Title:
Fuel and air mixer
United States Patent 2152206
Abstract:
My present invention relates to carburetion in internal combustion engines and more particularly to a fuel and air mixer. My present device is intended for installation in the gas stream between the carburetor and the intake manifold of internal combustion engines and has as its primary object...


Inventors:
Neal, James O.
Application Number:
US8707036A
Publication Date:
03/28/1939
Filing Date:
06/24/1936
Assignee:
Neal, James O.
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
123/590
International Classes:
F02M29/02
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Description:

My present invention relates to carburetion in internal combustion engines and more particularly to a fuel and air mixer.

My present device is intended for installation in the gas stream between the carburetor and the intake manifold of internal combustion engines and has as its primary object the more complete atomization of the ingoing charge of fuel laden air. It is well known that the average carburetor in general use is not highly efficient in atomizing the fuel except when the motor is under full load and turning at its peak speed.

The majority of engines do not provide an even flow of power as the load is reduced particularly when throttled appreciably. The normal cause of this is that the butterfly valve used in the average car as a throttle is normally turned partly crosswise in the intake manifold immediately above the carburetion jet. This tends to pass the larger part of the charge up one side of the intake manifold forcing the greater part of the charge against the manifold wall just above the butterfly valve and in a prolongation of the plane of the valve. Of course, when the valve is standing parallel to the axis of the manifold passageway, the air passes equally around it. But this is the unusual condition, particularly in motor car operation, where motors are habitually throttled and rarely ever are operated with open throttle except, possibly, in racing and under full load.

My gas mixer is so arranged that the ingoing charge is first forced away from the manifold walls and directed toward the center of the manifold. Here it impinges upon a cup-like deflector which tends to send it back out to the walls of the manifolds. However, as the inward deflector and the outward deflector are both formed of thin material, preferably sheet metal, their joint action produces eddies which give a whirling or agitating action to the incoming charge assuring more thorough and complete mixture of the air and fuel vapor. Admittedly my device would serve little practical purpose if the motor, upon which it is installed, is operated under full power conditions, in fact under full throttle conditions it will unquestionably reduce the amount of gas that can be passed through the manifold. This, however, is the exceptional case and when motors are operated under such conditions my device should not be used except in the modified form illustrated.

My invention provides a smoothness of operation at speeds less than the maximum load condition of the motor, which adds so much to the comfort, flexibility, and smoothness of operation that a small fraction of the peak efficiency can well be sacrificed by those persons who do not operate their motors over long periods with the throttle entirely open. Under the conditions outlined my device, due to its ability to give a more uniform and homogenous mixture, produces the fullest amount of power that a given amount of fuel is, at present, capable of generating; and as a result, under almost all conditions, will show a net saving in fuel over the conventional arrangement.

Other and more specific objects will be apparent from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, wherein Figure 1 is a side elevation of my device.

Figure 2 is a top plan view of the same.

Figure 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 3-3 of Figure 2, the same being shown in elevation.

Figure 4 illustrates in vertical sectional view a typical intake manifold showing the point where my device should be installed.

Figure 5 shows a vertical sectional view of a modified form of my device where it is desirable not to restrict the gas flow.

Referring to the drawing, throughout which like reference characters indicate like parts, 6 designates the base or supporting members for my device. This has an outwardly extending flange 8 formed so as to either be inserted under the usual carburetor gasket 10 as shown in Figure 4, or it may be placed so as to extend entirely underneath and to be engaged by the carburetor securing bolts 1 and 12. Secured to, flange 8 and preferably made a part of same is the inwardly directed annular flange 14 forming a venturi.

