation taken on the line 2-2 in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a plan view taken on the line 3-3 in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a bottom plan view of the device shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 is a detail sectional elevation taken on the line 5-5 in Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is a sectional elevation taken through. an alternative type of ventilator embodying the present invention, The ventilators, selected for the purpose, of illustrating the present invention, comprise a tubular ventilating shaft 10 which may be secured to the roof 12 or any other convenient portion of the enclosure to. be ventilated. The roof shown in Figs. 1 and 2 may comprise, for example, the top of a railway car although it will be obvious that the device may equally well be applied to an ordinary building. The ventilating shaft 10 comprises, iin the embodiment shown, a cylindrical tube having rigidly secured to its outer wall at an -intermediate point along the i5 length of the shaft an annular angle member 14.
This angle member provides an outwardly projecting portion forming an annular flange adapted to be fastened securely to the roof 12-through the agency of screws 16.
The ventilating shaft 0 is extended a substantial distance above the plane of the roof 12 to form an upstanding annular wall 18 which functioi.l as a baffle and is important to the maintenance of proper ventilation without the introduction of -moisture, dust .particles and other contaminating materials. At .a point spaced from the upper edge of the wall 18 an annular flange 20 extends outwardly from. the shaft in a transverse, direction, being .secured rigidly in assembled position by means of the downwardly projecting portion 22, indicated more clearly in Fig. 2, which is held rigid with the shaft and the angle member 14 by welding, brazing, riveting or any other suitable fastening means. The flange 20, at a point spaced a predetermined distance from the wall 1.8, is bent upward sharply to form the .vertical annular wall 24 generally parallel to the wall 18: shown in Fig. 2.
Over the .entire protruding assembly is positioned a dome 26 which is preferably shaped in a gentle curve so as to provide a pleasing external appearance, and inhibit undesired. turbulence of flow within the ventilator. The dome 26, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, is provided with a downwardly projecting, annular wall 28 which is secured in placed by. a turned-over flange 30 welded or riveted to the inner face of the dome. It will be apparent:from the figures that the annular wall 28 is so positioned as to project downwardly intermediate of the upstanding walls 18 and 24.
The dome assembly is supported and spaced a predetermined distance above the ventilating shaft.assembly by means of a plurality. of suitable brackets; As shown in the figures, the brackets 32 are four in number and are circumferentially spaced about the annular flange 20.
Each comprises a relatively narrow metallic strip having horizontally extending legs 34 secured to the flange 20 by mean s of rivets 36. The upstanding legs 38 are secured to the downwardly projecting wall 28 by. means of. rivets 40. In the embodiment shown, the bottom edge of the wall 28 will be positioned a predetermined distance above the flange 20;, the. upper, edges of the. walls 18 and 24 being spaced a-generally corresponding distance below the under surface of the dome 26 to permit the passage of air.; It will be noted that in the preferred embodiment the upstanding legs 38 of the brackets are arranged generally intermediate of the walls II and 24. In this position the openings above thi said walls remain unconstricted by a supportinf means at all points around their periphery. A plurality of apertures 42 are also circum ferentially spaced about the flange 20. Thesi apertures constitute weep-holes and perform thi function of conveying off any moisture or foreigr matter which might be conveyed by the air draft or permitted to accumulate in the annular space between the walls 18 and 24.
Means are provided in the preferred embodiment to sustain a forced draft of air through the ventilator and comprise an electric motor 44 having a driving shaft 46 to which is fixedly secured an impeller 48 for rotation therewith. The impeller 48 is adapted to operate after the fashion of a centrifugal pump or blower and has centrally thereof a plurality of apertures 50 adjacent its outer edge, being provided with a plurality of radial vanes 52.
In operation, the rapidly rotated impeller draws the air through the apertures 50 and drives it radially. According to the present preferred embodiment, the impeller is located just under the dome 26 and closely adjacent the under surface thereof so that the air draft is impelled directly into the space above the upper end of the wall 18. It will be apparent that the present device may be readily adapted to a reversal of action by drawing the air inwardly instead of forcing it outwardly above the wall 18.
The -motor 44 may be supported by any suitable means, as shown in Fig. 2, being engaged by a clamping member 54 supported by means of resilient rubber blocks 56 and opposed legs 58 fastened to the ceiling 60 of the chamber to be ventilated through the agency of screws 62.
Draft control means is preferably provided on the interior of the wall 60, as shown more in detail in Figs. 2 and 4, the said control means comprising a plate 64 suitably fastened to the wall and provided with a plurality of apertures 66.
A butterfly valve disk 68, provided with a plurality of correspondingly formed apertures 70, is supported rotatably in a plane adjacent to the plane of the plate 64 by a resiliently mounted pivot 72. HIandle means 74 permits ready adjustment of the disk 68 about the pivot 72 for the purpose of controlling the effective size of the openings to the ventilating shaft 10.
In operation, it will be apparent that the air draft passing through the upper portion of the ventilator must necessarily move adjacent four Salternate and oppositely disposed baffles. Thus, when the motor 44 is actuated by a suitable electric switch (not shown) to drive the impeller 48 in the manner aforementioned, a draft of air Is forced radially through the space above the wall 18, impinging directly upon the wall 28 and having its direction of flow sharply changed. Again, as the air draft reaches the flange 20, another sharp change in flow takes place in a radial direction. Following this, after striking the wall 24 and again the inner surface of the dome 26, the air is finally released to the outside atmosphere. These repeated reversals of the stream lines are thought to be responsible for the improved operation of the present device whereby ventilation is enabled with complete absence of ingress of rain, dust particles and the like.
The operative advantages remain substantially the same whether the motor 44 is in operation or at rest. So, too, with the action reversed so that the motor 44 operates to draw the air inwardly B of the shaft 10 from outside of the dome 26, it 3 has been found that only relatively pure air will g be delivered, separated from any substantial particles in the exterior atmosphere.