The exact angle that this flange makes with the outwardly extending flange 8 is a matter dependent in a degree upon the manifold velocity, it should be sufficient to direct the gases inwardly from the walls of the manifold 6 yet not so flat as to cause undue obstruction or reduce substantially the cross-sectional area of the intake manifold. This flange, further, should be made of relatively thin metal so that when in place it will present a sharp upper edge. This has been found to substantially increase the turbulence by causing an area of reduced pressure where the gases ascending will tend to curl into void 18 thus creating the desirable eddy producing a complete intermingling of the ingoing air and fuel. For sake of clarity I have indicated in Figures 1 and 3, the normal position of the manifold wall by the dotted line 20. It will thus be seen that any hydrocarbon vapor that might condense upon the walls of the manifold 16 will run down and be trapped in the pocket at 18. If the pocket should be filled, the hydrocarbon vapor will be sucked off the sharp edge 22 and thus be taken up into the air stream where it will be thoroughly intermingled with the ingoing charge. Disposed co-axially above flanges 14 and 8 is a cup-like deflector 24. This should preferably be made of thin material also to the end that the interior of the cup 26 will form another area of reduced pressure and the gases passing around the cup will tend to curl over the edges thereby starting additional eddies in the center of the manifold. Cup 24 should be spaced well above the upper margin of flange 14 so that there will be no undue restriction of the manifold opening.

The most convenient and effective manner of supporting cup 24 appears to be a single plate as 28, secured to member 6 and brazed, welded or otherwise secured to cup 24. This plate or supporting rib 28 should be so positioned in the intake manifold that its plane is normal or at right angles to the plane of rotation on the butterfly valve 30. If this is not so placed it is conceivable that when the butterfly valve is partly open, in which case it directs the major part of the charge to one side wall, this plate might itself serve as a baffle to prevent the opposite side of cup 24 having full effect on the incoming charge.

It has been found from experience that the heighth of cup 24 above the upper edge 22 of 3.5 flange 14 determines the amount of restriction placed in the intake manifold. Further, it has been determined that for cars operating under different conditions it is desirable to have this spacing adjustable to the end that a driver who drives a good deal on the road at relatively high speed can have a greater spacing while persons driving commercial cars or private cars at more reduced speeds can get a greater degree of effectiveness from my device by decreasing this spacing. I have, therefore, provided a central post 32 which is threaded and secured at its lower end.

This post, or stud, may be suitably secured to cross-member 28 in any suitable manner. I have illustrated a very effective means that of slitting the end of the stud as at 34 and either riveting or soldering the two members together. Cup 24 is then pierced for post 32 and secured in fixed relationship thereto by the lock nuts 36 and 37.

It will be apparent, it is believed, that by adjusting these two nuts any position, within the range of stud 32, can be provided for cup 24.

It has further been determined that if the whirling action can be given to the ingoing charge of fuel gas and air the operating efficiency is peculiarly improved, there is less likelihood of condensed liquid fuel being left on the intake manifold walls and the maximum flow can b( provided. This follows the general movement of fluids through an orifice as is best exemplified by the action of water passing through a funnel.

To accomplish this I provide about the periphery of cup 24, a plurality of short vanes 40. These are so pitched that each will tend to provide the rotary, or swirling, action of the gas column in the same sense. It is believed this construction is clearly portrayed in Figures 1 and 2.

Figure 5 illustrates a modified form of my construction in which an insert or spacer is placed between the carburetor and the intake manifold with an increased inside diameter; by this means my device may be used without reducing the area of the intake passageway. This form is particularly desirable for full load operation. The foregoing description and the accompanying drawing are believed to clearly disclose a preferred embodiment of my invention but it will be understood that this disclosure is merely illustrative and that such changes in the invention may be made as are fairly within the scope and spirit of the following claims.

I claim: 1. A fuel mixing device comprising an atomizing cup having the edge portion thereof formed into vanes disposed angularly in relation to said cup and having passages therebetween whereby the mixture passing through said passages will follow a whirling course.

2. A fuel mixing device comprising a concavoconvex atomizing cup having the edge portion thereof formed into vanes disposed angularly in relation to said cup and having passages therebetween whereby the mixture passing through said passages will follow a whirling course.

3. A fuel mixing device comprising an atomizing cup having the edge portion thereof formed into vanes disposed angularly in relation to said cup and having passages therebetween, and a converging flange below said cup adapted to direct the mixture against said vanes. 50 JAME'S O. NEAL.