The alternative preferred embodiment, shown e more in detail in Fig. 6, comprises the same gene eral structure as described above, omitting the Sannular depending wall 28 and the electrically t driven impeller. When employing the present e device, it is a simple matter to insert the motor 44 and its associated structure since the brackets 58 may be separate from the remainder of the Sdevice and may at any time be held permanently Sin operative position by merely fastening the Sscrews 62 in the ceiling 60. The embodiment shown in Fig. 6, moreover, provides for the support of the dome member 26 Sby means of a plurality of brackets 76 welded or riveted to the under surface of the dome and adapted to register with the brackets 32 for securement rigidly therewith as by welding or the like. According to this embodiment, an outstanding annular flange 20 is rigidly secured to the central ventilator shaft 10 through the agency of a turned-over portion rigidly fastened to the outer wall thereof. So, also, the present embodiment provides a pair of generally parallel walls or baffles 18 and 24. Where it is highly important to prevent passage of dust and foreign matter under the dome, an annular, downwardly projecting baffle may be situated on the brackets 76.
The present invention provides a highly efficient and improved ventilating device particularly adapted for railway car ventilation. The 3 outer shape of the dome .member, shell or coverplate, due to its modest dimensions, lends itself to the modern stream-line design conventional in this art. Moreover, the particular novel structure and arrangement of parts permits a proportioning of the exterior parts such that the ventilator does not necessarily project any considerable distance from the roof or wall of the car.
Thus, the normal wearing of the exterior portions, due to the impact of flying sand, grit, rain, snow and the like has been found to be greatly minimized. According to the present invention, these advantages are all attained with no sacrifice as to the efficiency of the ventilator, or its ability to separate foreign particles. The instant ventilator furthermore is suitable to act, either as an exhaust, or intake ventilator with or without a power unit and under all conditions is perfectly weather-proof. These advantages render it ideal, not only in connection with railway cars as aforementioned, but with all other vehicles such as aeroplanes, motor cars and ships. It will be obvious from the above that the present ventilator is also extremely advantageous in the ventilation of homes, photographers' dark rooms, telephone booths and the like.
It is thought that the invention and numerous of its attendant advantages will be understood from the foregoing description and it is obvious that numerous changes may be made in the form, construction and arrangement of the several parts without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention, or sacrificing any of its attendant advantages, the form herein described being a preferred embodiment for the purpose of illustrating the invention.
The invention is hereby claimed as follows: 1. In a ventilator, a shaft, a flange projecting from the side of said shaft and terminating in a bent-over portion extending generally in the di- 76 I I rection of said shaft and spaced therefrom whereby to form generally parallel baffle walls, and a dome member extending across the end of said shaft and having an edge bent to extend in a direction substantially opposite to the direction of said baffle walls and enclosing said end and said baffles.
2. In a ventilator, a tubular shaft, an annular flange projecting from the wall of said shaft and terminating in a bent-over portion spaced from the wall and extending from the flange generally in the direction of said wall whereby to form generally parallel, spaced baffles, a dome member extending across the\end of the shaft, said dome having a substantially concave inner wall provided with edges extending in a direction generally oppositely to said baffles and having an edge enclosing said end and the free ends of said baffles, and an annular baffle wall interiorly of said dome spaced from said edge and extending in a generally opposite direction to and between the previously mentioned baffles.
3. In a ventilator, an upwardly extending, central tubular shaft, an annular flange projecting outwardly from the shaft at a point spaced from the upper end thereof, said flange terminating in an upwardly extending annular wall spaced from the shaft, a dome substantially enclosing the, upper end of the shaft, said dome having a generally concave lower configuration and having a lower edge extending downwardly about and below the upper edge of said annular wall, and a further wall formed on the lower surface of said dome member and extending downwardly into the space between the shaft and the said annular wall.
4. In a ventilator, a generally upwardly extending, central shaft, a flange extending outwardly from the shaft and terminating in a generally upwardly extending baffle, a dome member extending about the end of the shaft to a point below the upper end of the shaft and the upper edge of said upwardly extending baffle, a second baffle member extending downwardly from the dome into the space between the first mentioned baffle and the shaft but spaced from the flange, and a plurality of apertures formed in said flange to provide weep-holes for entrapped moisture.
5. In a ventilator, a ventilator shaft, a flange extending outwardly from the wall of said shaft at a point spaced from the end thereof and terminating in a bent-over portion spaced from and generally parallel with the wall of the shaft, a dome member extending about the end of the shaft and enclosing the end of the shaft and the end of said bent-over portion, and bracket members extending from the flange and supporting the dome at a predetermined distance from the end of the shaft. 6. In a ventilator, a ventilator shaft, a flange extending outwardly from the wall of the shaft at a point spaced from the end thereof and terminating in a bent-over portion spaced from and extending generally toward the end of the shaft, a dome member arranged across said end and having an edge extending about said end and said bent-over portion and being arranged to extend in a substantially opposite direction to said end and said bent-over portion, a baffle member arranged on the inner face of the dome member and projecting toward the space between the shaft and the bent-over portion, and brackets projecting from the flange to support the dome at a predetermined position with respect to the shaft.
7. In a ventilator, a tubular ventilating shaft, a dome member across the end of the shaft and having an edge formed about and enclosing said end of the shaft, the dome being spaced a predetermined distance from said end to provide a space for the movement of a ventilating draft, and a centrifugal air draft impeller arranged with its axis generally co-extensive with that of the shaft and being situated closely adjacent the interior side of the dome member, said impeller having vanes adapted to force a draft of air radially of its axis and directly through the said space.
CONSTANT C. HOPKINS.